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gold medal for 1905, given triennially for work deserving of the Antiquary, but he does not mention that the credit special recognition as advancing sanitary science or pro- of the discovery of the connecting lines between the various moting public health, has been awarded to Sir Patrick monuments belongs to Colonel Johnston. Manson, K.C.M.G.

We learn from the Journal of the Society of Arts that A DECIDED earthquake shock was felt in the Vale of funds have been placed at the disposal of the council of Llangollen, North Wales, about 1.40 a.m. on May 1. The the Society of Dyers and Colourists for distribution in the disturbance lasted about four seconds, and was

form of prizes for the solution of technical problems. The panied by loud rumbling sounds. The river Dee, which following prizes are now offered :41) 20l. for a satisruns through the district, rose several feet during the factory systematic tabulation of the reactions of dyestuffs night.

on the fibre, and a comprehensive scheme for their identifi

cation on dyed fabrics; (2) 1ol. for a trustworthy method The Paris correspondent of the Times reports that earth- of distinguishing between unmercerised and mercerised quake shocks were experienced at about 2 a.m. on April 29 cotton of various qualities, and for the estimation of the over the whole of the Jura, the Rhone valley between degree of mercerisation without reference to lustre; (3) 2ol. Lyons and Valence, and the eastern portion of the Central for a full investigation of the causes of the tendering of Massive. All the shocks appear to have occurred simul- cotton dyed with sulphide blacks, and the best means of taneously, and were accompanied by sudden and violent preventing such tendering; (4) 20l. for a satisfactory squalls, as well as by rumblings like distant thunder. An standardisation of the strength and elasticity of cotton earthquake shock, lasting eight seconds, was recorded also yarns of various qualities and twists in the grey and at Chamonix. Subsequently the shocks recurred, though bleached conditions ; (5) 20l. for a full investigation of the in a mitigated degree. At this place a new spring suddenly average degree of tendering brought about in cotton yarn gushed from the ground as the result of the seismic dis- of various qualities by—(a) cross dyeing with acid colours; turbance, and the waters of the river Arve were swollen | (b) dyeing aniline black; and (c) various other dyeing proin consequence. The shock was felt at 2.45 a.m. at Turin cesses, with the object of fixing standards for the trade. and Domodossola. The seismographs at the observatories Further information can be obtained from the hon. secreof Pavia, Padua, Ferrara, Modena, Ischia, and other tary, Mr. E. T. Holdsworth, Westholme, Great Horton, towns also recorded disturbances. At Heidelberg Observ

Bradford. atory the seismograph registered a decided earthquake of short duration at 2.49 a.m.

SATISFACTORY progress and general prosperity form the

key-note of the report of the Zoological Gardens at Giza ATTENTION was recently directed in these notes (vol. Ixxi.

for the past year. The report is illustrated by the reprop. 492) to a statement made in the Times that the Tower of

duction of a most interesting photograph of an aard-vark, Galileo on the hill of Arcetri, near Florence, has been

or ant-bear, slightly marred by the effect of a shadow by

the side of the nose. practically destroyed in the course of recent building operations. Prof. A. Ricco, having been led by our note In a communication published in the Anales of the to make a special inquiry at Florence, now writes to point

Buenos Aires Museum (vol. xii. pp. 1-64), Dr. F. out that the so-called Torre del Gallo cannot in any way Ameghino gives reasons for concluding that the single facet be considered as associated with the name of Galileo. by which the astragalus of marsupials articulates inferiorly Such an association was first suggested comparatively with the calcaneum is a specialised feature, derived from recently and purely gratuitously by the late proprietor of the more common type in which there are two such facets. the tower, but no evidence in support of it can be traced either in the numerous letters or writings of Galileo. Academy is devoted to a list of Irish Cælenterata, in

