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as deduced from measurements of the photographs tunities; in other words, we have nature-teaching of a were as follows:
unique description awaiting our attention. Mr. BedTime Length in
dard treats, indeed, his subject almost exclusively from b. m. miles
I this point of view, so that his volume forms, in great 192,000
degree, a sketchy kind of text-book of vertebrate 3 59 216,000
zoology, illustrated by a number of first-class phoroWhen it is mentioned that our earth has a diameter graphs and drawings of the animals under discussion. a little less than 8000 miles, an idea of the magnitude. Such a mode of treatment necessarily prevents the inof this solar disturbance can be roughly grasped. clusion of any great amount of matter that is really
An interesting point to notice further in the original new in his work, and from one point of view it is a is the apparent falling towards the limb of the matter for regret that the author, with his long exmaterial forming the highest part of the prominence perience of the establishment in the Regent's Park, in the lower picture.
has not seen his way to give us more information Enough, perhaps, has now been written to give the with regard to the behaviour and life-history of reader an idea of the instrument at work, and a few animals in menageries. One point in this connection deductions from the photographs obtained during the on which information is sadly lacking is the duration of summer months of the past year.
life of animals in menageries, and the periods during When it is considered that the results described, which individuals of long-lived species have survived in and others of which no mention has been made, only captivity. So far as we have seen, information on this apply to the photographs secured with the “K” line of calcium, and that other lines in the solar spectrum, such as hydrogen, iron, magnesium, &c., still remain to be examined, some notion of the vast field of work open to investigators becomes apparent.
To avoid too much duplication of work bevond what is absolutely necessary, steps should be taken as soon as possible to subdivide the labour. The past vear has seen the formation of a representative body to undertake such a scheme, and it is hoped that more instruments will soon be erected
Fig. 1.- Flamingoes in the Regent's Park. From Beddard's "Natural History in Zoological Gardens." and at work to cope with the large demand of facts relating to our sun rendered now latter point is given only in two cases, namely, in that possible by the pioneer work of Prof. Hale and M. of the polar bear and that of the pelican. Possibly, Deslandres. WILLIAM J. S. LOCKYER.
however, the author may have in view a companion volume, in which these phases will form the leading
theme; and if so, we feel sure that it will supply a THE TEACHING VALUE OF MENAGERIES.'
Restricting, and very wisely so, his volume to the So far as the general public is concerned, there is
| vertebrata, the author commences with a general w always a very considerable danger lest menageries
sketch of the leading features of that group, and then should be regarded merely as places of amusement and
takes in systematic order the various representatives curiosity, and that their great value as teachers of
selected for description. Mammals accordingly come zoology should be more or less completely ignored.
first; and it is not out of place to mention that Mr. The main object of the volume before us appears to be
Beddard directs attention to the fact that a good to emphasise the teaching value of institutions of this
popular name for this group is still a desideratum. In nature, and to show what admirable schools for acquir
the case of both mammals and birds, the species taken ing the rudiments of practical zoology lie ready to our
as examples of different types are in the main well hand, if only we will take advantage of our oppor
selected, and in nearly every instance the illustrations 1 "Natural History in Zoological Gardens; being some Account of
are almost everything that can be desired. As one of Vertebrated Animals, with Special Reference to those usually seen in the the best, among those reproduced from photographs, Zoological Society's Gardens in London and Similar Institutions." By 7. E. Beddard. Pp. x+ 310 ; illustrated. (London: Archibald Constable
we have chosen the group of flamingoes, taken in the and Ca, Lad., 1905.) Price 6s. net.
gardens, to set before our readers.
Typographical errors appear to be comparatively face divine. The muse of science strains her eyes to see few. The meaning of the last sentence on p. 22 is, what is behind the outward show, her quest is for the however, obscured by the misplacing of the word why and wherefore of nature's changes. But science is “ much ”; while on p. 125 we have Suiae for Suidae,
more than a presiding muse ; she is in very deed a great and on p. 149 Australia for Australian. As regards
beneficent power imminent in the lives of her votaries, a other matters for criticism, it may be pointed out that
power such as was feebly foreshadowed in the tales of
folk-lore by the Queen of the Good Fairies, richly rewardthe author admits that the term aurochs properly be
ing by enchantment with all good things those who made longs to the extinct wild ox, and it is therefore not
her their friend. The seven-league boots and the magic easy to see why he applies it to the bison in the plate
steeds were but poor anticipations of the gifts of science of that animal. In the section on the wild ass (p. 60), -the railway, the motor, and the turbine-driven vessel. the non-scientific reader will probably find it difficult to The enchantment of gold, jewels, feasts, and palaces are ascertain the proper name and the number of races of more than realised by the boundless resources which science the Asiatic representative of that group; while the places at man's disposal. Science, indeed, brings back sportsman will gasp with astonishment when told the age of Methuselah. Even literally life is prolonged by (p. 63) that this animal may be ridden down by an
increased power over disease. True life is not measured expert horseman after a run of five-and-twenty miles
by the passing of the suns, but by the sum of our activi(or does the author mean minutes ?). On p. 139 the
ties; not by the falling sands of the hour-glass, but by
the living pulses of the mind. The flying train, the flashTasmanian devil, under the synonym of the ursine
ing of intelligence, night turned into day, and the thousand dasyure, is made to do duty for two species. Finally,
and one appliances of machinery crowd into one year a the palæontologist is likely to be staggered by the
fulness of life which was possible to our fathers only, if suggestion (p. 185) that the horn of the American
at all; in many years. How great, then, would be the birds commonly known as screamers is a direct in- gifts of science to the nation in return for full national heritance from a dinosaurian ancestor.
