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the validity of Prof. Wright's conclusions from the a work of immense originality, and free indeed from tatistical evidence.

the prejudices of his day. (3) This little book should be in the hands of every In 1788 von Hoff entered the University of Jena, in hygienist, and, since it deals largely with bovine his native region of Thüringia, and proceeded after tuberculosis, of every scientific stock owner. Behring two years to Göttingen. Here he found inspiration is one of those who not only disbelieves the dictum in the character and friendly help of Blumenbach; of Koch of the essential distinction between human but his professional work lay in diplomacy, and in and bovine tuberculosis, but goes to the other ex- | 1791 he was appointed Secretary of Legation under treme, and asserts that “the milk fed to infants is the his own Government of Gotha, where his father was. chief cause of consumption," and he would insist on already a Privy Councillor. As in France, the scienthe pasteurisation of all milk. He asserts that pul- tific renaissance was accompanied by national movemonary tuberculosis (phthisis or consumption of the ments that might well have extinguished private calm lungs) is not an infection from inhaled tubercle and study. Von Hoff was one of the delegates who, bacilli. Besides pasteurisation, Behring also recom- in 1806, pursued Napoleon's court from Berlin to mends the use of formalin as a preservative of milk, | Posen, and who secured the entry of Gotha into the a procedure which will probably not commend itself saving grace of the Confederation of the Rhine. True to the authorities here, though there is a good deal to the interests of his State, he bore greetings to to be said in its favour. Finally, he describes a Jerome of Westphalia two years later, and helped to method of vaccinating cattle against the tubercle steer Gotha again into safe waters, this time under a bacillus by the aid of which he hopes eventually to German ægis, when Leipzig had seen the downfall stamp out bovine tuberculosis, and as a consequence of his alien suzerain. Yet, amid all the excitement human tuberculosis, a consummation devoutly to be of the times, when princes scampered rabbit-like from hoped for.

R. T. H. hole to hole, von Hoff founded a geological journal

in 1801, met Werner in Gotha, and was struck by his THE PIONEERS OF GEOLOGICAL THOUGHT.

mental limitations, spoke and corresponded heartily

with Goethe, and explored the Thüringian Forest in a Karl Erst Adolf von Hofi, der Bahnbrecher moderner number of geological excursions. In the sanguinary Geologie. By Dr. Otto Reich. Pp. xvi + 144. year of 1806 he encountered Humboldt in Berlin, and (Leipzig : Veit and Co., 1905.) Price 4 marks the diplomat of Gotha was describing his native woodTHIS clearly written work, undertaken with a just lands when the echoes of Friedland spread dismay

enthusiasm, is a welcome and permanent con through Germany. tribution to the biography of scientific men. Von In 1822 the first volume of his famous “ Geschichte Hoff's position as an original thinker is at least equal der durch Überlieferung nachgewiesenen natürlichen to that of Lyell, though both writers, of course, found Veränderungen der Erdoberfläche " appeared from notable Bahnbrecher before them, in Hutton, Des- / the house of Justus Perthes in Gotha; and Dr. Reich marest, and others. Karl von Zittel, in his does well to press the claims of this work as the "Geschichte der Geologie,” held the balance very | foremost and most rational attempt to free geologists. wisely between von Hoff and Lyell when he wrote, from their popular catastrophic school. Dr. Reich ** The third volume (of von Hoff's “Geschichte der ... (p. 107) quotes from Blumenbach to show that natürlichen Veränderungen der Erdoberfläche ") is Hutton's views had spread to Germany in 1790, and clearly influenced by Charles Lyell's first volume of that Voigt of Jena had already prepared the way by the Principles of Geology,' which had appeared

prior and independent conceptions of his own. Von in the meantime. Von Hoff unreservedly adopts the point of view of the great British investigator; yet