THE April issue of the Proceedings of the Royal Irish This was clearly pointed out by Gebler in 1878 in an article in the Deutsche Rundschau, and the most recent

clusive of the Ctenophora, by Miss Stephens. The list examination of Galileo's writings made on the occasion of

includes about 250 species, but since the north-west coast the publication of the “ national edition" of his works has

of Ireland has not yet been thoroughly worked, it cannot given support to the same opinion. It may perhaps be

be regarded as complete. surmised that a confusion of names has occurred, Torre Museum News is the title of a periodical issued by the del Gallo, literally the Cock's Tower, being wrongly re- Brooklyn (N.Y.) Institute of Arts and Sciences to replace garded as a corruption of Torre di Galileo.

the Children's Museum News, and intended to deal with

matters connected with both the Central and the Children's In one of his recent articles on Stonehenge (vol. lxxi. Museum in that city. Special attention will be devoted to p. 391, February 23) Sir Norman Lockyer referred to the informing the public with regard to new exhibits and interesting fact, pointed out to him by Colonel Johnston, additions to the collections. director of the Ordnance Survey, that the solstitial line in 1680 B.C. passes through not only the present centre of

ACCORDING to its seventy-first report, Bootham School Stonehenge, but also through Sidbury Hill to the north-|(York) is making a vigorous push in the direction of east, and the earthworks at Grovely Castle and Castle encouraging the study of natural science, and the natural Ditches to the south-west. This continuation of the history club has entered a period of renewed life and solstitial line from Stonehenge to other ancient structures

vigour. The report is illustrated with reproductions from is of great interest; but an even more remarkable relation

two excellent photographs, one showing the nest and eggs found by Colonel Johnston is that Stonehenge, Old

of a black-headed gull, and the other the same eggs in the Sarum, and Grovely Castle occupy the points of an equi

process of hatching. lateral triangle each side of which is exactly six miles in The seals frequenting Killala Bay and the Moy Estuary. length. A very definite connection is thus shown to exist in Mayo, form the subject of an article by Mr. R. Warren between the various primitive works in the neighbourhood in the April Zoologist. Both the common and the grey of Stonehenge. We notice that Mr. J. H. Spencer de. seal frequent and breed in this district, the young being scribes these relationships in an article in the April number apparently born in most cases in caverns difficult of access. The largest grey seal ever killed weighed 560 lb., but accumulation-droll or cumulative folk-tale from Bihar; in specimens scaling 740 lb. and 770 lb. are recorded from vol. lxxi., part ii., p. 4, in the same Journal, Mr. H. P. the Farne Islands, on the Northumberland coast.

Shastri describes a form of tree worship at Naihati; a

female deity is supposed to reside in a date palm, when " DIE SOGENNANTEN RIECHSTÄBCHEN DER CLADOCEREN is

clods of earth are thrown at the tree as offerings to her, the title of a paper in vol. xii. of Ploner Forschungs- she at once pacifies children crying at the home of the berichte, in which the author, Mr. D. J. Scourfield, of devotee. Ten years later the author re-visited the spot, Leytonstone, discusses the function of the so-called olfactory and found that sweets were then offered as well, that setæ in this group of minute crustaceans. From the various other boons were prayed for, and a myth had stronger and more numerous development of these bristles grown up about the tree. The marriage customs of the in the males, it is inferred that their sensory functions are Khonds are described by Mr. J. E. F. Pereira, from which more acute in this sex than in the females. As regards it appears that they are gradually Hinduising their their probable function, the author is of opinion that while

customs. they are largely concerned in the perception of taste, yet that they may also serve the recognition of other senses The ideal forestry college forms the subject of an article which may be as far removed from taste as is the latter in the Indian Forester (February); the suggestions made from hearing.

are based upon a selection of the advantages observed at

various institutions, all of which, it is hardly necessary to THE Journal of Hygiene for April (v., No. 2) contains state, lie outside the British Isles. College gardens and a number of interesting and important papers. Dr. Petrie forests are mentioned as the most important adjuncts to discusses the relationship of the pseudo-diphtheria and laboratories and museums, and in these particulars the diphtheria bacilli, and Dr. Boycott the relative seasonal forestry school at Tharandt, Saxony, is well provided. In prevalence of these two organisms. Dr. Petrie also de- the matter of getting wider experience than can be obtained scribes trypanosomes observed in rabbits, moles, and certain in the college forests, the students of the St. Petersburg Inbirds. Dr. Savage, as the result of experiments made to stitute have the advantage of inspecting and completing ascertain the degree of sewage pollution of tidal waters, a final course in some of the great forest areas of Russia. considers that mud samples yield more trustworthy evidence of the degree of contamination than either water or oyster

