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first invented, was in this manner the discovery of a boy who wanted to save his own labour."
COVERING OF ANIMALS
Is curious, and has engaged the special atten. tion of the natural historian ; its variety chal. longes admiration.
“ THE covering of animals is, both for its variety, and its suitableness to their several natures, as much to be admired as any part of their structure. There are bristles, hair, wool, fur, feathers, quills, prickles, scales : yet in this diversity both of material and form, we cannot change one animal's coat for another, without evidently changing it for the worse ; taking care however to remark, that these co. verings are intended for protection as well as warinth.
“ Man alone can clothe himself; and this is one of the properties which render him an ani. mal of all climates, and of all seasons.
He can adapt the warmth or lightness of his covering to the temperature of his habitation.
“ What art however, does for men, nature has, in many instances, done for those animals which are incapable of art. Their clothing, of its own accord, changes with their necessities. This is particularly the case with that large tribe of quadrupeds which are covered with furs. Every dealer in hare-skins and rabbit. skins, knows how much the fur is thickened by the approach of winter. It seems to be a part of the same design of the Power who created all things, that wool in hot countries, most happily for the animal's ease, passes into hair ; while
on the contrary, hair, in the dogs of the polar regions, is turned into wool. To which also may be referred what naturalists have remarked, that bears, wolves, foxes, and hares, which do not take the water, have the fur much thicker on the back than the belly ; whereas in the beaver it is the thickest upon the belly, as also are the feathers in water-fowl. We know the final cause of all this, and we know no other.
“ The covering of birds cannot escape the most vulgar obser.ation ; its lightness, its smoothness, its warmth, its singular beauty. The disposition of the feathers all inclined backward, the down about their stem, the over. lapping of their tips, their different configu. ration in different parts, not to mention the va. riety of their colours ; constitute a vestment for the body, so beautiful and so appropriate to the life which the animal is to lead, as that I think we should have had no conception of any thing equally perfect, if we had never seen it ; nor can now imagine any thing more so."
VARIETY OF LABOUR
APPEARS from the construction of almost every thing which is made to enrich or adori human life.
" The woollen coat which covers the day. labourer, coarse and rough as it may appear, is the produce of the joint labour of a great multitude of workmen. The shepherd, the sorter of the wool, the wool-comber or carder, the dyer, the scribbler, the spinner, the wea. ver, the fuller, the dresser, with many others,
must join their different arts to complete even this homely production.
“ How much commerce and navigation, how many ship-builders, sailors, sail-makers, and rope-makers, must have been employed in order to bring together the different drugs made use of by the dyer, which often come from the remotest corners of the world!
“ To say nothing of such complicated machines as the ship of the sailor, the mill of the fuller, or even the loom of the weaver, let us consider only what a variety of labour is requisite in order to form that very simple machine, the shears with which the shepherd clips the wool. The miner, the builder of the fur. nace for smelting the ore, the feller of the timber, the burner of the charcoal to be made use of in the smelting-house, the brick-maker, the brick-layer, must all of them join their different arts in order to produce them.
“ Were we to examine in the same manner all the different parts of his dress and household furniture, the coarse linen shirt he wears, his shoes, the bed he lies on, and all the parts which compose it, the kitchen grate at which he prepares his victuals, the coals dug for that purpose from the bowels of the earth, and brought to him perhaps by a long sea and long land carriage, all the other utensils of his kitchen, and the furniture of his table; the different hands employed in preparing his bread and his beer, the glass window which lets in the heat and the light, and keeps out the wind and the rain, with all the knowledge and art requisite for preparing that beautiful and happy invention ; if we examine all these things, and consider what a variety of labour is employed about each of them, we shall be sensible, that
without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands, the very meanest person in a civilised country could not be provided, even according to what we very falsely imagine the easy and simple manner, in wbich he is com. monly accommodated."---Adam Smith.
Is properly denominated our parent; and in. deed it is a most expressive appellation, as will appear from the following illustration.
" It is the earth, says Pliny the Elder, that, like a kind mother, receives us at our birth, and sustains us when born ; it is the earth alone of all the elements around us, that is never found an enemy to man. The waters deluge him with rains, oppress him with hail, and drown him with inundations; the air rushes in storms, prepares the tempest, or wakens the thunders. But the earth, gentle and indulgent, ever subservient to the wants of man, spreads his walk with flowers, and his table with plenty, returns with interest every good committed to her care, and though she produces poison, she still supplies the antidote ; though constantly importuned more to furnish the luxuries of man than his necessities, yet even to the last she continues her beneficent indulgence, and when life is closed, she piously covers his remains in her bosom !"...Kaimes.
THE TWO GARDENERS. THE subsequent little story is ingenious, and replete with instruction. For this reason base we introduced it into our puiscellany.
“ TWO gardeners who were neighbours had their crops of early peas killed by the frost. One of them came to condole with the other on their misfortune. “ Ab!” cried he, “ how unfortunate we have been, neighbour ! Do you know I have done nothing but fret ever since. But bless me! you seem to have a fine healthy crop coming up just now. What are these? “ These," cried the other gardener, " Why these are what I sowed immediately af. ter my loss." What coming up already ?” cried the fretter. “ Yes, while you were. fretting, I was working !" What, and don't you fret when you have a loss ?” “ Yes, but I always put it off until I have repaired the mischief.” “ Lord, why then you have no pecd to fret at all.” “ True,” replied the industrious gardener, " and that's the very reason; in truth, it is very pleasant to have no longer reason to think of mistortune ; and it is lastonishing how many might be repaired by a little alacrity and ener. gy."... Anon.
VANITY AND AFFECTATION ARE the proper objects of satire ; and whether they appear in youth or in the aged, they may be lashed with impunity.
“ YOU will wonder perhaps when I tell you, that there are some characters in the world, wbich I would freely allow you to laugh at, though not in their presence. Extravagant va. nity and affectation are the natural subjects of ridicule, which is their proper punishment. When you see old people, instead of main. taining the dignity of their years, struggling against nature to conceal them, affecting the