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THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK.

Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1905. Edited by J. SCOTT KELTIE, LL.D., Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society.

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LANDSCAPE IN HISTORY & OTHER ESSAYS.

By Sir ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, D.C.L., F.R.S.

8vo. 88. 6d, net. ATHENÆUM.-“Whilst Sir Archibald's wide experience in the field as a professional geologist has led to his intimate acquaintance with British scenery in every phase, his constant use of the hammer has in no way lessened the power of his pen, and the volume of essays under review, like his former collection of 'Sketches,' forms a charming contribution to the literature of his savourite science."

TWENTY-SIX GRADUATED EXERCISES IN CRAPHIC STATICS,

some in Two Colours, and with Skeleton Data to practise upon, and including the Application to Roofs, Moving Locomotives, Retaining Walls, Lévy's Steel Arches, Girders (Original Constructions), Masonry Arches, 'Lévy's Weight Tables, with an Essay on Graphical Statics, in the form of a Running Commentary on the Exercises, each of which has full Instructions printed on its face, the

whole forming a Supplement to the Authors' Elementary Applied Mechanics. By T. ALEXANDER, M.Inst.C.E.I., Professor of Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin ; and A. W . THOM SON, D.Sc., C.E., Professor of Engineering, College of Science, Poona. FCAP. BROADSIDE. SEWED, 10s.

--- -MAY NUMBER JUST PUBLISHED.

THE SO HO OL WORLD.

A MONTHLY MAGAZINE OF EDUCATIONAL WORK AND PROGRESS.
SIXPENCE MONTHLY. YEARLY VOLUME, 75. 60. NET.

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS.
School Cadet Corps. I. By Edward C. Goldberg, M.A., Capt, ist Middlesex R.E.(V.).-The Incidental Teaching of
English Language. By Norman L. Frazer, B.A. -Practical Science Instruction in Irish National Schools,
From an Irish Correspondent.--The Biological Side of Nature-Study. II. Animal Lise. By Oswald H Latter, M.A.
-Studies in School Management. IV. Correction of Exercises. By J. W. Jarvis.-Foundations of Educational
Science. By Prof. J. J. Findlay. --Secondary Schools and the Universities. IV. The University of Birmingham.
--Cambridge Local Examinations, 1904. Hints for Teachers from the Examiners' Reports.-Some Recent Wall Maps. --The
Teacher's Part in the New Education. By J. H. Badley, M.A.-Correspondence : The Heuristic Method of Teaching
Science. By Examiner.-Individual Attention. By Robert L. Leighton, M.A.-The Education of Intending Pupil Teachers.
By G. A. Christian, B.A. - The Value of Drawing. By Lettice A. Mac Munn.-Transfer of Secondary Schools to Local
Education Committees. By S. J. G.

MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED, LONDON.

RECENT & COMING ECLIPSES.

BY

Sir NORMAN LOCKYER, K.C.B., F.R.S. Second Edition, containing an account of the Observations made at Viziadrug, in India, in 1898, and of the conditions of the Eclipses

visible in 1900, 1901 and 1905. 8vo. 6s. net.

WATKINS & DONCASTER,

THE NEW COLLECTION OF

336 SPECIMENS AND SLIDES OF ROCKS, CABINETS AND APPARATUS

Naturalists and Manufacturers of

according to H. ROSENBUSCH: “Elemente der FOR ENTOMOLOGY, BIRDS' EGGS AND SKINS, AND ALL

Gesteinslehre, 2d ed. 1901.”
BRANCHES OF NATURAL HISTORY!

Accompanied by a text-book : "Practical Petrography," giving a short SPECIAL SHOW-ROOM FOR CABINETS.

description of the polarizing microscope and its application, and also of the NR-For Exorllence and Superiority of Cabinets and Apparatus, refer. | macroscopical and microscopical features of every specimen of this collec. exces are permitted to distinguished patrons, Museums, Colleges, &c. . tion, by Professor Dr. K. Busz of the University of Münster. This

collection is intended for the practical use of students, and contains typical A LARGE STOCK OF INSECTS, BIRDS' EUGS AND SKINS.

representatives of all importaut types of rocks; it is composed of 277 SPECIALITY.-Objects for Nature Study, Drawing masive rocks (94 deep-seated rocks, 50 dike rocks, 133 volcanic rocks), Classes, &c.