JUDGING from the account by Mr. J. W. White published samples. Other papers are by Dr. Hamilton Wright on in vol. xxii., part iv., of the Transactions and Proceedings preventive measures against beri-beri, Drs. Newsholme and of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, the Balearic Islands Stevenson, and Dr. Hayward on statistical methods applied offer many attractions to the botanist who is contemplating to birth-rates and life tables, and Dr. Mackie on a handy

a holiday. Not only do the islands lie outside the general method of determining the amount of carbonic acid in air. track of tourists, but the flora is unusually rich, and a

considerable number of the plants are endemic or confined PART i. of the reports of the commission appointed for to one of the neighbouring countries. Amongst the rarer the investigation of Mediterranean fever under the super- curiosities a fragile vetchling, Vicia bifoliata, Lepidium vision of the advisory committee of the Royal Society has Carrerasii, and a curious little shrubby Daphne velloeoides just been issued. The first two reports, by Major were obtained in Minorca, and in Majorca Pimpinella Horrocks, R.A.M.C., deal with the problem of the sapro- Bicknelli, which grows in splendid isolation, and a delicate plytic existence of the causative organism (the M. meli- rock-sheltered labiate, Salvia Vigineuxii, were discovered. tensis) outside the human body. It is found that the organism will retain its vitality in sterilised tap water for

A RECORD of the progress of the Albatross Expedition to thirty-seven days, in dry soil for forty-three days, and in

the eastern Pacific is given in a letter from Prof. Alexander moist soil for seventy-two days. The same observer was

Agassiz dated January 6 (Amer. Journ. Science, April). able to isolate the micrococcus from the urine, but not

The influence of the Humboldt current on the marine life from the fæces, sweat or breath of patients. A series of

west of Callao was investigated. As far as 800 miles from experiments was instituted which showed that the micro

the mainland, it affected both the surface and bottom coccus is absorbed by, and gives rise to the disease in,

fauna. Towards Easter Island, the surface fauna first monkeys exposed to dust, or given food containing it.

became less abundant, and at a distance of from 1200 to Staff-Surgeon Gilmour, R.N., and Dr. Zammit detail ex- 1400 miles from South America the trawl hauls were periments on the isolation of the M. melitensis from the absolutely barren. The bottom of the greater part of the blood, and Staff-Surgeon Shaw, R.N., writes on the same

line was covered with manganese nodules on which were subject and on experimental work in relation to animals.

found attached a few siliceous sponges, an occasional

ophiuran, and a few brachiopods and worm-tubes. The An interesting article on polished stone axes in history pelagic and intermediate fauna from Easter Island to 12° until the nineteenth century, by Dr. Marcel Baudouin and south latitude, in the direction of the Galapagos, was very Lionel Bonnemère, will be found in the Bulletin de la poor, and indicated that the region was to the westward Soewté d'Anthropologie de Paris (5e. sér., tome v., p. 496). of the great Humboldt current. Beyond this limit the Examples are given of their use at the present day as

marine fauna was again rich and abundant, and great charms against lightning, storm, and other evils, and also changes were noted in the temperature of the water they are credited with therapeutic efficacy. The Baltudos between 50 and 300 fathoms. Soundings made eastward d the Greeks was a polished stone implement; from

of the Galapagos and Easter Island indicate a gradual classical times onwards these stones were supposed to have deepening of the ocean bed towards the Continent, as fallen from heaven, and at the present day this belief is

observed during the Challenger Expedition. On Easter current from western Europe to Malaysia.