Hoff surpassed Hutton in urging the power of existLvell's views corresponded on the whole with what

ing causes working through long periods of time. von Hoff had put forward ten years before as the

| This position had been reached by him as early as. result of his historical researches. The fact that von 1801 (p. 111), and his biographer is inclined on this Hoff's meritorious work was not properly valued, account to accuse Lyell of overshadowing wilfully his and was put in the shade by Lyell's epoch-making predecessor. It is idle, however, to quote from the book, which appeared almost simultaneously, is

edition of the “ Principles of Geology” issued in 1872 rasily explained by the circumstance that the modest German man of science derived his material

(p 131), in which numerous alterations and additions mainly from books, that his position did not allow

had led to much excision. Instead of the solitary him to examine in the field the questions which quotation from von Hoff referred to by Dr. Reich in he discussed, and that he enriched science by no new support of his contention, we find five references in facts; he faced his problem as a historian, and not the first edition of vol. i. (1830), and two more in As an observer.'

the second edition of vol. ii. (1833). Five references, Let us frankly admit, on the British side, that moreover, to von Hoff remain in the eighth edition of Isoll was not among the great original observers, and the “ Principles," issued in one volume in 1850. Since that his eminence rests on his brilliant perception of Lyell in his first edition devoted nine pages to the the meaning of correlated facts; yet his energy of views of Hutton, out of the seventy given to the mowement and his frequent travels gave him an im- history of geology, he can hardly be said, as Dr. mens advantage over his contemporary. Dr. Reich Reich would have us believe, to have shown ingrati. who us how von Hoff was occupied in many other tude to Hutton also. affairs while preparing himself for his “Geschichte," In 1826, in a memorial notice of Blumenbach, von

Hoff proved how far he was prepared to go in accept- tant guide to the safety of the workings placed under ing organic changes as the result of changes of the their charge. earth's surface. Side by side with a progressive de- ! Since November, 1891, a special department has been velopment of the surface-features, he saw the necessity organised at the Ronchamp collieries for the purpose of for a transformation in the nature of the organic determining the proportion of fire-damp in the work. world. The quotation given on p. 134 may not imply ings. The Le Chatelier combustion apparatus is emso much as Dr. Reich reads into it; but we are ployed, and an assistant makes two hundred detergrateful to him for setting before us the absolute minations a day. mental pre-eminence of von Hoff in the world of In the third section the methods of determining Continental geologists of his day, and the fact that, oxygen, carbonic anhydride, nitrogen, and fire damp from one cause or another, no conception of his great described by Dr. Haldane well fulfil the practical reness and originality can be gained from the historical quirements of being very accurate and rapid. His résumé of Lyell, with which all English readers are method of obtaining and transporting samples of mine familiar.

G. A. J. C. air in two-ounce stoppered bottles is trustworthy and

much more convenient than Poussigue's method of

using a 1-litre bottle, or Winkler's method of using MINE AIR.

a 10-litre sheet-zinc vessel recommended by Brunck. The Investigation of Mine Air. By Sir C. Le Neve

One cannot help thinking that in the latter case proFoster. F.R.S., and Dr. I. S. Haldane. F.R.S. | longed storage in a zinc vessel would have an effect Pp. xii + 191; illustrated. (London : Charles Griffin on the composition of the gas. In Dr. Haldane's dry and Co., Ltd., 1905.) Price 6s. net.

bottles no sensible alteration of the contained sample

occurs within a fortnight or more. His method of CINCE the Hon. Robert Boyle published in 1671

gas analysis is similar to that originally described by his essays on “ The Temperature of the Subter

him in the Journal of Physiology in 1898; and he now raneall Regions” and on “ The Strange Subtilty of EMuviums," and Athanasius Kirscher devoted a chap

describes for the first time a portable apparatus, en

closed in a wooden case measuring 7 by 12 by 2 inches ter of his “Mundus Subterraneus " (1678) to the occur

and weighing 5;lb., by means of which accurate derence of inflammable gas in the Herrengrund copper

terminations may be made, on the spot underground, of mines, there has been a constant succession of memoirs

various impurities in the air. He also describes a condealing with the gases met with in mines. The latest

venient method of determining the quantity of stoneaddition to the series, by making accessible the results

