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is in millimetres. The rules can be supplied with the variable species, monophyletic and polyphyletic plain scales either in inches or millimetres, and in the groups. They exhibit the phenomena of gemmation specimen submitted to you the mix up is the result of and of embryonic fission, of polymorphism, hibernaaccident, and not perversity.
tion, alternation of generations, and change of funcJOHN DAVIS AND Son.
tion. They have long been known as a stock example All Saints' Works, Derby, May 20.
of degeneration; but in fact they lend themselves admirably to the exposition of more than one 'chapter
of Darwinism.'" THE LOWER VERTEBRATES.1
Prof. Herdman has made this group peculiarly his *C VERYTHING comes to him who waits”! own, and the editors are to be cons
own, and the editors are to be congratulated in E Certainly the patience of many has been sorely
having secured him to write this chapter. Nowhere tried by the long advent which has preceded the
else will the student find so complete and altogether appearance of this last volume of the Cambridge
admirable a summary of this most difficult and Natural History. Students of the lower vertebrates' puzzling group of animals. will be naturally predisposed to accord it a favourable
|: In dealing with amphioxus Prof. Herdman has reception, inasmuch as its predecessors have presented been hampered by lack of space. This seems evident, such a high standard of excellence. If in some
not from the absence of any essential facts in his respects a closer acquaintance reveals some cause for account, but from the condensed fashion in which the complaint it will be admitted that, surveyed as a | facts are presented. To the majority of those who whole, both authors and editors alike are to be con will use this book this is perhaps of no great moment, gratulated on having produced a work of sterling but others, we imagine, will fail to appreciate the full merit.
The groups dealt with in this volume are not only of the highest scientific interest and importance, but they present more than ordinary difficulties to be investigated, and these difficulties are materially increased when stern necessity compels the several contributors to condense their work within the smallest possible limits. Happily this task has fallen on the right shoulders, and all must admire the way in which it has been performed.
The first chapter of this book has been written by Dr. S. F. Harmer, and deals with the Hemichordata, a group which includes creatures of the existence of which the layman has never heard! Yet their importance in the scheme of evolution is of the highest, inasmuch as they bridge the gap for us between vertebrates and invertebrates.
The true nature of these worm-like and tubicolous animals has been determined only after the most laborious and painstaking research, in which Dr. Harmer, the author of this chapter has borne a very conspicuous share. Though the vertebrate affinities of the worm-like Balanoglossus were first hinted at by Kowalewsky in 1866, it was not until 1886 that this relationship was really demonstrated : a triumph achieved by Bateson. Forming at first a branch by itself of the vertebrate phylum, Balanoglossus has since lost something of its unique character by the discovery that certain other tubicolous formsRhabdopleura and Cephalodiscus-would have to be Fig. 1.-Embryos of Rhodeus amarus in the gill-cavities of Unio. promoted to share this position, though to the ordinary , Embryos ; &, inter-lamellar cavities. From the "Cambridge
Natural History." observer nothing could be less like a vertebrate in appearance ! This advance in our knowledge was importance of some phases in the life history of this made by the author of this chapter; and he has now “ weed in the vertebrate garden." still further extended the boundaries of this group so The remarkable ciliated condition of the embryonic as to include Phoronis, an animal hitherto referred and early larval stages is, for example, all too lightly both to the Gephyrea and to the Polyzoa.
passed over. Attention is not called to the importance Although our knowledge of the Tunicates—those
of the fact that in the free-swimming, ciliated larva we * common objects of the sea-shore," known as the
have a connecting link between vertebrates and in"sea-squirts "- has been accumulating for some vertebrates. His reference to the existence of cilia thing more than two thousand years, it was not until is of the briefest. He remarks simply, that “the the middle of the eighteenth century that any real
embryonic stages being passed through during the progress in the study of these creatures was made.
night ... the larva hatched in the early morning,” And yet a century passed before the appearance of
and then, on the next page, continues, " The epiblast Kowalewsky's epoch-making work, which showed con
cells become ciliated all over the surface, so that the clusively the astonishing fact that these shapeless
embryo rotates within the thin covering which still jelly-bags were really kith and kin of the vertebrates
surrounds it.” Passing on to describe the metabut degenerates!