Island some time was spent in examining the prehistoric

monuments and the great quarries from which colossal VARIOUS folk-tales and other items of folklore will be images had been cut. Sculptured rocks were noted, and it found in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal; in was remarked that some of the cyclopean stones used in vol. lit., part iii., p. 99, Mr. S. C. Mitra records a new the ancient buildings exhibited excellent workmanship.



GEOLOGICAL and petrographical researches on the northern There are numerous examples of Aashes which have been Urals have for some years been carried on by Prof. Louis photographed showing this peculiarity, and it is a simple Duparc and Dr. Francis Pearce. Their latest work (Mém. matter to differentiate between those due to multiplicity Soc. de Physique et d'Hist. nat. de Génève, xxxiv., and those due to the incandescent air resulting from the fasc. v.) embraces a description of the eruptive rocks of original flash. Anyone interested in this question will find the chain of Tilai-Kanjakowsky-Cérébriansky, in the some typical photographs published by L. Weber (Sits. Government of Perm. This range is composed of basic d. k. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., vol. xxxviii., 1889). Ladisigneous rocks, of pyroxenites passing into koswites, which laus von Szalay (Met. Zeit., vol. xxxviii., 1903, p. 341), and form the principal axis of the chain, with bordering B. Walter (Jahrbuch d. Hamburgischen Wiss. Instalten, gabbros elsewhere prominent; there are diorites, norites

vol. xx., 1903). As M. Touchet refers to Dr. Hoffert's which are intercalated locally in both gabbros and paper

intermittent lightning-flashes (Phil. Mag., pyroxenites, and dunites which are massive in places and August, 1889), reference is there made to “streaks of also send veins into the gabbros and pyroxenites; and there light, showing that a very considerable residual illuminare other eruptive rocks. All these are described in con- ation remains between the discharges," which indicates siderable detail and illustrated. Continuing their observ- that the writer was quite familiar with the incandescence ations eastwards, the authors describe the quartzites and of the air due to the flash and its effect on the photocrystalline conglomerates of Aslianka and of Tépil, with, graphic film. in the latter region, Devonian strata and various igneous rocks; and finally they deal with the crystalline schists

An installation for the production of high-tension elecand intrusive rocks of Koswinsky-Katéchersky-Tilai.

tricity, on view at Messrs. Isenthal and Co.'s, 85 Mortimer The memoir is illustrated by pictorial views of the topo

Street, Cavendish Square, W., has been examined by a

The original source of the graphic features, by longitudinal sections, and by micro- representative of NATURE. scopic sections of the rocks.

energy is an ordinary uni-directional current, and an im

portant feature of the apparatus is a commutator which The report of the observatory department of the National does away with the necessity for an interrupter. In the Physical Laboratory for the year 1904 shows, as usual, a main circuit is a condenser of very large capacity, and the large amount of useful work; it is published separately, as commutator breaks the circuit when the condenser is appealing to a different class of workers from that interested charged, so that no sparking is produced. The condenser in the engineering and physics departments. The work of employed is not large, and owes its compactness to the the observatory deals with magnetic, meteorological, and use of thin layers of aluminium oxide, prepared electroseismological observations (separately), experiments and lytically, the dielectric. The commutator has the researches, verification of instruments and watches appearance of a piece of engineering work, and should (separately), and miscellaneous commissions for inland, not require much attention. Oscillatory currents, with a colonial, and foreign institutions, &c. It is observed that frequency of about a thousand per second, are set up in the electric trams have interfered with part of the magnetic the primary of an induction coil, and it is claimed that the work; the mean declination for the year was 16° 37':9 W. impulses in the secondary are much stronger in one direcThe tabulations and automatic records of the meteorological tion than in the other. The apparatus is also intended for observations are sent to the Meteorological Office for pub- the production of alternating currents, and some very lication in detail; the Kew report contains monthly and interesting experiments are shown. An alternating current yearly summaries of the results. The seismological observ- is sent through the coil of an electromagnet, the core being ations are published in the report of the British Associ- vertical ; a sheet of paper is placed over the upper pole, and ation; the largest disturbance recorded during the year on the paper is scattered some iron dust (not filings); the took place on April 4, when the maximum amplitude ex- dust forms itself into little spiked heaps which move and ceeded 17 mm. The verification of instruments, exclusive dance about. When the paper and iron dust are removed, of watches and chronometers, amounted to 25,797, of and the forehead is placed near the pole of the magnet, the which 15,903 were clinical thermometers.

