Page images


PETERHEAD BURGH SCHOOL An Examination will be held by the Civil Service Commissioners on

BOARD. August 29, 1905. for the selection of not less than nine candidates for

WANTED, ÁS RECTOR for PETERHEAD ACADEMY (Higher appointment as PROBATIONERS for the Indian Forest Service. Age limits :

Grade School), a Graduate in Arts, with Teaching and Organising experi18 to 21 years, on January 1, 1905.

ence : Science qualifications a recommendation. Minimum salary, £300. Subjects of examination :-Mechanics and Physics, Chemistry, Zoology,

The Rector is also organising Headmaster of the Evening Classes at an and Botany.

additional remuneration of Ten Guineas. To commence duty about Sep Applications for admission to the examination must be made on a printed

tember 1 next. Applications, with nine copies of testimonials, to be lodged form to be obtained (with further particulars as to the appointments, &c.) from the SECRETARY, Judicial and Public Department, India Office, White

on or before 23rd instant with

THOMAS MACKIE, , London, S.W., and to be returned to him not later than Saturday,

School Board Offices,

Clerk to the School Board. July 1, 1905.

Peter head, June 5, 1905. No applications received after that date will be considered.

A. GODLEY, Under Secretary of State. India Office, London,

THE VICTORIA May 11, 1905.


Applications are invited for the post of JUNIOR ASSISTANT

LECTURER in MATHEMATICS. Some acquaintance with ExperiDEPARTMENT.

mental Mechanics, and with the practical teaching of Mathematics

generally, is desired. The appointment will be made for a term of three Selection will be made on or before July 15 next for a vacancy in the years at a salary of £150 per annum. Applications should be sent to the grade of ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT. Candidates should REGISTRAR not later than June 24. address the UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA, India Office, London, S.W., from whom particulars can be obtained regarding qualifi

BOROUGH OF LANCASTER cations and other conditions of appointment.

Preliminary notice is also given that in 1906 there will be at least one MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL. more vacancy, for which applications should be made in July, 1906. India Office, London,


WANTED, a SCIENCE TEACHER. Principal subjects, Electro

Technics, Electricity. Salary, 160 to 200. Form n of application, AGRICULTURE AND LANDSDEPART. | PRINCIPAL, Storey Institute, Lancaster.

MENT, SUDAN GOVERNMENT. Applications are invited for two vacancies as DEPUTY INSPECTORS

THE UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL. in the Agriculture and Lands Department of the Sudan Government. The Council invite applications for the vacant CHAIR of ENGINEER. Candidates must be from about 22 to 30 years of age and unmarried. They ING. The income of the Chair consists of a fixed stipend and share of must possess the National Diploma, a University Degree or College Dip

fees, and is guaranteed at not less than 6900 per annum for five years. loma, in Agriculture. Preference will be given to those who possess a Applications, with references and, if the candidate desires, testimonials, thorough knowledge of Agriculture from the practical standpoint.

are requested not later than June 21. Further particulars on application The commencing salary will be 6420 per annum (about £430 sterling). to the REGISTRAR. The successful candidates will be required to take up their duties as soon as possible. Applications, accompanied by copies of testimonials, birth certificate and

COUNTY BOROUGH OF HUDDERSmedical certificate, must be sent on or before June 30 to G. P. FOADEN, FIELD TECHNICAL COLLEGE. Esq., Laburnums, Ashburton, Devon, from whom further particulars may be obtained.


A JUNIOR ASSISTANT who can help in the teaching of elementary

classes is required in the PHYSICS Department. Some knowledge of SOCIETY, CAIRO, EGYPT.

Electrical Engineering essential. Salary, 150 per annum. For further

particulars apply to Applications are invited for two vacancies as INSPECTORS under the

THOS. THORP, Secretary. Khedivial Agricultural Society, Cairo. Candidates must be from about 22 to 30 years of age and unmarried. They must possess a University Degree INDIA.-Two Masters wanted in August for or Diploma in Agriculture. Preference will be given to those who possess a thorough knowledge of agriculture from the practical standpoint. The Church School at favourite Hill Station, (1) for Mathematics, (2) for commencing salary will be £350 per annum. The successful candidates

Science. Must be Graduates and Communicants. Salaries, Rs. 300 will be required to take up their duties as soon as possible after September 1

month; resident. Organist could earn Rs. 60 extra. Free passage. next.