morphosis of the embryo he goes on to say that“ When No other group of animals is so all-embracing in
it has (developed) about five pairs of mesoblastic the nature of the phenomena it displays. As the
somites, it breaks out of its covering, and becomes a author remarks,“ They demonstrate both stable and free swimming larva.” Probably no living biologist
"Hemichordata, Ascidians and Amphioxus, Fishes." By Drs. knows more of amphioxus than Prof. Herdman. Harter, Haduan, Bridge and G. S. Boulenger. The Cambridge Natural Thus, then. this lack of emphasis of a really important History.nl vii. Pp. xvii +760. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 174) Price sto det
teature must be attributed to the fact that he had to
compress his account unduly. As a matter of fact the In regard to the Cyclostomata it is curious that no whole history has been crowded into something less mention is made of the extraordinary slime-secreting than eight and twenty pages, including illustrations! powers of the Myxinoids. True, he refers to “a row
This condensation is evident throughout each of the of mucous secreting sacs along each side of the body," chapters so far noticed, and probably accounts for the but this scarcely does justice to the case; inasmuch absence of anything in the shape of an historical as an instance is on record of a single individual review of the evolution of our knowledge of these which, placed in three or four cubic feet of water, obscure groups. Surely this is to be regretted, inas converted the whole into a jelly-like mass, which could much as this is a volume which will serve as the main be lifted out with a stick! The specific name of source of information for many generations of Myxine glutinosa has reference to the old belief that students; and it would be well to place before them the fish possessed the power of turning water into some idea of the laborious and patient work which
glue. has been spent by others in building up the knowledge Prof. Bridge solves the difficulty as to the systewhich is theirs to-day. Such a review would serve a matic position of Palæospondylus by placing them in double purpose. It would keep alive the memory of a sort of limbo designated an " appendix to the those whose names are all too soon forgotten, and it fishes.” would serve as an incentive to further work.
In this same appendix it is somewhat surprising to Probably this survey would not have been wanting, find not only the Ostracoderms, but the Arthrodira! but for the fact that some two hundred and eighty of As touching the former Prof. Bridge may claim that the seven hundred and twenty-seven pages which mak. he errs, if erring he is, in good company, since so up the book are devoted to the introduction on fishes! eminent an authority as Dr. Smith Woodward refuses This is not as it should be ; on this account serious to admit these “bones of contention " into the class
Pisces. But we object to the hesitancy displayed by Prof. Bridge; he will neither call them fishes nor allow them to rank as a separate class (Agnatha), as Dr. Woodward has done. But surely there can be no question as to the class, at least, to which the Arthrodira belong? According to the most recent views they are to be regarded as Dipnoans.
In spite of these drawbacks Prof. Bridge's contribution to this volume is a valuable one. He has brought together a vast amount of information, much of which is the result of his own researches. Where he has had to draw upon the work of others he has for the most part selected of the best. Our chief complaint is that he is so meticulously exact.
The Teleostei, from a systematic point of view, are described by Mr. E. A. Boulenger, and he has brought to bear upon this most difficult task an unrivalled knowledge, tempered with rare skill and judgment. The classification which has been generally in use in this country for the last thirty years is now replaced by one which aims at being phylogenetic-the true basis of all systematic work. Although we believe Mr. Boulenger has improved on this arrangement in some minor details since passing the final proofs of his work some three years ago, it may be accepted as practically representing his views on this subject.
As he remarks, “Out of some 12,000 well
established species of fishes known to exist at the Fig. 2.- Fierasfer acus penetrating into Holothurians; two-fifths natural
present day, about 11,500 belong to this order size. From the "Cambridge Natural History.”
(Teleostei). The classification of such an array of
forms is, of course, a matter of great difficulty, and injury has been done both to the chapters which pre- gives scope for much difference of opinion among cede it and those which follow. Much of this intro- those who have attempted to grapple with the subduction could have been dispensed with, inasmuch' ject." The basis of this classification differs from that as matters of a purely physiological import are usually employed in other groups of vertebrates, innow included, and these are outside the scope asmuch as it rests on osteological characters, in so far of this volume. Lengthy as it is, it is yet as families and higher groups are concerned. incomplete. Morphological questions that should The reader of this notice may imagine, from our have found a place here are either ignored or dis- ominous reference to dry bunes, that Mr. Boulenger's missed in a few lines. If these had taken the room contribution is of the nature of a dull and tiresome of the matter to which we object some justification catalogue. We hasten to remark, therefore, that this might have been pleaded for the condensation of the element is effectually masked by the introduction of exceedingly valuable chapters which we have just all the more important facts concerning the lifenoticed. Yet, in spite of these drawbacks, this intro-histories of the various species which have come duction will prove most valuable to those who use within the author's province. These facts form most this volume as a text-book, and there is no doubt fascinating reading, and will appeal to a large number but that it will be widely read and highly valued in of people other than professed students of zoology. the various science schools throughout the kingdom. Do fishes sleep? is a question often asked. Although
It is a pity that more figures of larval fishes were answered in the affirmative some eight and thirty not given in this introduction, designed to illustrate years ago by Mobius, the fact has remained ever since the remarkable transformations which some species practically buried in the German publication in which especially undergo from the time of hatching to it appeared. Mr. Boulenger is apparently the first to maturity.