light of the room appears to fluctuate in intensity. During a thunderstorm it has often been noticed that Messrs. A. BROWN AND Sons, Ltd., will publish during some flashes of lightning appear to “ flicker," while others this month a work by Mr. J. R. Mortimer entitled “ Forty seem to leave a glow in their paths which lasts a second Years' Researches in British and Saxon Burial Mounds of or two before entirely disappearing. In the first case the East Yorkshire, including Romano-British Discoveries and apparent trembling of the light is due to the fact that the

a Description of the Ancient Entrenchments on a Section of observer is actually watching the passage of more than the Yorkshire Wolds." one flash following the same route. In multiple or intermittent lightning flashes there are sometimes as many as

The report of the council of the Hampstead Scientific five or six separate flashes in a very brief interval of time, Society and the proceedings for 1904 have been received. and the impression on the retina is an apparent flickering Fifty-six new members were elected during the year, and of a single flash. In the Comptes rendus (April 10) M.

the number of members is now 333. The number of Em. Touchet directs attention to those particular flashes

meetings held in 1904 was thirty-three, and in addition which leave a glow in their wake, and gives an illustration

there were four Christmas lectures to children and a course of a photograph of one he secured with a moving camera

of six lectures on nature-study. Among lectures delivered on April 12 of last year. The object of the communi

at general meetings of the society may be mentioned one cation is to point out that this glow is attributable to the

by Prof. S. P. Thompson, F.R.S., on Japanese magic incandescence of the air ; but it seems to us that this is a

mirrors, and one by Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., on fact already very well known. In photographing very

the incoming of the Brythons into Britain. bright lightning flashes with movable cameras it is a MESSRS. S. RentelL AND Co., Ltd., have published a very common occurrence to get trails on the plate of the fifth edition of “ The Telegraphists' Guide to the Departbrighter portions of the flash, and if the plate and lens mental and City and Guilds Examinations in Telegraphy, be very rapid it should be the rule rather than the exception. by Messrs. lames Bell and S. Wilson. The contents have

been revised thoroughly, the chapters re-arranged, and first of the two articles he enumerates the requirements of much fresh matter introduced. The extra pages supply a

the site of such an observatory, and then discusses in detail description of Wheatstone's ABC instrument, a more de- !

the meteorological conditions, the seeing, the transparency

of the atmosphere, and the instruments available at Mount tailed reference to batteries, single-needle working, duplex

Wilson. and Wheatstone automatic systems, repeaters, test cases, In the second article the author describes the foundation, {oncentrator switch, wireless telegraphy, and other subjects. the equipment, and the programme of the observatory, and

illustrates his description with photographs and diagrams No. 5 of the Central-the magazine of the Central of the site and of the various instruments and houses Technical College is very good, and may be regarded as already erected or in course of erection. eren constituting an advance on its predecessors. It con ANOMALOUS DISPERSION AND “Floccull.”—In No. 3, taias an account by Mr. R. Freeman of the design and vol. xxi., of the Astrophysical Journal, Prof. Julius construction of the steel-work of the bridge over the advances the theory of anomalous dispersion to explain the Zambezi at Victoria Falls, a continuation of the series of

varying appearances of the flocculi on spectroheliograph

photographs. The “dark flocculi" of Prof. Hale are exarticles by Prol. Armstrong on the mechanism of com

plained by the incurvation of the direct rays producing an bustion, and a description of the Klingenberg carriage

excess of light in the bright flocculi, and therefore a deficit switchgear by Mr. J. D. Griffin. The magazine is well elsewhere, hence the dark regions naturally ensue. und copiously illustrated.