Testimonials and statement of age, &c., must accompany enquiries.Applications, accompanied by copies of testimonials, birtb certificate and Address Professor Lewis, Cambridge. medical certificate, must be sent on or before June 30 to G. P. FOADEN, Esq., Laburnums, Ashburton, Devon, from whom further particulars may Metallurgical Laboratory, well equipped for be obtained.

experimental work, to let at low rent. One minute from Station.

Fifteen minutes to City. Apply MARSHALL & Co., Campbell Works, NORTHERN POLYTECHNIC

Stoke Newington, N. (close to Station, G.E.R.). Tel., 79 Dalston. INSTITUTE,

18-inch Apps-Newton Coil for sale, in perfect HOLLOWAY, LONDON, N.

condition. No trace of oxidation on the vulcanite. G. BOWRON, REG. S. CLAY, D.Sc., Principal.

57 Edgware Road, W. The Governors of the above Institute invite applications for the following appointments to date from September 1, 1905

PHOTOMICROGRAPHY for Publishers, (1) CHIEF ASSISTANT in the Mechanical Engineering Department. Drawing office and shop experience essential. Salary, £150 per annum.

Lecturers, Manufacturers, and general scientific research. Good work, (2) CHIEF ASSISTANT in the Architectural and Building Trades

moderate charges.-SAXBY, 80 Ampthill Road, Aigburth, Liverpool. Department. Salary, 6125 per annum.

Applications to be made on special forms, which must be returned not For Sale, the last 20 volumes of “ Nature, later than June 19, to be obtained from

14 vols. uniformly bound in cloth.-J. CHILWELL, Wednesbury. W. M. MACBETH, Secretary.


MINERALS, &c., for Microscopic Examination.-19 Abbotstone WALES AND MONMOUTHSHIRE, Road, Putney, S.W.

The Council of the College invites applications for the Post of

Further particulars may be obtained from the undersigned, to whom
applications with testimonials (which need not be printed) must be sent on
or before Tuesday, July 4, 1905.
3. AUSTIN JENKINS, B.A., Registrar.

of Natural History Subjects, from 6/- per doz. June 6, 1905.

Write for Catalogues to the ACTUAL MAKERS


48 DEANSGATE, MANCHESTER. The Council invite applications for the post of LECTURER in

LABORATORIES : CHUROM ROAD, LONGSIQHT, M/C. BOTANY. Salary, £120 per annum. Applications and three copies of Microscopical Slides showing Karyokinesis in Pinus, 1/three recent testimonials to be sent in by June 16 to the undersigned, from

Hundreds of Marine Zoology Slides from 9d. each. whom further particulars may be obtained.

Textile Fibres and Paper Making Materials, 1/- each.







The axis, carrying the divided circle and observing-telescope, is carefully ground into the exceedingly durable cast-iron stand ; the collimator is firmly connected with the stand, while the divided circle and observing-telescope can be turnert about their axes

No. 63. independently as well as together; both have clamps and micrometer motion ; goniometrical determinations may also be done after Wollaston's method, and, when a Gauss's eye-piece is used, according to Gau-s's method. These spectrometers are especially for universal use, as there is plenty of space between the telescopes, and supplied with circle divided into t°, reading to 1 minute by means of verniers ; cullia ator and observing telescope have a diameter of lin. and a focal length of 7 in. ; with one eye-piece, magnifying four times ; adjustable slit with micrometer-screw and comparison-prism.

£13 : 15 : O net.

PETER HEELE, 115 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C. Maker of Physical, Chemical and other Instruments, and every kind of Spectroscope

and Polarimeter. Grand Prir, Paris, 1900; St. Louis, 1904; and other high arcards.

Telegrams: Arctitude, London.





Made to take any size Plate.
• Price COMPLETE, £6 10s.

Special Illustrated List Post Free.
ACTUAL MAKERS of X-Ray. &c., Apparatus to the Admiralty.

War Office, Colonial Office, Indian Government, &c.,

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE (including Instructions to Beginners) Post Free.



[blocks in formation]





[ocr errors][ocr errors]


JUST READY. In Medium 8vo. Handsome Cloth.

And the Intermediate Products from which they

are Derived

PART I. Theoretical.

Part III. Analytical.
Part II. Practical.

In Large 8vo. Handsome Cloth. 165. net.

A Dictionary of

Used in Dyeing and Calico Printing. By CHRISTOPHER RAWSON, F.I.C., F.C.S., WALTER M.