give it circulation in a text-book. species of Wrasse
confined in an aquarium, he points out, was observed formed an efficient buffer between the hillman and by Mobius to seek a sleeping place at night, and to the inhabitants of the surrounding plain. The Santal, lay itself down to rest on one side. The psychologist in turn, gave trouble in 1856, when he broke into and the student of evolution will find in these chapters rebellion directed against the peaceful penetration of of Mr. Boulenger a perfect mine of information. No the moneylender and the landgrabber. more instructive lessons in adaptation can be gathered It is with these two aboriginal tribes that Mr. than from the descriptions and figures illustrating this Bradley-Birt chiefly deals. As men, they are perhaps part and certain sections of Prof. Bridge's work more interesting to the ethnologist and the philologist as witness the test cuts given herewith.
than to the ordinary student of human nature, but the author has succeeded in enlisting such interest as we
can spare to one tribe still in the purely agricultural ABORIGINAL INDIA.'
stage, and to another which has scarcely as yet
progressed beyond that of the hunter. M R. BRADLEY-BIRT'S book dealing with the His picture of village life on, and at the foot of, the
Santal Parganas merits the success achieved by Rajmahal hills glows with local colour and swims in his former volume on Chota Nagpore. This time, he the atmosphere of the jungle and the plain. It was lars his scene in the mountainous, forest-clad outlier scarcely necessary for him to assure his reader that of the Vindhyan range, which stands like an island most of the book was written in camp, in the midst in the midst of the great Gangetic plain. Dominating of the Paharias and the Santals. As one reads, one the great waterway which leads from the borders of seems to inhale the fresh, crisp air of an Indian cold the Punjab to the Bay of Bengal, it has for centuries weather morning, or to pant in the heavy atmosphere been the stronghold of the aboriginal tribe who of the forest as the line of Paharia hunters presses, sought refuge in it from the Arvan flood descending from the north-west on the fertile plains of Bengal. From his almost inaccessible stronghold, the Paharia looked down upon the coming and going of the Hindu, the Pathan, and the Moghul. Empires rose and fell before his very eves whilst he, hating the foreigner of every race and creed, remained wrapped in his primitive barbarism, a hunter living on the produce of the surrounding forest, not to be starved into submission, because he had no need of the produce of the plains. His only dealings with successive invaders were when he swooped on the villages below, killing and robbing their inhabitants, or cutting off travellers and the camp followers of passing armies. Veither Hindu nor Mahomedan could subdue him by main force without extravagant loss.