dust in the air of working places in metalliferous of German, French, and British investigations, should

mines. The disastrous effects produced by the habitual do much to add to the knowledge of the composition

inhalation of air containing stone-dust are now gener. of mine gases and of their influence on human life. A

ally recognised. The air of an “end” or “rise" just large portion of the work was left in manuscript by Sir

after blasting contains large quantities of dust, and the Clement Le Neve Foster at the time of his death, and

men ought not to return until there is less than 1 millisuch revision as was necessary has been undertaken by

gram in 10 litres of air. The average air of a Dr. J. S. Haldane, who has added a section of great

"stope " where men are working should not yield any value, embodying a description of rapid methods of

weighable dust in that quantity of air. analysis that he himself has devised and an essay on

| Obviously a complete analysis of mine air is useless the interpretation of mine-air analyses in the light of

unless the significance of the results is understood. recent investigations.

The chapter on the interpretation of mine-air analyses The book is of a composite nature. The first section is consequently of far-reaching importance. Dr. Halis a translation of the introductory treatise on mine-air dane advocates the use of the convenient term “ black analysis by Prof. O. Brunck, of the Freiberg School of damp " for the nitrogen and carbonic anhydride. It Mines. The second section is a translation of a paper is the gaseous residue resulting from the slow oxidising by Mr. Léon Poussigue on the measurement of air action of air on oxidisable substances in a mine. It is currents and fire damp at the fiery Ronchamp collieries, very commonly confused with carbonic anhydride, but the deepest mines in France. The third and longest it really consists chiefly of nitrogen. Black-damp, part contains a summary of Dr. Haldane's work on the which was nothing but pure nitrogen, was described by examination of mine air. As an appendix is added a Mr. H. A. Lee (Proc, Colorado Scientific Society, vol. detailed account, from Sir Clement Le Neve Foster's | vii., p. 163, 1904) as occurring in a metalliferous mine reports to the Home Secretary, of the effects of in Colorado. A useful section on the effects of air imcarbonic oxide in connection with the Snaefell mine purities on men concludes part iii. Much of the infordisaster in the Isle of Man in 1897. Sir Clement's mation in this part has already been published by Dr. exposure to carbonic oxide during the recovery of the Haldane in Home Office reports and in papers read bodies of the miners killed was the starting-point of before the Institution of Mining Engineers; but an the illness that ultimately proved fatal.

authoritative summary of the results arrived at is a The methods of analysis for mine gases described by welcome addition to technical literature. Prof. Brunck are simple, and in no respect less accu- The book, which was originally intended for Le Neve rate than the most delicate methods of exact gas | Foster's students at the Royal School of Mines, should analysis. The fulness of the instructions and the sim- prove invaluable, not only to mining engineers at colplicity of the methods should induce mining engineers lieries, but also to those engaged in metalliferous mines. to practise gas analysis and to regard it as an impor

B. H. B.


by again shortly after, and lo! and behold! they An Indian Garden. By Mrs. Henry Cooper Eggar. | 20 minutes after the long petals had entirely curled

were open, quite wide open, too. In my next turn, Pp. vii + 181; illustrated. (London : John Murray,

themselves backwards like rams' horns. One could 1904.) Price 7s. 6d. net.

see them all a-quiver with the intensity of the moveAN unpretentious little book, written in an easy

ment still. In one hour the points of those petals vein, printed on very light paper and in the must have described an arc of 8 or 9 inches or best of type, “ An Indian Garden ” might well be more! " suited to while away pleasantly an idle hour. There There is a dainty coloured frontispiece representing is so much freshness about the book, so much a branch of an Antigonon (evidently A, leptopus) enthusiasm for the author's garden, such a lovable though it is difficult to see why a representative of an unconsciousness of the inward triviality of the hun-exclusively American genus should usher in " An dred and one little incidents, servant, cobra, and dog Indian Garden”_and eighteen illustrations, photostories and harmless gossip woven into this tale of graphic prints, some of them veritable gems for their

teur gardening, that one would fain make the general beauty and exquisite clearness. personal acquaintance of the writer. As we read on,

