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and akanda (Calotropis gigantea) bring (to the worshipper) the same amount of merit.

Another long passage is to be found in the Bhavishya Purāṇa, wherein the deity Śiva enumerates to his spouse Parvati the names of the flowers which are his favourites, as also of those which are not acceptable to his deityship. From this lengthy passage, I give below the following extracts which will show that, among others, the flowers of the arka or äkända (Calotropis gigantea) are very acceptable to Śiva:

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1. (Śiva says): "O beautiful (lady Parvati)! I shall to-day enumerate (to you) the names of my favourite flowers, as also of those which are not acceptable to me.

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2. "Karavīra or oleander (Nerium odorum), vaka (Agati grandiflora), arka or ākanda (Calotropis gigantea), unmattaka or dhutura (Datura stramonium) and others (of which the names are given in the omitted lines of the passage)."

3 & 4. "O beautiful (lady Pārvati)! if all the (aforementioned) flowers are offered to me (in worship) with feelings of devotion, I accept them with my head bowed down."

Then, in the following passage of the same Purāṇa, the special merits acquired by worshipping the deity Siva with offerings of special flowers [among which are the flowers of the arka (Calotropis)] are enumerated:

१. दृहतीकुसुमैर्भक्त्या सकृदेव लिङ्गमन्चयॆत् ।
२. गवामयुतदानस्य फलं प्राप्य दिवं व्रजेत् ॥
३. व्यशोकश्व तमन्दारकर्णिकारवकानि च ।
४. करवीराकमन्दारशमीतगरकेशरः ॥

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1 & 2. That man, who worships Śiva's phallus only once, and with feelings of devotion, with an offering of the brihati flower or the flower of the small variety of brinjal (Solanum melongena), acquires the merit of making a gift of ten thousand kine and goes to heaven.

3, 4, 5 & 6. Hear attentively the following account of the merits acquired by that man who worships (Śiva) with any one of the following flowers, namely, asoka (Jonesia asoka), svetamandāra (Erythrina alba), karṇikāra (Thevetia ner ifolia), vaka (Agati grandifloru), karavīra (Nerium odorum), arka (Calotropis gigantea), mandāra (Erythrina sp), sami (Prosopis juliflora), tagara (Tabernaemontana coronaria) and kesara.

7 & 8. Driving in a chariot which glitters with the splendour of one kror of suns and which fulfils all the desires (of one's heart), and fanned (on both sides) with fly-flappers (made of the yaks' tails), he (worshipper of Śiva) goes to the world of Śiva.

In the Skanda Purāna also, the virtues acquired by worshipping the deity Śiva with the flowers of the a ka or swallow-wort (Calotropis gigantea) are set forth as follows:

3. agufi youonalat namnfa UK: 1

२. व्यर्कस्य करवीरस्य बिलस्यच वकस्यच ॥
३. मणिमुक्क्याप्रवालेच्च रत्नैरप्यर्चनं मम ।

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1 & 2. (The deity) Śankara or Śiva smells the scents of only four kinds of flowers, namely, the arka or swallow-wort (Oalotropis gigantea), karavíra (Nerium odorum), the bael (Ægle marmelos) and the vaka (Agati grandiflora).

3 & 4. (Šiva, addressing his spouse Parvati, says) : "0 beautiful-faced lady! if anybody worships me even with the offering of (such valuable articles as) gems, pearls and corals, but without mixing the same with the leaves of the bael tree (Egle marmelos), I do not accept (his worship)".

III.-The Bogra Inscription.

Khan Bahadur Saiyid Zahirrud-din points out that the Arabic text in the Bogra inscription (published ante, page 179) is the famous "Throne Verse" of the Kurant. Its translation is as follows :

"God! there is no God but he ; the living, the self-subsisting; neither slumber nor sleep seizeth him; to him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven, and on earth, Who is he that can intercede with him, but through his good pleasure? He knoweth that which is past, and that which is to come unto them, and they shall not comprehend anything of his knowledge, but so far as he pleaseth. His throne is extended over heaven and earth, and the preservation of both is no burden unto him. He is the high, the mighty." (Chapter II, Verse 256.) It is one of the most popular verses of the Kuran; it is read in prayers, and on obsequial occasions and as requiem.

The Rt. Hon'ble Saiyid Amir Ali has given the verse at the head of Chapter I of his "Spirit of Islam."

The translation of the other text which is a saying

of the Prophet (Hadis) is as follows:

"For him who builds a mosque in this world, "God builds a mansion in Heaven."

†The verse is called the "Throne verse", because the word " Kursi ", which means throne, occurs in it.


I.-Proceedings of the Council Meeting of the Bihar and Orissa, Research Society, held on 27th July 1918 at 4 p.m. at the Society's Office.


Hon'ble Mr. E. H. C. Walsh, c.s.I., 1.0.s., Vice-Presi

dent in the Chair.

Hon'ble Mr. C. E A. W. Oldham, c.s.I.

Babu Sharat Chandra Roy, M.A, B. L.

Professor Jogendra Nath Samaddar, B.A., F.R.E.S., F.H.S.,

K. P. Jayaswal, Esq., M.A., Secretay.

1. The proceedings of the last meeting were confirmed.

2. With reference to the appointment of the clerk, the VicePresident said that the clerk which the Secretary appointed temporarily had continued to work satisfactorily and had therefore been retained.

3. It was decided that a better qualified duftry is required and that enquiries should be made with a view to obtain one better qualified for which the present pay of Rs. 12 may be raised if the Vice-President considers it to be necessary for the purpose of obtaining suitable man.

4. Government letter No. 477-E., dated the 8th May 1918, was read making a grant of Rs. 500 for the year 1918-19 to cover the cost of a clerk, peon, and office establishment of Babu Sharat Chandra Roy, Anthropological Secretary of the Society and also granting a fixed sum for Babu Sharat Chandra Roy's travelling allowance, and also Government letter No. 739-E.,

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