GARDINER, F.C.S., and W. F. LAYCOCK, Ph.D., F.C.S.

"Turn to the book as one may on any subject, or any substance in connection with the trade, and a reference is sure to be found. The authors have apparently left nothing out."- Textile Mercury.

In Large 8vo. Handsome Cloth. Fully Illustrated. 98. net. THE TEXTILE FIBRES OF COMMERCE. A Hand-book of the Occurrence, Distribution, and Industrial Uses of the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral Products used in Spinning and


By WILLIAM I. HANNAN, Lecturer at the Ashton Municipal Technical School, Chorley Science

and Art School, &c. “Useful information. ... Admirable illustrations."

- Textile Recorder. Large 8vo. Profusely Illustrated with Plates and Figures in the Text.


VEGETABLE FIBRES (Flax, Hemp, Jute, Tow, and Ramie). A Practical Manual of the most Modern Methods as applied to the Hackling, Carding, Preparing, Spinning, and Twisting of the Long

Vegetable Fibres of Commerce. By HERBERT R. CARTER, Belfast and Lille. “We must highly commend the work as representing up-to-date practice." -Nature. LONDON: 12 EXETER STREET, STRAND, W.C.

Registered Design No. 420,297. As will be seen by the illustration, this Barometer is built on original lines.

By the absence of the ordinary tubular enclosures (in the usual form of instrument) the mercurial column is FULLY EXPOSED to view, NO SHADOWS are thrown upon the column, and therefore an extremely accurate and instantaneous reading is made possible. The scales being graduated upon the flat side peces the DIVISIONS AND FIGURES ARE ALWAYS IN VIEW, and the vernier is very much more legible than in the ordinary tubular patterns.

The bore of the tube is 0.5 inch.

The scales are graduated in inches and millimetres, and, by means of the verniers, are capable of being sub-divided to read 10 0·002 inches and 0:1 m/m.

The attached Thermometer on the body of the instru. ment is graduated in Fahrenheit and Centigrade scales.

It is the BOLDEST Standard Barometer made.

The PRICE IS LOWER than that of any other form) of Standard Barometer of the same dimensions.

It yields readings equally close as the highest priced instruments.

Price complete, mounted on handsome Polished Solid Mahogany Board. with Brackets for Suspension, and Opal Glass Reflectors,

27 10s. Od.


[blocks in formation]


Write for Circular.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]



Tank to take 6 plates 15" X 12", and with Adapters to suit

any smaller plate; complete, £1 : 10 : 0 This arrangement is specially recommended to Radiographers and other

Scientific Photographers. Tank to hold 1 doz. $ plates only ... ... ... 4/6 each. Tank to hold 1 doz, 5" x 4" plates only ... ... 5/- ,, Tank to hold 1 doz. plates only ... ... ... 6/

Postage on any of above three sizes, 4d. extra.

Verified and Stamped







convention) will puzzle many a student. Prof. Joly soon gives the reason for the negative sign, though

not quite so definitely as might be desirable; but it is A MANUAL OF QUATERNIONS.

questionable if its full significance will be appreciated

until considerable progress has been made in acquiring A Manual of Quaternions. By Prof. Charles Jasper

quaternionic skill. The reader is advised to exercise Joly. F.R.S. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., a strong faith, and to proceed nothing fearing. If he 1905-) Pp. xxvii + 320. Price ios, net.

persevere he will soon get out of the valley of the DROF. C. J. JOLY'S “ Manual of Quaternions" is shadow of the negative sign.

an important addition to the literature of the sub- It is possible that some critic may regard this forject. It at once takes rank with Tait's “ Treatise "assaking of Hamilton's logical basis as a confession of an eminently serviceable exposition of Hamilton's weakness. But this is not so. The weakness is in the great calculus.

average student, for whom a somewhat simple intelHamilton's own works, the “ Lectures" and the

lectual diet must be prepared in the hope that the * Elements," are in their way inimitable. Unfortu- mental digestion may be strengthened sufficiently to nately, their style is not suited to the average student assimilate the strong Hamiltonian food which Prof. eager to acquire a working knowledge of the mathe Joly serves up a little later. The truth is that very few matical method developed in them. Tait alone of the students are able to appreciate to the full an absolutely younger contemporaries of Hamilton seemed to have logical argument until they have a certain amount of been able to appreciate the “ Lectures "; but he him- practical knowledge imparted to them more or less by self used to relate how, as he laboriously read through authority. the first six, he began to despair of his own powers. So far as the principle of the method is concerned, There seemed to be such diffuse discussion, and withal Prof. Joly ranges himself at first on the side of those so little apparent progress. But the seventh lecture vector analysts who neglect the quaternion. But it came like a transformation scene. Every page dis- is only for a couple of pages at the beginning of played new beauties, every paragraph disclosed the chapter ii. On p. 8 the important formula marvellous power and variety of the method. From it Tait drew his inspiration, and proceeded to enlighten