OTTO STAPF. our interest centres more and more in the healthy, vigorous, and amiable personality that sways this old Indian Garden of 52 acres, whilst the garden

OUR BOOK SHELF. itself, with its old trees, its amaryllis and caladium

| Animals I Have Known. By A. H. Beavan. Pp. beds, its fernery, its obstreperous lawn of “ Dooba ” |

304; illustrated. (London : T. Fisher Unwin, 1905.) grass (Cynodon Dactylon), and its general propensity | Price 5s. to run back to jungle, becomes so much background. Ile

| If

the present rate
the present rate of issue be much

longer in those circumstances one forgets to look out for maintained, popular books on mammals (or any systematic information on the conditions of “ animals," as they are still called by the man in gardening in India. nor is there any room for criti. | the street) will soon begin to rival in number those cising seriously the author's botany. One does not

| devoted to birds. In the volume before us the author,

without having anything specially new to com. stop, for instance, to ponder over the curious “ almond

4 municate, discourses pleasantly enough on the tree" (p. 43) with the convolute embryo, or mind mammals (both wild and domesticated) of our own that the lycopodium (p. 50) “ that turns a beautiful islands, as well as on those of two other countries, electric blue in the shade" is in reality a Selaginella namely, Australia and South America, with which he (S. tincinata), or that the deodars (p. 141) which ripen

is personally "familiar. His anecdotes and descrip

tions are emphasised by the numerous reproductions their berries in July are evidently the debdars (Poly

from photographs with which the work is illustrated. althia longifolia) mentioned repeatedly in the earlier

Most of these are first rate, the one of the thylacine, pages. It must all be beautiful, and one longs to or Tasmanian wolf, showing to perfection that see it.

gradual merging of the tail in the body to which the We are not told where the garden is. Its where author specially alludes, and which so markedly disabouts, like other things in the book, are hidden

tinguishes many of the lower mammals from their

more specialised relatives. under a delightful incognito. It is just a few feet

Unfortunately, the text is marred by a number of above the sea in a vast plain“ with never a rise, more or less inexcusable blunders and errors, which sufficient to be called a hill anywhere near for 100 cannot but deceive the class of readers for whom the miles." It may be, and very likely it is, in Bengal,

book is intended. On the very first page we are told, as the locality from which the preface is dated and

for instance, that there lived in Britain during the

mammoth period “ tapir-like three-hoofed creatures other indications suggest; but that, again, matters

with long snouts.” This can evidently be nothing very little. It is in keeping with the light, playful else than the Oligocene palæotherium, an animal to humour which pervades the whole book. Still, it which reference is again made on p. 279, where would be unfair to pass over the fact that there are the author observes that he has momentarily forpassages in it which for keenness of observation, gotten its name—a nice admission to make in print!

A similar “ muddle" in regard to palæontological terseness and descriptive power, rise high above the

chronology is made on p 16, where we find opossums average level of the book. Thus on p. 41, “I like the

included among the British Pleistocene fauna. Even Casuarinas, though they are bad gardeners, and suck more serious is the deliberate statement on p. 222 up all the moisture in the earth for some long dis that the duckbill, or platypus, is the only known tance round their roots, so that nothing can possibly

oviparous animal--more especially in view of certain live near them; sometimes in the early morning they

doubts that have been expressed of late years as to

whether this species does actually lay eggs. Again, weep it all back copiously like rain"; or on p. 145,

on p. 291 we are told that all South American monkeys ** If one wanted to photograph the movements of an

are furnished with prehensile tails, while ten pages opening blossom, one should select the Crinum later we are informed that the vampire bat taps the augustum. It is a noble plant, this lily; about 4 feet | blood of its victims with its canine (instead of incisor) high, with scented flowers, numbering 22 in a bunch

teeth. Moreover, in the plate on p. 299 the author

figures as that of the true blood-sucking vampire at the end of a long stalk as thick as a ruler. I