28 sedimentary, and 31 crystalline schists. Out of it two smaller collections

of 250 and 165 specimens have been selected. The prices are as follows :Birds, Mammals, &c., Preserved and Mounted by First-class Workmen true to Nature.

Collection J. 336 Specimens of Rocks ... 380 Marks. All Books and Publications on Natural History supplied.

la. 336 Slides ...

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11. 250 Specimens of Rocks ... 270 ,, 36 STRAND, LONDON, W.C.

lla. 250 Slides ...

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III. 165 Specimens of Rocks 170 Our Catalogue (96 pp.) Post free on application.

111a. 165 Slides ... ... ... ... 205 m

COLLECTIONS OF MINERALS, FOSSILS, METEORITES, ROCKS, MINERALS, FOSSILS. For Collectors, Students, Technical Schools, Colleges, &c.

PURCHASED FOR CASH OR EXCHANCED. COLLECTIONS IN POLISHED DEAL BUXES.

The fifth edition of Catalogue No. 4, Petrography, has just *5 Specimens, 5/6; 50 do., 10/6; 100 do., 21/-; 200 do., 42/so Coal Measure Rocks and Fossils, 12/6; do., larger, 15/

been published (210 pages), and will be sent tree of charge on Adapted for the Board of Education Examinations in

application. Geology, Physiography, and Mineralogy. A large stack of Minerals, Rocks, Fossils and Microscopic Objects for

Dr. F. KRANTZ, selection. Specimens sent on approval. Cabinets, Geologists' Hammers, Chisels, Card Trays, Glass-capped RHENISH MINERAL OFFICE, BONN-ON-RHINE, GERMANY. Boxes, Models of Crystals, &c., &c.

ESTABLISHED 1833.
NEW CATALOGUE POST FREE.
THOMAS D. RUSSELL, 78 Newgate St., London, E.C. MICROLOGICAL LABORATORY AND SCHOOL OF NATURAL SCIENCE.

GRATIS AND POST FREE.
Scientifically arranged Catalogue of Megascopic and Microscopic
Specimens is now being prepared. Gentlemen are invited to send in their

applications without delay, as only 5000 copies will be issued. Gentlemen interested in the above study are invited to send to Sample Slide of expertly prepared ROCK SECTION, 1/-, post free.

Metals, Minerals and Rocks expertly mounted for Microscope, JAMES R. GREGORY & CO.,

1- each, from material supplied. 1 Kelso Place, Kensington Court, London, W.,

LESSONS IN PRACTICAL LITHOLOGY BY CORRESPONDENCE.

A vacancy for one Geological Student, desirous of passing with high disfor a Prospectus ot

tinction in University or Civil Service. Small premium. Pocket-money THE TWENTIETH CENTURY ATLAS OF allowed. Apply :- THE DIRECTOR, MICROLOGICAL LABORATORY, MICROSCOPICAL PETROGRAPHY,

11 ASPENLEA ROAD, HAMMERSMITH, LONDON, W. being issued in Twelve Monthly Parts, each Part containing Four Fine

Half Tone Plates, and also Four actual Rock Sections. Sabseription in advance, either Monthly, 7/-; Quarterly, 21/-; or for the whole Series of 12 Monthly Parts & 48 Sections, £4 4s.

MICROSCOPICAL PETROGRAPHY.

LIVING SPECIMENS FOR

THE MICROSCOPE.

Volvox, Spirogyra, Desmids, Diatoms, Amaba, Arcella, Actinospbærium, Vorticella, Stentor, Hydra, Floscularia, Stephanoceros, Melicerta, and many other specimens of Pond Life. Price is. per Tube, Post Free. Helix pomatia, Astacus, Amphioxus, Rana, Anodon, &c., for Dissection purposes.

THOMAS BOLTON, 25 BALSALL HEATH ROAD, BIRMINGHAM.

MINERALS, ROCKS, FOSSILS.
A large stock of BRITISH AND FOREIGN MINERALS always on view.
CORNISH MINERALS

A SPECIALITY.
Special display for Teachers and Students on Saturdays. Open till 7 p.m.