recognition--by placing science on an equality with the Throughout, Mr. Beddard has made his book read humanities in our universities and public schools, and by able and mildly interesting; and it is especially satis the endowment of laboratories worthy of the nation ! With factory to find that he is conservative as regards the science nationally honoured, our armies and our ships scientific names of the animals he discusses, and is,
could know no defeat, our machinery and our manufacmoreover, sparing in the use of such of these names
tures no rivalry in the world's markets, our every underas he selects to designate the various species. The
taking must prosper. Shall we then remain in deadly book should form a valuable companion during a
apathy and take no steps to have it so? visit to the gardens in the Regent's Park, and likewise an excellent work of reference to those who really
NOTES. desire to learn something from visits of this nature.
On Sunday, the President of the French Republic entertained the King at the Elysée at a dinner party, at
which 120 guests were present. The guests included disSCIENCE AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY tinguished authors, artists, musicians, and other repreBANQUET.
sentatives of intellectual activity, almost exclusively A MONG the guests of the Royal Academy of Arts, at
members of the Institute of France. By inviting leaders n the anniversary banquet on Saturday last, were
of literature, art, and science to meet the King, graceful eminent representatives of many branches of science. recognition was given of the high place occupied by the The president of the Academy, Sir E. J. Poynter, pre muses in the polity of the Republic. In the days when. sided; and the Prince of Wales responded to the sheer muscular force was the mainstay of a nation, bodily loyal toast proposed by the chairman. Sir E. Seymour strength and prowess were rightly regarded as recomhaving replied for the Navy and the Duke of Con mendations for Court favours; but now that brain-power naught for the Army, the president proposed the toast
instead of muscle determines the rate of national progress, of “Science," the domain of which, he remarked,
the State that desires to advance must foster all the intelappeals to innumerable interests from its utilitarian
lectual forces it possesses. This principle is well underside, and in its higher aspects deals with matters which, while they transcend the imagination with their specu
stood in France, and is also clearly recognised in Germany, lative possibilities, require for their verification the
where every man who makes notable contributions to knowutmost capacity of the intellect for exactitude and
ledge of any kind, assists industrial progress, or creates minuteness of research. Sir William Huggins, pre works of distinguished merit, whatever they may be, is sident of the Royal Society, replied to the toast in the sure to receive personal encouragement from the Emperor. following speech, which we take from the Times report The presence of these leaders of thought is a striking of the banquet :
characteristic of the German Court; while, on the other I rise, as representing the Royal Society, to acknow
hand, their absence, and the overpowering influence of ledge the toast of science, so cordially honoured by her military interests, are distinguishing features of Russian, younger sister, the Royal Academy. I say sister, because and, let us add, of British Court functions. art and science have in common the same object of worship and study-nature, in her varying moods and aspects; art On many occasions reference has been made in these “ to exalt the forms of nature," science “ to enlarge her columns to the excellent object lesson of the intimate conpowers.” More than this, for to be accepted of nature, nection between a scientifically organised system of educato be true artists or true men of science, both must possess an intuitive and profound insight into nature. The fine
tion and national prosperity afforded by the success which paintings which surround us are not mere transcripts of
has in recent years attended Japanese enterprise. It is nature, but created visions of nature, revealing to the gratifying to find that this insistence on our part is, in common eye the cryptic poetry and prose visible only to view of affairs in the Far East, now being echoed by our the second sight of the true artist
contemporaries. Commenting upon the account of its "... a painter gazing at a face Divinely through all hindrance finds the man behind it."
Tokio correspondent of the battle of Mukden, the Times, As truly, the man of science must be a seer, endowed
in a leader in the issue of April 25, remarked :-"We
I have before us evidence of national education in its highest with the open cye and power of imagination. At this point the sisters part company. The muse of art fixes on
and most complete manifestation-education such as we in the canvas a momentary aspect of nature, or of the human this country have hardly begun to conceive. We have coordinated intelligence at its best, fortified by an invincible personal loss, will be widely felt in the museum at Jermyn moral, and employing a physical education capable of Street by the officers and by the visitors who come for carrying out all its behests. We see these things not | assistance in the study of fossils. It is satisfactory to merely producing a small corps d'élite insignificant in com learn that Dr. F. L. Kitchin has been appointed to succeed parison with the mass of the nation, but turning out half Mr. Newton; he received his palæontological training under 2 million of men with brain power adequate for their Zittel, and joined the staff of the Geological Survey in direction." When it is remembered that Japan has estab 1898. He has published important monographs on fossil lished and perfected its system of education in the years Invertebrata in the “ Palæontologia Indica." since the passing of our first Elementary Education Act in 1870, it is easy to appreciate how profound and speedy can
MR. JOHN GAVEY, C.B., engineer-in-chief to the Post be the effect of an earnest and sustained effort on the
Office, has been nominated for election as president for part of the Government of a nation to develop its educa
1905-6 of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. tional resources. There is hope that now our great news News has just reached this country that Dr. J. E. Dutton papers are advocating the paramount claims of higher died at Kosongo, in the Congo, on February 27, while education and science we may see both more generously actively engaged in the investigation of trypanosomiasis and treated by the Governinent of this country.