The differences between the H, (calcium) and HB

(hydrogen) pictures obtained by Prof. Hale are explained We have received from Mr. Geoffrey Martin a copy of by the supposition that the HB rays are less strongly a paper on the theory of solution, published in the Journal incurvated, and therefore rays of more varied refractive oy Physical Chemistry (vol. ix. p. 149), giving a detailed

indices pass through the secondary slit, thereby producing arcount of views already briefly stated in a letter to

a less dark and less defined image. On this assumption

Prof. Julius states that the hydrogen photographs would VATURE (vol. Ixx. p. 531). An attempt is made to explain

show the fine details seen on the K, photographs if the the fundamental facts that for all substances there is a dispersion employed were greater, or if the secondary slit limit of solubility in each solvent, that the solubility in were used narrower. Without requiring any other hypocreases as a rule with the temperature, and that molecules thesis, Prof. Julius explains by this theory all the anomalies often dissociate on passing into solution.

| seen on the spectroheliograms.

In the same journal, the same author also discusses the AVONG the popular science lectures to be delivered at the “ dispersion bands " seen in the spectra of 8 Orionis and Royal Victoria Hall, Waterloo Bridge Road, during May

Nova Persei, and, inter alia, arrives at the . conclusion are the following :-May 9, fishes old and new, Dr. Smith

that the former star is not a spectroscopic binary. Woodward, F.R.S.; May 23. some summits of the lost ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA.—Abstracts of sixteen continent Atlantis, Mr. H. Ling

of the numerous papers read at the sixth meeting of the Astronomical and Astrophysical Society of America, held at Philadelphia last December, are given in No. 533 of

Science by Mr. Frank B. Littel. The various titles are too OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. numerous to mention here, but amongst them we may

notice “ The Constant of Aberration," by Prof. C. L. DISCOVERY OF A Tenth SATELLITE TO Saturn.-A tele.

Doolittle, in which the author obtains the value 20":540 € gram frum the Kiel Centralstelle announces the discovery 0.0055 from a series of zenith telescope observations made of a tenth satellite to Saturn by Prof. W. H. Pickering,

between December, 1889, and December, 1903 ; “ The Rewho, it will be remembered, also discovered Phæbe, the flex Zenith Tube," by the same author ; “ Variation of the pinth satellite.

Bright Hydrogen Lines in Stellar Spectra," by Miss Annie The newly discovered satellite is very faint, being re

J. Cannon; “ Planetary Spectrograms” and “The Canals ported as three magnitudes fainter than Hyperion, the of Mars,” by Mr. Lowell; “ The Coordination of Visual srventh satellite, which has a magnitude of about 17; its and Photographic Magnitudes,” by Mr. J. A. Parkhurst ; period is given as 21 days, and its orbital motion is direct. and “ Recent Researches of the Henry Draper Memorial,"

THE ALLEGED IDENTITY OF COMETS “ BROOKS 1889" AND by Prof. E. C. Pickering. LEXELL.-An abstract of a paper by Dr. Charles L. Poor, wherein he discusses the identity of Brooks's 1889 comet with the object known as Lexell's comet, is given in No. 4, COLOUR IN WASPS OF THE GENUS vol. xiii., of Popular Astronomy. After mentioning the

POLISTES. discovery and subsequent history of each body, he discusses the various perturbations to which each has been subjected, IN the paper referred to below the author deals very fully and then gives the results obtained from a re-computation with the various colour variations observable in the of the orbit of Brooks's comet, using the observational data species of the genus under notice, and a very interesting secured during the re-appearance of 1903. Finally, he

account is given of the variability in colour-pattern, and of arrives at the conclusion that the objects are not identical, its gradual development in the nymphal and imaginal although further evidence will be necessary before the

stages, illustrated by coloured plates i. and ii. A chemical question can be settled definitely.

analysis of the nature of the pigments is also given, and

illustrations of the layers in which the pigments are located. ANCIENT DRAWINGS OF CELESTIAL PHENOMENA.--Parts