RICHARDS' SHOW ROOMS,
3 Beauchamp Place, Brompton Road, South Kensington,

London, S.W.
ALBERT EDWARD JAMRACH

(Late CHARLES JAMRACH),

NATURALIST, 180 ST. GEORGE STREET EAST. implements of Savage Warfare, Idols, Sacred Masks, Peruvian Pottery,

Netsakis China, Lacquers, Gongs, Shells, and other Curios.

MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION

OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.

THE LABORATORY, PLYMOUTH,
The following animals can always be supplied, eitber living
or preserved by the best methods :-

Sycon; Clava, Obelia, Sertularia ; Actinia, Tealia, Caryophyllla, Alcy.
onium ; Hormiphora (preserved); Leptoplana; Lineus, Ampbiporus,
Nereis, Apbrodite, Arenicola, Lanice, Terebella; Lepas, Baladus,
Gammarus, Ligia Mysis, Nebalia, Carcinus ; Patella, Buccinum, Eledone,
Pectens Bugula, Crisia, Pedicellina, Holothuria, Asterias, Echinus.
Ascidia, Salpa (preserved), Scyllium, Raia, &c., &c.
For prices and more detailed lists apply to
Biological Laboratory, Plymouth.

THE DIRECTOR.

NOTICE.-Advertisements and business letters for Nature should be addressed to the Publishers; Editorial
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15
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: 018 6 Whole Page . . . 6 6 a • The first line being in heavy type is charged for as Two Lines. Cheques and Money Orders payable to MACMILLAN Cow CO., Limited.

OFFICE: ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, WC.

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WOODHOUSE INCLINED PLANE.

Price 25/TOWNSON & MERCER,

Full Particu'ars of above and other forms of ELECTRICAL MEASURING
INSTRUMENTS for Laboratories, &c., are contained in our New

Illustrated List, post free on application.

ISENTHAL & CO., 85 Mortimer St., London, W.
Contractors to the Admiralty, Il'ar, India & Colonial Offices, &c. 1 34 CAMOMILE STREET, E.C.

C. E. MÜLLER, ORME & CO.'S

NEW RESISTANCE GLASS

excels Jena Glass in its power to stand sudden variations of temperature.

N.B. - The official test at the Charlottenburg Institute showed that with this glass the alkali dissolved by 100 c.c. of distilled water is i milligrammes as compared with dir milligrammes dissolved from Jena glass under the same conditions. IT IS AS CHEAP AS THE COMMON BOHEMIAN GLASS.

wew May be had in BEAKERS (various forms), FLASKS (all shapes), TUBING (any size).

Price List free on application to
IULLER, ORME & CO., Ltd. (CONTRA

H.M. GOVERNMENT 148 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C.

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Printed by RICHARD CLAY AND SONS, LIMITED, at 7 & 8 Bread Sweet Hill, Queen Victoria Street, inihe City of London, and published by MACMILLAN

AND Co., LIMITED, at St. Martin's Street, London, W.C., and THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 66 Fif. h Avenue, New York, -THURSDAY, Nay yos.

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A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye." —WORDSWORTH.

[PRICE 15 CENTS

No. 1854. VOL. 72]

THURSDAY, MAY II, 1905 Registered as a Newspaper at the General Post Office.)

(All Rights are Reserved.

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DODP

PORTABLE HIGH FREQUENCY APPARATUS Rchemical and Scientific Instrument makers to His Majesty's

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COMPLETE Apparatus, easily carried in the hand to bedside of patient. Entirely self-contained, 14" X 6" X 10".

Price £12 12 O

THE NEW BOOK

PRICE ONE SHILLING.

NEGRETTI & ZAMBRA'S

ANEROID BAROMETERS.

Containing an original description of the principles and fenction of the photographic lens. Together with the

latest workshop methods. Then there follows a series of chapters on practical photograpby and the effect of lenses on results. The chiel types are discussed and compared by means of original diagrams. Also an appendix on the Gauss Theory and on a new system of lens testing. The book

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"PHOTOGRAPHIC LENSES:

A SIMPLE TREATISE." By CONRAD BECK and HERBERT ANDREWS.

POST FREE 1/3 350 Pages, 45 Engravings, 150 Diagrams, Cloth Bound.

EDITION DE LUXE, 3/8 POST FREE. R. & J. BECK, Ltd., 68 CORNHILL, LONDON.

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E.C Branches

45 Cornhill;

7000

OPTICAL CONVENTION, 1905.