Fig. 1.- A Primitive Mode of Irrigation. From Bradley-Birt's “Story of an Indian Upland. Attempts to bribe the mountaineer with land around the mountain failed, for he | shouting and slaying through the dense underdid not care to cultivate, and the keeping of a bargain growth. with the hated foreigner formed no part of his moral Much that Mr. Bradley-Birt describes, or depicts in
his photographs, is not peculiar to the Santal ParIt last appeared the British, whose fair complexion ganas. The primitive mode of irrigation, with basket impressed the Paharia with an idea that they were of swung by two men, which forms the subject of the higher origin than the earlier conquerors. In illustration here reproduced, is still practised by Augustus Cleveland came a man who found a way millions who have never heard of the Santals, or been to tame the savage, to enlist his sympathy, and to within a thousand miles of their home. All over offer an outlet for his martial instincts. Some of the India the cultivator watches his crops at night from Paharias were enlisted as an irregular force, whilst a rough platform raised on a ricketty scaffolding of an endeavour was made to isolate the rest in a ring bamboos. Sometimes it happens, in regions not of neutral territory, from which the Hindu and the unlike the Rajmahal hills, that the vigil ends in a Mahomedan of the plains were to be excluded. Much tragedy, when the sleepy watcher is torn from his post of Cleveland's good work was undone by a successor by the man-eating leopard. But the inclusion of of sterner and less considerate temperament. The these incidents in no way detracts from the charm of slution of the difficulty was finally found, about 1830, the picture of simple village life, a life of agricultural when a wandering branch of the Santals, another | labour tempered by feasting and dancing in seasons aboriginal tribe, appeared upon the scene and eagerly when there is no labour to be performed. accepted the land below the hills which the Paharia, The Paharias' rude religion has drawn nothing refusing for himself, made untenable for the plains- from Hinduism or Islam. The Santal equally proman. The Santal, an enthusiastic though uncivilised fesses his separation from those creeds, but his love cultivator, recognised as a kinsman by the Paharia, 1 of pleasure has induced him to adopt some of the 1 The Story of an Indian Upland." By F. B. Bradley-Birt. Pp. xvi +
Hindu festivals, for instance the Jatra, which he 34. (London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1905) Price 125. 6d. net.
celebrates in February.
The history of British administration in this wild City of Dundee, on arriving at Karachi reported some very tract, up to the time of the Santal rebellion of 1856.
curious electrical phenomena about a hundred miles out to can scarcely be held up as a great example. As fo:
sea, repeated flashes of light being observed to pass over the patriarchal system which still prevails, Mr. Risley,
the surface of the ocean in a curious way. in an introduction which, from the pen of so great an ethnological authority, is somewhat disappointing,
| An international congress for the study of radiology and throws some doubts on its superiority to other | ionisation will be held at Liège on September 12-14 inmethods of dealing with aboriginal tribes. Perhaps, clusive. The congress will be divided into a physical in later years, Mr. Bradley-Birt's enthusiastic admira- | section and a biological section. The former will be contion of it may cool. As matters stand, his enthusiasm, cerned with the physics of electrons, radio-activity and and his evident sympathy with the simple peoples he dependent transformations, meteorological and "astrodescribes, serve to enhance the charm of his work. .
nomical phenomena and their relation to ionisation and To the Anglo-Indian this volume will recall much
radio-activity. In the biological section the subjects to be that is pleasant; to the tourist, and even to the stay
considered will include the physiological properties of at-home Englishman, it will afford a bright glimpse of native country life which is not to be found on the
various radiations and of radio-activity, and their medical beaten track.
value and application. The method of procedure in this
section will be determined upon by a special committee ------- - --- - - - --- - - -
presided over by Profs. Bouchard and d'Arsonval. The NOTES.
other members of this committee are Drs. Béclère, At the meeting of the Royal Society on May 18 the
Bergonié, Broca, Charpentier, Charrin, Danysz, and Oudin. following were elected foreign members :-Prof. L. Her
There will also be a general committee, presided over by mann, Koenigsberg; Prof. H. A. Lorentz, Leyden ; Prof.
M. Henri Becquerel, to examine, classify, and decide upon H. Moissan, Paris; and Prof. Hugo de Vries, Amsterdam.
such reports, papers, and notes as may be offered. The The annual visitation
acting president of the congress is to be Prof. H. Kuborn, of the Royal Observatory,
president of the Royal Medical Society of Belgium, and Greenwich, will take place on Saturday next, June 3.
the general secretary, to whom all communications or conThe international conference having for its object the tributions should be sent as soon as possible, is Dr. J. establishment of an international institute of agriculture Daniel, rue de la Prévoté, 1, Brussels. was opened in Rome on Sunday, May 28, in the presence Mention has already been made of the recent visit of of the King of Italy. On Monday the conference held a British physicians and surgeons to Paris, and the cordial sitting at the Accademia dei Lincei, and the Foreign and enthusiastic welcome extended to them by French men Minister, Signor Tittoni, opened the proceedings with an of science, as well as by the State and municipal authori. address
ties. Further particulars of the visit are given in the The English Arboricultural Society has been 'granted
British Medical Journal of May 20. Among the numerous permission by the King to change its name to the “ Royal
receptions arranged by the scientific and medical societies English Arboricultural Society."