Coloured plates iii, and iv. give figures of several of the difxiii. and xiv. of the current volume of Das Weltall con

ferent species of the genus-besides these plates there are extain an interesting article by Dr. W. Lehmann, of Berlin,

cellent maps, showing the distribution of the various forms, in which the ancient Mexican accounts of solar eclipses,

and elaborate diagrams are provided, indicating the variromets, &c., are discussed. The article is freely illustrated

ations observable. The author has evidently spared no pains by drawings of eclipses, comets, the moon, planets, &c.,

to render the treatment of the subject as exhaustive as taken from the old accounts, and these drawings are most

possible, and as a study of colour variation this treatise interesting as depicting the old Mexican ideas of these

seems to leave little to be desired. The problem attacked in phenomena. For instance, the first is a contemporary

this work, viz. “ an inquiry into the nature and probable drawing of the total solar eclipse of 1531 A.D., and shows

causes of specific differentiation in the genus Polistes," is plainly immense prominences and coronal wings.

one which is both difficult and perplexing. MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY.-In No. 2, vol. xxi., of The author commences at once by saying, “ apart from be Astrophysical Journal, Prof. Hale gives an account of differences in size, the characters used to separate the species the conditions of solar research at Mount Wilson, Cali- | are based almost exclusively on colour ; accordingly, this inpernia, where he has recently established the Solar Observ- 1“Coloration in Polistes." By Wilhelmine M. Enternan. Pp. 88 atory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. In the plates. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, November, 1904.


vestigation resolves itself into a study of coloration in the observed are such as to be rightly described as cleavage genus.” The conditions which make for variation in the they have rather the character of fractures, depending on different species are well indicated, as the author points out the application of the forces which produce them, as well that, even where the inmates of a single nest are examined, as on the intimate structure of the material. the following points have to be considered :-First, that two It is unfortunate that no attempt is made to collate the or three females may work together for the good of one com- results of the experiments with actual examples of cleaved munity, and may be very differently coloured; secondly, that rocks. As the author remarks, the position of the straineach may be fertilised by several males, which again may be ellipsoid affords a crucial test. On the Sharpe-Sorby theory differently coloured ; thirdly, that intruders from other nests the principal diametral plane of the ellipsoid must coincide may be present as they are not always so certainly driven with the cleavage-plane; on Dr. Becker's hypothesis it away from strange nests as has been affirmed for other social should be inclined at some angle of less than 45o. Now Hymenoptera.'

there are many slates in which the strain-ellipsoid is In these circumstances, the attempt to distinguish the actually presented in deformed spherical concretions or species by colour characters seems to be almost hopeless-colour-spots. The “birdseye” slate of Westmorland and a point, however, which seems to the present writer to have the green-spotted purple slates of Llanberis are examples been overlooked is the possibility of the presence of un- familiar to every English geologist. In every case the observed plastic characters which might serve as better and orientation of the ellipsoid is that which agrees with the more satisfactory guides to classification. That such char- received theory. Moreover, the spots are elliptic in the acters exist among the palæarctic species has been demon- cleavage-plane itself, being elongated, as Dr. Sorby pointed strated by F. F. Kohl in Ann. K.K. Naturh. Hofmuseum, out fifty years ago, in the line of cleavage-dip. If the Wien, xiii., heft i., pp. 87-90, taf. iii., who shows that five cleavage-plane were a plane of shearing, it would correforms of the males can be easily separated by well-defined spond with a circular section of the ellipsoid. characters in the form of the clypeus and genæ, the grooves We might object further that, since there are two direcof the face, and the shapes of the subapical joints of the tions of circular section, or of shearing, there should, on antennæ, and although their respective females and workers Dr. Becker's hypothesis, be always two directions of have not been satisfactorily identified, it is not improbable cleavage, perpendicular to another with incipient that careful investigation may yet disclose characters to cleavage and making an acute angle in well cleaved slates. associate the sexes of the different species together; as also it Our author endeavours to meet this difficulty in discussing is quite probable that all the species would vary in colour in his shearing experiments. One direction of shearing is more or less parallel directions-any investigation into the parallel to a fixed face of the block undergoing deformdistribution of the species, unless conducted with special ation, while the other is continually changing, "" so that reference to these characters of the males, would be very any one set of particles undergoes maximum tangential liable to lead to wrong conclusions. One conclusion especially strain along these planes only for an infinitesimal time." to which one would like to apply the male character Even assuming such conditions to be realised in nature, test is summed up in the following words :-“ It is hardly which cannot be the general case, we should still suppose probable that we have in P. variatus a primitive species which that the cleavage-property (as distinguished from fractures has differentiated in two directions, but, as we shall see set up in the process of deformation) will depend on the from the study of the geographical distribution of the species, actual structure of the rock, not on the manner in which aurifer and pallipes are two originally distinct species which, that structure has been arrived at. from the course of their migration northwards, have come It will be apparent from the foregoing criticism that, together in the Mississippi valley, and by their commingling while recognising the intrinsic value of these experiments produced a species having, in some measure, the characters and the clear manner in which the author's views are set of both. These remarks are made with no wish to depre- forth, we do not find in them anything which assails ciate, even if it were possible, this very careful attempt to in- successfully the generally accepted interpretation of the vestigate a most difficult problem, but merely to point out cleavage structure.