BIRKBECK COLLEGE

BREAM BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, E.C.
President:

FACULTY OF SCIENCE.
DR. R. T. GLAZEBROOK, M.A., F.R.S.,

DAY AND EVENING COURSES.
Director of the National Physical Laboratory.

1. E. MACKENZIE, Ph.D., D.Sc Vice-Presidents:

Chemistry

*** "TH. WREN, Ph.D., B.A., B.Sc. Sir WM. DE WIVELESLIE ABNEY, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S.

(ALBERT GRIPFITHS, D.Sc. THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD BLYTHSWOOD.

Physics ... ...

D. OWEN, B.A., B.Sc.

B. W. CLACK, B.Sc.
SIR W. H. M. CHRISTIE, K.C.B , M A., F.R.S.,

E. H. SMART, M.A.
Astronomer Royal. Mathematics

*** 1 W. G. Birt, B.A., B.Sc. The Right Hon. The Earl of CRAWFORD, K.T., LL.D., F.RS.

A. B. RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc. MR. Thos. R. DALLMEYER, F.R.A.S.

Botany ... ...

F. E. FRITSCH, Ph.D., B.Sc. The Hon. ALBAN G. H. GIBBS, M.A., M.P.,

Zoology ...

H. W. UNTHANK, B.A., B.Sc.
Master of the Worshipful Co. of Spectacle Makers.

Geology & Mineralogy ... Geo. F. HARRIS, F.G.S.
Sir Howard GRUBB, F.R.S.

Assaying, Metallurgy & Mining. Geo. PATCHIN, A.R.S.M. THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD Kelvin, O.M., G.C.V.O., F.R.S. RESEARCH in Chemistry and Physics in well-equipped laboratories. THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD RAYI EIGH, O.M., D.C.L., F.R.S. French, German, Spanish, Russian, Dutch, & Italian Classes. THE RIGHT Hon. The EARL OF Rosse, K.P., D.C.L., F.R.S.

EVENING CLASSES also in Biology, Physiology, Practical Geometry, THE OPTICAL CONVENTION will be beld at the North

Building and Machine Construction, Steam, Tbeoretical and Applied 1 AMPTON INSTITUTE, CLERKENWELL, E.C., from May 31 to

Mechanics, Land and Quantity Surveying, and Estimating. June 3, inclusive.

Calendar 6d. (post free 8d.), on application to the SECRETARY. The object of the Convention is to bring into co-operation those interested in Optical Matters, from all sides of the question, theo. retical, practical, and commercial.

At the SOUTH-WESTERN POLYTECHNIC, . The mornings will be devoted to papers and discussions on Optical

Manresa Road, Chelsea, S.W., Day College Courses of thirty hours subjects. These will be collected in a volume to be issued by the

per week are conducted in preparation for the London University Convention.

Degrees of B.Sc. in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, in There will be an

try, Physics and the Natural Sciences. The composition fee for the EXHIBITION OF OPTICAL & SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS Session of three terms, 1904-1905, is 615. These Courses are recog.

nised for "Internal Students of the University, and consist of of British manufacture, in the large hall of the Northampton Institute,

lecture and laboratory instruction. The Courses are conducted by:during the Convention, open daily from 12 to 10 p.m. In connection

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, W. W. F. Pullen, A. Macklow with this, a catalogue is in preparation, which will be a useful work

Smith: ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, A J. Makower: of reference in regard to instruments manufactured in this country.

CHEMISTRY, J. B. Coleman, J. C. Crocker, and F. H. Lowe: The Subscription for Membership of the Convention will be five

MATHEMATICS and PHYSICS, S. Skinner, W. H. Eccles, J. Lister shillings. Applications for membership should be addressed to the

and L. Lownds: BOTANY, H. B. Lacey and T. G. Hill: Hon. Sec., Mr. F. J. SELBY, M.A., Elm Lodge, Teddington,

GEOLOGY, A. J. Maslen. In the evenings similar Courses will be Middlesex, who will be glad to furnish further particulars if desired.

conducted, but at £2 per Session. Also TECHNICAL DAY

COURSES of three years' duration are arranged as a preparation for ADMISSION to the Exhibition, daily, ONE SHILLING,

the Engineering, Electrical and Chemical and Metallurgical proafter 7 p.m., Sixpence.

fessions. The Laboratories and Workshop are open for RESEARCH Tickets admitting to the Exhibition at any time while it is open, 2/6.

under the direction of the Principal and the Heads of Departments.