and by civil bodies of every kind to do honour and give Prof. J. N. Langley, F.R.S., will give one of the
pleasure to the British visitors, no meeting was more
appreciated than that which gave the British men of general lectures at the meeting of the Association of German Naturalists and Physicians, which will open at
science the opportunity of paying homage to the memory Meran on September 24. His subject will be “ Recent
of Pasteur. On May 11 the visitors attended at the Pasteur
Institute to witness the ceremony of placing a wreath upon Researches on the Nervous System."
the tomb of Pasteur in the crypt of the institute by Dr. telegram from Portici states that Vesuvius J. Kingston Fowler, dean of the medical faculty of the has for some days been in active eruption. At 7 p.m. on University of London. Dr. Roux, the director of the InstiMay 27 the western side of the small terminal cone tute, conducted the visitors and a distinguished party of collapsed, and a large quantity of lava burst forth, which French medical men to the gates of the crypt, where Dr. in an hour's time reached the base of the great cone, at Fowler delivered in French the speech referred to in NATURE Atrio Cavallo, one kilometer distant.
of May 18 (p. 63), in which he craved permission to place We learn from the Board of Trade Journal that the a wreath on the tomb of the master, who accomplished so Gaceta de Madrid for May It contained the text of a
much for science and for humanity, and to whose labours Royal Order providing for the duty-free admission into
the institute is a fitting memorial. Dr. A. Waller, dean Spain of instruments and accessories carried by foreign
of the faculty of science of the University of London, men of science deputed to observe the eclipse of the sun
followed with an eloquent eulogy, also delivered in French. on August 30.
He laid great stress upon the value to humanity of ACCORDING to a Reuter telegram, dated New York,
Pasteur's work in the direction of the infinitely little, and May 27, the Cunard liner Campania reports that she was
spoke of Pasteur as le médicin de la médecine. Dr. in continuous communication with land, by wireless tele
Waller maintained that in a thousand years' time historians graphy, throughout her entire voyage from Liverpool. In
will not speak much of the nineteenth century as remarkmid-ocean she had simultaneous communication with
able for the invention of the locomotive and other America and Europe, a feat which had not previously been
mechanisms, but rather as the epoch in which Pasteur accomplished.
inaugurated so brilliantly the study of the infinitely small.
The earnest speeches, and the impressive scene as the A CORRESPONDENT of the Times states that in the early visitors passed before Pasteur's tomb in respectful homage part of May enormous shoals of dead fish were thrown up to their master, made the occasion a memorable one. The for a considerable distance along the sea coast by Karachi | evidence thus given of the reverence in which Pasteur's The whole beach was strewn with dead fish, lying in some memory is held should help to cement the friendly relations places five or six inches deep. The Port Trust authorities existing between France and Britain, and to foster that had to make arrangements for the removal and burial of spirit of mutual confidence-that comity of nations which these millions of fish. Captain Belton, of the steamship I already exists in the world of science.
The May number of Museum News (Brooklyn Institute) collection of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera bequeathed by contains an interesting notice of specimens in the collec- | Mr. G. A. J. Rothney. The report also alludes to the tion illustrating the now obsolete manufacture of tapa recent decisive confirmation of the existence of three discloth in Hawaii and other Polynesian islands.
tinct mimetic types of female in a South African Papilio,
and to the remarkable features presented by certain A PRELIMINARY report, by Dr. II. W. Conn, on the fresh
southern butterfly faunas, which are almost wholly of a water protozoans of Connecticut, issued as Bulletin No. 2
northern type. The editing of the Burchell manuscript, and of the Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey,
¡ the identification of the specimens in the collection of the is illustrated by no less than thirty-four beautifully executed
great traveller referred to therein, are also mentioned. plates. Hitherto the American fresh-water representatives of these lowly organisms have been but little studied, and AMONG the more important articles in the issues of the the present research is merely a prelude to a fuller account | Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy for the current of their distribution and their relation to the purity of, year, the following may be specially mentioned. To the drinking water. Descriptions of species are altogether | January issue Mr. C. W. Johnson contributes an annotated omitted in this report, and even the generic position of list of the type-specimens of Cretaceous invertebrates in the samne of the forms mentioned is left more or less undecided. collection of the academy, while Mr. H. W. Fowler gives the
second instalment of a paper on new or little-known scomIx connection with the preceding paragraph may be
broid fishes. Later on Mr. H. Crawley discusses the moveappropriately noticed Mr. D. J. Scourfield's address (de
ments of gregarines; and in the February issue Mr. H. A. livered in December last) on fresh-water biological stations,
Pilsbry describes a number of new Japanese marine molluscs. which is published in the April issue of the Journal of the
Both entomologists and morphologists will find much to Quekett Microscopical Club, since this also deals with the
interest them in an article by Dr. E. F. Phillips on the effects of organisms on the purity of water used for
structure and development of the compound eye of the domestic purposes. The gradual awakening of interest in
bee, while Mr. Crawley's preliminary notice of a new the subject of the detailed study of fresh waters and their
sporozoon (Coelosporidium blattellae) found in the crotonorganisms is sketched, and the history of the establishment
bug (Blattella germanica). and Mr. T. H. Montgomery's of stations for the purpose briefly described, special refer
contribution to our knowledge of the spermatogenesis of ence being made to the one founded by Mr. E. Gurney
certain spiders and remarks on chromosome reduction, will on Sutton Broad, Norfolk, in 1902. The lecturer concludes
appeal to specialists in such matters. with remarks about what fresh-water biological stations should be, whenever the requisite financial means are
A RECENT issue of the Jenaische Zeitschrift contains the obtainable.