(= Saß + Vab) the world as to the meaning and purpose of the is introduced as a definition of the quaternion, and the quaternion.

quaternion is never afterwards lost sight of. Its To the student who has grasped the essentials of fundamental importance and analytic value are in the method Hamilton's second volume, the “ Ele- evidence on every page. It must be admitted that by ments," will always prove a happy hunting ground; this line of approach the reader is rapidly brought but experience has shown that its very completeness into touch with the essential elements of the subject. acts as a deterrent. In the much smaller treatise There is, nevertheless, a certain arbitrariness which written by Tait, the important practical aspects of is not satisfying to the mind, nor is it clear when quaternions are more rapidly though less logically de- | all is done what is really fundamental. A critically veloped, and the chief value of Tait's work lies in his minded student might possibly be inclined to say, Why characteristic treatment of dynamical and physical not define Saß as plus the product of the lengths of the problems. It has been long felt, however, that a good vectors into the cosine of the angle between them, and working manual of quaternions was needed, by use then define the quaternion aß by the formula Vaß– Saß? of which the mathematical student could come quickly | At first sight it seems to amount to the same thing, and into touch with all that is essential in the calculus. yet, as will be found on trial, it leads to a system This is what Prof. Joly has endeavoured to supply. clothed in quaternion garments, but more like the

For reasons clearly explained in the preface, the fabulous ass in the lion's skin than the real lion. author has (reluctantly, he confesses) forsaken the Having thus established in chapter ii. the fundaHamiltonian approach. Instead of developing the cal- mental properties of the quaternion, Prof. Joly rapidly culus logically from the definition of a quaternion as runs over certain important transformations of vector the ratio of two vectors, he defines independently the products and ratios (chapters iii. and iv.), and simple quantities Saß and Vaß, and then writes the product applications to the geometry of the straight line, plane aß as equal to the sum of these two. The student and circle (chapters v. and vi.). Then follow, treated must, of course, take on trust that there is some good in separate chapters, differentiation, linear vector reason for defining Saß as minus the product of the functions, quadric surfaces, and the geometry of curves length of one vector into the length of the projection and surfaces. Here the power of the calculus asserts of the other upon it. This is, at root, the peculiarity itself strongly. Numerous examples are supplied of Hamilton's system which troubled O'Brien nearly throughout for the student to work upon and develop sixty years ago, and has not ceased to trouble occasional | his analytical skill. In subsequent chapters dynamical critics since. There is a kind of notion hovering about problems of various kinds are taken up-such as asin some minds that the positive sign in algebra is more | tatic equilibrium, screws and wrenches, strains, central natural than the negative sign, the truth being, of forces, constrained motion, motion of a rigid body, and course, that the one necessarily implies the other. It the like. A valuable and well arranged chapter on the is to be feared, however, that this apparently arbitrary operator o treats of heterogeneous strain, spherical assumption of the negative sign in translating Saß into harmonics, hydrodynamics, elasticity, electromagordinary trigonometrical notation (Clifford calls it a netic theory, and wave propagation generally. The treatment is by no means superficial, and is in many modes of treatment come and go, most of them being places highly condensed. It is all done in forty-two of little worth. But the medical practitioner is expages, a remarkable testimony to the compactness of pected to know of all these medicinal substances and quaternion notation and the brevity of quaternion vagaries of treatment, and must be prepared to employ proofs. In chapter xvii., on projective geometry, | any one of them at the suggestion of some faddist Prof. Joly gives his own interesting extension, in which who happens to consult him. From this point of view a new interpretation is assigned to the quaternion, and the first book on our list may be a useful guide, but he concludes in chapter xviii. with quaternions otherwise one would be inclined to ask, cui bono? generalised so as to be applicable to space of any Some of the substances included in the volume are number of dimensions.