Α. Η. that there are characters in our Palæarctic species of Polistes which might be well looked for in those of the other hemisphere.



Cambridge.--By direction of the Board of Geographical THE memoir described below . e contains an account of Studies, parts of the examination for the diploma in

geography will be held on June 21 and two following days. propounded some years ago, of the cause of the cleavage No person is qualified for admission to part ii. who has not property in slates. Dr. Becker's theory, substantially the previously passed part i. (or the special examination in same as that put forward earlier by the Rev. 0. Fisher, geography for the ordinary B.A. degree). The names of is that cleavage-planes are planes of maximum tangential intending candidates, together with the subjects they prostrain, or in other words shear-planes. This is opposed pose to take up, should be notified to the registrary not to the theory of Sharpe (or, as we might say, of Sharpe later than May 24. The fee for admission to the examinand Sorby), which makes the cleavage-planes perpendicular ation is, for members of the university, 31. ; for persons to the maximum compression. The author has misunder- not members of the university, 51. The fee must be paid stood Dr. Sorby's position, having apparently overlooked to the registrary not later than June 15. The subjects are the earlier papers of that writer. The question whether regional geography, surveying and mapping, geomorph. heterogeneity in the rock is necessary for the production of ology, oceanography and climatology, the history of geocleavage seems to be beside the mark, since all rocks graphy and anthropogeography. Copies of the schedules (other than glasses) are heterogeneous in this sense. Both defining the range of examination may be obtained by Tyndall's wax and Dr. Becker's ceresin, being crystalline application at the registry. bodies, are heterogeneous, and their behaviour must depend The council of the Senate has recommended that the on the orientation of the minute component crystals. University of Queen's College, Kingston, Ontario, be

The experiments described were carried out with ceresin, adopted as an institution affiliated to Cambridge University a substance of the paraffin series, and some also with clay. It is understood that the syndicate for considering the These were submitted in one series of tests to simple com- studies and examinations of the university, the report of pression, and in another series to shearing by means of a which in favour of the abolition of compulsory Greek in machine devised for the purpose. In the small masses the previous examination was thrown out last term, will dealt with the strains developed vary greatly from point continue to meet. It is proposed to add to the syndicate to point, and the resulting structure is of a complex kind. Mr. E. S. Roberts, master of Gonville and Caius College: We must confess that we are not convinced that the effects Dr. Adam, one of the tutors of Emmanuel College ; Mr 1 "Experiments on Schistosity and Slaty Cleavage." By George F.

S. H. Butcher, late professor of Greek at Edinburgh Rocker. Pp. 34 i 7 plates. Bull. No. 241 of U.S. Geological Survey.

l'niversity; and Mr. G. H. Hardy, of Trinity College Washington, 1004.)

These gentlemen were on the “non-placet” side at the

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