the head of a javelin-bat (Phyllostoma) or a nearly passed by one just after a shower of rain this even

allied species. Possibly the latter species may occaing, and noticed that four or five of the 4 inch long, sionally suck blood, but it is not the vampire par pink-striped buds were just ready to open. I came 'excellence. In the figures of a bat on p. 91, which

may be presumed to be intended for the pipistrelle, the fact that the author is a teacher in a school of mining tail is entirely omitted, so that there is nothing to is a guarantee that the technical student is intended to support the median extension of the interfemoral be served; but it is the more academic, but equally membrane! The following remarkable sentence (p. necessary, side of his training that is here catered for. 202), we are glad to acknowledge, is not typical of the author's style :--" The koala's habits are sluggish, An Introduction to Elementary Statics (Treated and though able to climb well, moves about the trees Graphically). By R. Nettell. Pp. 64. (London : in a most deliberate manner.”

R. L. Edward Arnold, 1905.) Price 2s.

This book consists of a set of graduated exercises in Queen-Rearing in England, and Notes on a Scents graphical statics. The first seventy, about half the

producing Organ in the Abdomen of the Worker total number, are restricted to problems on the equiBee, the Honey-Bees of India, and Enemies of the librium of three forces at a point, and are intended to Bee in South Africa. By F. W. L. Sladen. | be worked by means of the parallelogram of forces. (Houlston and Sons, 1905.)

In succeeding problems the triangle of forces and the

polygon of forces are introduced. The principle of The scope of this little work by a practical bee

moments is also employed. A few examples are given keeper is sufficiently indicated by its title, and the

of the determination of the centre of gravity of simple bulk of its contents has already appeared in the

plane figures, and in the final examples the subject is British Bee Journal and the Entomologist's Monthly

carried as far as the equilibriumn of four non-concurrent Magazine. There is a coloured frontispiece repre

forces in one plane. The link polygon is not used, so senting the queen and worker of the Golden Italian

that parallel forces are scarcely referred to. It will be bee, and there are numerous text-illustrations of

seen how extremely limited is the ground covered by no remarkable excellence After a chapter on queen

this book. The constructions are not founded on or rearing in nature, several chapters are devoted to

verified by experimental work of any kind. No vectors the best artificial means of securing a supply of

other than force vectors are introduced. Trigonometri. queens for multiplying or improving bee-colonies; and

cal calculations, even of the simplest kind, are rigidly a brief account is given of different races called the

| excluded. The book is intended to be used by classes Italian (or Ligurian) Bee, the Golden Italian Bee, and Carniolan Bee, and the Cyprian Bee. In a later

of young boys, but its scheme does not harmonise with

the ideas now prevalent as to the way in which ele. chapter Mr. Sladen remarks that when vibrating their

mentary mathematics should be taught to youths. wings, and especially when swarming, bees produce a peculiar tune which has been supposed to attract

The Elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus. their comrades; but the author thinks the attraction

By D. F. Campbell. Pp. X+364. (New York : The is at least partly due to a powerful scent emitted

Macmillan Co.; London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., when a membrane situated between the fifth and sixth

1904.) Price 75, 6d. dorsal segments of the abdomen is exposed. This is fully described and figured. Short chapters on the

This book seems well adapted to serve as a text-book honey bees of India (Apis dorsata, florea, and

for a first course in the differential and integral cal. indica), and on enemies of bees in South Africa;

culus. Fourteen chapters deal with the differential “ Bee Pirates ” (sandwasps belonging to the genera

calculus and its applications to maxima and minima Palarus and Philanthus), a Tachinide parasite in the

values, expansions in series, and the geometry of plane abdomen; and a species of Chelifer conclude the work.

curves. The fundamental ideas of integration are very fully explained, the second fourteen chapters being de

voted to the integral calculus and its application to Physical Experiments. By N. R. Carmichael. Pp.

finding plane areas, lengths of curves, areas of surxi+ 127; with diagrams. (Kingston, Ontario : R.