tick fever. The inactivity shown by our statesmen in matters con THE Paris Natural History Museum has accepted a cerning the preservation of our ancient monuments com- | bequest made by M. Emmanuel Drake del Castillo conpares very unfavourably with the measures taken in other sisting of a herbarium, a botanical library, and a sum of countries to cherish their structures of antiquity. A timely 25,000 francs. article in the April number of the Quarterly Review directs
Prof. Hans Meyer, of the University of Vienna, we artention to several cases of vandalism to show the precarious tenure on which this country holds so many of its
learn from Science, has accepted the invitation to deliver
the Herter lectures at Johns Hopkins University on artistic and historical treasures. Here we are almost
October 5 and 6. His subject will be “ The Physiological devoid of the official and semi-official machinery which is
Results of Pharmacological Research.” actively engaged abroad. France and Austria have Stateappointed commissions which exercise a general super
It is announced that the New Mexico legislature has vision over historical and artistic monuments, and see to passed a law authorising a geological survey of the State; their preservation and proper repair. The French list of
the sum of 1200l. has been voted for the purpose, and is structures regarded as of unmistakable national value con to be expended under the direction of the New Mexico tains about 2200 monuments, of which 318 are prehistoric
School of Mines at Socorro. in the form of dolmens or cromlechs. The care of monu
Prof. W. KÖNIG, of Greifswald, has been appointed ments in all the German States is in the hands of official custodians or monument commissions, who are responsible
ordinary professor and director of the physical laboratory
at Giessen; Prof. M. Disteli, of Strassburg, professor of to the Ministers of Public Instruction or of the Interior. The minor States of Europe exhibit a similar official
mathematics at Dresden ; and Dr. Ernest Orloch professor interest in historical monuments. In our own country,
at the National Physical Laboratory at Charlottenburg. however, only tentative efforts have been made at arrange Prof. H. M. Howe, professor of metallurgy at ments which on the Continent are in full working order. Columbia University, Bessemer medallist of the Iron and So far as any expenditure is concerned, the Ancient Monu- | Steel Institute, has been elected foreign correspondent of ments Acts are almost a dead letter. The indifference of the Paris Society for the Encouragement of Industry to the Government to the whole matter is sufficiently in succeed Sir Lowthian Bell. The other four recipients of dicated by the fact that since the death of the inspector this honour are Cannizzaro, Mendeléeff, Solvay, and Sir of ancient monuments, General Pitt-Rivers, in 1900, no Henry Roscoe. successor has been appointed to the post, although no emoluments are attached to it. It seems impossible to get
Mr. J. H. HAMMOND has given 1000l. to establish a our so-called statesmen to see that unless the State shows
mining and metallurgical library at San Francisco. The active interest in the preservation of our ancient monuments,
State Mining Bureau already possesses an extensive library, many of our national assets of the highest historical value
but, for want of funds, it has not been possible to add are doomed to destruction. The public and public bodies
new books during the past ten years. The new library is would soon learn to prize such monuments if the Govern
to be placed in the rooms of the Mining Bureau, but as a ment would take steps to show that these structures are
separate unit. Three trustees are to select the books. of national importance.
The President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries MR. E. T. NEWTON, F.R.S., palæontologist to the
has appointed a departmental committee to inquire, by Geological Survey, retired on May 4 after a distinguished
means of experimental investigation and otherwise, into Service extending over forty years. In 1865 he joined the
the pathology and etiology of epizootic abortion, and to Geological Survey as assistant naturalist under Prof.
consider whether any, and, if so, what, preventive and Huxley, while Murchison was director-general; and when
remedial measures may with advantage be adopted with Huxley severed his connection with the Museum of Prac
respect to that disease. The chairman of the committee is tical Geology, he worked under the late Robert Etheridge
Prof. J. MacFadyean, principal of the Royal Veterinary until 1881. On Mr. Etheridge's transfer to the British
College. Museum, Mr. George Sharman and Mr. E T. Newton The Baly medal, given every alternate year on the rewere appointed joint palæontologists to the Geological commendation of the president and council of the Royal Survey, and on Mr. Sharman's retirement in 1897 Mr. College of Physicians of London for distinguished work in Newton remained as chief of the palæontological depart the science of physiology, especially during the two years ment. The loss of his great experience and knowledge immediately preceding the award, has been awarded to on all branches of paleontology, to say nothing of the Prof. Pawloff, of St. Petersburg. The Bisset Hawkins