report of an address delivered in June last before the
Medical and Scientific Society of Jena by Prof. E. Haeckel ANONG other monographs on American invertebrates
on the progress of biology in that city during the ninerecently received is a revision of the beetles of the family teenth century. Confining himself chiefly to morphology, Staphylinidze included in the section Pæderini. In this and dwelling specially on the various theories which have article, forming No. 2 of vol. xv. of the Transactions of the been advanced in regard to that of the vertebrate skull, St. Louis Academy, the author, Mr. T. L. Casey, points out the professor pointed out that in Jena the “ science centhat the taxonomic problem presented by these beetles is tury" may be divided into three periods. The first of these, one of great interest in reference to the comparative during which Schleiden advanced the cell-theory, extended morphology of the tribe. Genera from all parts of the to 1838; then followed an interval of twenty years, after world are included in the revision, but with the exception which, in 1859, came Darwin's epoch-making theory of of the types of new generic forms, the only species cata the evolution of species. After referring to the work of logued are those inhabiting America to the northward of Blatt on embryology and development, the lecturer Mexico.
emphasised the morphological importance of the “ vertebral Is an article on the affinities of Equisetum in the May
theory of the skull " enunciated by Goethe and Oken in number of the American Naturalist Prof. D. H. Campbell
the first third of the century, and of Huschke's labours in comes to the conclusion that these archaic plants are re
connection with the development of the skull and the
sense organs in the second third. A whole paragraph is lated to lerns rather than to lycopods, and that both ferns and equisetums are probably divergent branches from
devoted to Goethe's discovery of the premaxilla in man. a
Oscar Schmidt, Johannes Müller, Carl Gegenbaur, and the common ancestral stock. In the same issue Mr. D. D. Jackson discusses the movements of diatoms, many of
other great names associated for longer or shorter periods which appear to be due to the evolution of oxygen gas
with Jena and its teaching, receive in turn their share of produced by the activity of the chlorophyll in these
praise in this admirable historical address. organisms. Attention may likewise be directed to Mr. MM. CALMETTE AND BRETON have repeated the experiA. H. Clark's paper on the habits of the important West | ments of Loos and others on the transference of infection Indian food-fish known locally as “ whitebait" or "tri-| in ankylostomiasis through the skin. They find that the tri" (Sicydium plumieri).
larvæ of both the human and the canine Ankylostoma Is the report of the delegates of the University Museum
pass with the greatest facility through the skin of the for 1904. published on May 16 as a supplement to the
dog, causing infection of the animal (Acad. de Méd., Paris Oxford University Gasette, special attention is directed by
March 24). the Hope professor of zoology (Prof. Poulton) to the in- ! The Bulletin of the College of Agriculture of the Imperial crease in the insect collection and the work that has been University, Tokyo (vol. vi., No. 4), contains several papers accomplished, or is in progress, in connection with the of interest on the value and use of artificial manures for insect collection, which is rapidly becoming one of the various crops, and others on the flowering of the bamboo, finest in the world. The most recent addition is the collec on oxidases, on the determination of fusel oil, on a bacillus tion of 7000 British Microlepidoptera presented by Mrs. observed in flacherie, &c. With regard to flacherie (a Bazett, of Reading, another splendid acquisition being the destructive disease affecting silkworms), the conclusion is