Further particulars may be obtained on application to The

SECRETARY, who will send either the Day College Prospectus and ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. Calendar or the Evening Class Prospectus for 3d. The Prospectuses

may be had at the Office for id. each, The ANNIVERSARY MEETING of the Society for the ELECTION of PRESIDENT and COUNCIL, &c., will be held in the THEATRE, BURLINGTON GARDENS, on Monday, May 22, at 3 p.m., the

HIGHER MATHEMATICS PRESIDENT in the Chair.

In place of the Annual Dinner of the Society a BANQUET in honour of the retiring President, Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., will be held on

FOR SCIENCE AND OTHER STUDENTS. the Evening of the Anniversary Meeting, May 22, at the Hotel Metropole, Whitehall Rooms, Whitehall Place, at 7.0 p.m. for 7.30. Dinner charge. Correspondence Tuition by highly qualified graduates of &lis, Friends of Fellows are admissible to the dinner as far as space will permit. Applications for tickets should be made to the Chief Clerk,

Royal Universities, in Algebra, Trigonometry, Theoretical Mechanics, Differ.

ential and Integral Calculus, Pure Geometry, Geometrical Drawing. &c. i Savile Row, Burlington Gardens, W.

Departments are at work preparing for London and Royal University LEONARD DARWIN, Hon.

Examinations, Science and Art, Civil Service Examinations, and all Prof. J. F. HUGHES,

Secretaries,

Preliminaries --Apply to Mr. J. CHARLESTON, B.A., Burlington Corte Savile Row, Burlington Gardens, W.

spondence College, Clapham Common, London, S.W.

THE AGENT-GENERAL for the CAPE

BATTERSEA POLYTECHNIC, OF GOOD HOPE has been instructed to receive applications for the vacant post of PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY to the SOUTH

BATTERSEA PARK ROAD, S. W. AFRICAN COLLEGE, CAPE TOWN, up to June i next, Candidates must be under 35 years of age, and their applications should Principal-SIDNEY H. WELLS, Wh.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.M.E. be supported by copies of testimonials and a medical certificate.

A special SUMMER COURSE of Eight Lectures, followed by LaboraThe salary offered is £500 per annum on apprintment, £600 per annum i tory Work in GAS ANALYSIS, will be held by Mr. J. Wilson, M.Sc. after three years' service, £700 per annum after ten years service, ! (Head of Chemical Department), on Wednesday Evenings, commencing together with a merit grant of 675 per annum alter five years, increasing

May 17. to $100 after ten years.

Lecture. 7.15 to 8.15. Lab., 8.15 to 9.45. Fee, 58. An allowance of £50 will be made to cover the cost of the journey to the

For other special courses for Int. and Final B.Sc., see prospectus, Colony. The accepted Candidate is to assume duty in Cape Town during the first week in July, or so soon thereafter as possible.

The "N" Fellowship, tenable at Cambridge 100 Victoria Street, London, S.W.,

and open to former science students of Newnham and Girton Colleges, May 2, 1905.

will be vacant in the autumn. The holder is required to conduct original research in science during her tenure of the fellowship, with

preference to the chemical physiology of animals and plants. AppliUNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH cations must be sent in by June 8 to the PRINCIPAL OF NEWSHAM WALES, BANGOR.

College, from whom further particulars may be obtained. (A CONSTITUENT COLLEGE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WALES.)

For other Scholastic Advertisements, see page xvi. Applications are invited for the post of ASSISTANT LECTURER IN THE DAY TRAINING DEPARTMENT now vacant. Special subjects: Elementary Science, Blackboard Drawing, Salary, 6120.

TYPE-WRITING UNDERTAKEN BY Applications and testimonials should be received not later than Monday, HIGHLY EDUCATED WOMEN ACCUSTOMED TO SCIEN. June 12, by the undersigned, from whom further particulars may be TIFIC MSS. (Classical Tripos, Intermediate Arts, Cambridge Higher obtained.

Local, thorough acquaintance with Modern Languages). Research, JOHN EDWARD LLOYD, M.A.,

Revision, Translation. Scale of charges on application. The Cam.

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