by no means new, e.g. thyroid, guaiacol, and the antiThere can be no question as to the high merits of toxic sera, while others which have a greater claim the “ Manual of Quaternions.” It is a worthy com to novelty, and are, moreover, of real value, such as panion volume to the master's own great works. Like aspirin, acetozone, urotropine and cystamine, and the “ Elements" of Hamilton and the “ Elementary | purgen, are omitted. In dealing with tetanus antiTreatise ” of Tait, it is characterised by the extra- toxin, no mention is made of injection into the spinal ordinary range of mathematical subjects which comel cord or nerve trunks. As regards phosphorised prinwithin its scope. It is not merely the substitution of ciples, lecithin, glycerophosphates, &c., which have one symbol for three or one for four which makes this of late been extolled in wasting diseases and nervous condensation possible, for that, after all, is a question affections, the administration of a couple of eggs a simply of notation. But the quaternion calculus re day would probably be of far greater benefit than any joices in the possession of two remarkable operators, of the medicinal preparations of these substances. the linear vector function and the vector differen- (2) Messrs. Battle and Corner give a succinct tiator V. They operate singly and in combination account of the anatomy, pathology, symptoms, and according to laws which naturally evolve them- treatment of that common and fashionable malady selves from the fundamental laws of the calculus.appendicitis which may be safely recommended as a They can be linked together in an endless variety of guide for the medical practitioner. The origin and ways, and go far to give to Hamilton's quaternions a function of the vermiform appendix are discussed. flexibility, power, and pictorial compactness not that little blind tubular appendage of the bowel inpossessed by any other general method which is flammation of which gives rise to so much trouble. directly applicable to problems of mathematics pure The appendix has usually been regarded as a vestigial and applied. These features are exquisitely brought

structure and useless in function, but the researches out in Prof. Joly's “ Manual.”

C. G. K.

of Mr. R. Y. A. Berry, of Edinburgh, suggest that it is a specialised mass of lymphoid tissue which the

authors conceive may serve as a defensive mechanism SOME MEDICAL WORKS.

against bacterial invasion in a portion of the bowel (1) New Methods of Treatment. By Dr. Laumonier. where, for anatomical and other reasons, there is a

Translated from the second revised and enlarged delay in the passage of the intestinal contents on-
French edition, and edited by Dr. H. W. Syers. wards, and special protection is therefore required
Pp. xvii + 321. (London : Constable and Co., Ltd., against the absorption of bacterial products.
1904.) Price 75. 6d. net.

(3) This work is based on material collected in com(2) The Surgery of the Diseases of the Appendixpilation of the Erasmus Wilson lectures, 1904. The

Vermiformis and their Complications. By W. H. | author states that the main object of his lectures was Battle and E. M. Corner. Pp. xi+208. (London : to direct attention to the identity of the pathological

Constable and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 75. 6d. net. I changes concerned in the production of all acute per(3) Clinical and Pathological Observations on Acute forative and gangrenous processes of the alimentary

Abdominal Diseases. (The Erasmus Wilson Lec- tract. He suggests that two extremes of tissue death tures, 1904.) By E. M. Corner. Pp. 98. (London : or necrosis may be recognised, viz. that due to de

Constable and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 3s. 6d. net. I privation of blood and that caused by the action of (4) A Short Treatise on Anti-Typhoid Inoculation. micro-organisms. Between these two there are

By Dr. A. E. Wright. Pp. x+76. (London : Con- various grades and admixtures; the former is slow in

stable and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 3s. 6d. net. | action, the latter very rapid, and it is this which plays (5) The Suppression of Tuberculosis. By Prof. E. so important a part in abdominal necrosis. The work

von Behring. Authorised translation by Dr. Charles is practically a collection of notes, but is interesting Bolduan. Pp. v+85. (New York : John Wiley reading. and Sons; London : Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1904.) (4) Prof. Wright has done well to collect into a Price 4s. 6d. net

single volume the various papers, with amplifications. (1) L VERY year' a multitude of substances, chiefly he has from time to time contributed to various

L synthetic, is introduced, every one being journals on the subject of anti-typhoid vaccination. extolled as a certain cure for this or that ailment. The method of preparation of the vaccine, theoretical By good fortune one of them is now and then found and practical considerations as to its use, and statistics to be of real value, and for a time at least finds a of its value are all considered. With regard to the place in the “ aramentaria medica," but the majority | last named, it must be mentioned that some conin a year or two pass into oblivion. Similarly new troversy has taken place in the medical Press as to

« PreviousContinue »