faces, and volumes. In a short chapter dealing with Uglow and Co., 1904.)

approximate integration, the first and second elliptic ANYONE drawing up an elementary course of mechanical

integrals are introduced, and three-figure tables for and physical experiments, and wishing for a

F(k, ) and E(k, ) are given. A few elementary manual to accompany it so as to make the prepara

chapters on mechanics have been introduced, so that tion of a special volume unnecessary, could hardly the student may be able to view from the mechanical, do better than adapt his course to the manual

rather than from the purely mathematical, side the before us. It contains just the short description which

principles of attraction, centre of gravity, and moment

principles of attraction, centre of gravity, and would otherwise be produced by some copying process of inertia. Numerous exercises, with answers, are for distribution to a class, or, failing this, would pro

I given with each chapter. The diagrams are clear, and bably be written on a blackboard. That is to say, the type is excellent. there is just enough description to indicate to a pupil what he is expected to do, and which would be copied by

l'ölkerpsychologie. By Wilhelm Wundt. Vol. i. Die him into his notebook. A teacher will require to amplify

Sprache. Second revised edition. 2 parts. Pp. the book verbally, either in the course of a short demon

XV +667, X+673. (Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann; stration at the beginning of the class, or, if his lectures

London : Williams and Norgate, 1904.) Price 145. and the practical work run together very well, this

net and 155. net; bound, 175. net and 18s, net. might sometimes be done in the course of the lectures. The first volume of this monumental work has

The aim that Mr. Carmichael has had before him has reached a second edition, some sixty or seventy pages been to state concisely the nature of the quantity to be bulkier than its predecessor (reviewed in NATURE on measured in each experiment and the theory under- | January 16, 1902). The most important changes affect lying the method suggested. Descriptions of instru the fourth chapter, Der Lautwandel, the sixth, Die ments are entirely omitted, as the students are ex Wortformen, and some parts of the theory of the pected to have the apparatus given them by an sentence. A first edition of the other volumes, dealinstructor.

ing with myth and custom, has not yet appeared ; With regard to the selection of experiments, the it is to be hoped that it will not be unduly delayed by object has been to give students who have but a the necessity of revising the present instalment, and limited time for laboratory work a practical acquaint- that in any parts still to appear the wood will be ance with as many physical quantities as possible. The 1 less closely concealed by the trees.


heads which nearly resemble it, but there are points in (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions

which the diversity of conformation indicates a decided expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake

specific difference. to rclum, or to correspond with the writers of. rejected

“Permit me to suggest to you, and through you to the manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.

Directors of the Missionary Society, that a rare specimen No notice is taken of anonymous communications.)

of that nature is entitled to a place where it can be more

justly appreciated than it ever will be in their collection. History of a White Rhinoceros Skull.

I need not suggest to you the advantages which result

from a concentration of the different productions of nature Ix his interesting “ Natural History Essays," in which

—from bringing under one view the genera and species occurs the description of the white rhinoceros, Mr. Graham

of the various natural sciences-especially when they are Renshaw makes the following reference to the first skull

not only rendered available for minute distinction, but by of this animal which was brought to England:

a liberal policy are accessible to men of science from all "It would be interesting to know if the white parts of the world. I can have no selfish motive in rhinoceros head brought to England by the Rev. John suggesting that the head possessed by the Missionary Campbell, about 1815. is still in existence. It appears to Society would become much more an object of interest if have been preserved as late as 1867 in the Museum of the deposited in the Hunterian Museum, than it ever will be London Missionary Society at Finsbury, but there seems should it remain in the Old Invry. If deposited at the to be no mention of it during recent years in zoological College of Surgeons it will not only fall under the notice literature. In a figure now before me the artist has of Naturalists from all quarters, but it will likewise be a absurdly furnished the open jaws with an imaginary series subject of reference in the lectures on comparative anatomy of perfectly regular pseudoinolar teeth : the square mouth annually delivered at that Institution. has been distorted to resemble the prehensile lip of the "The Missionary directors unquestionably will consider black species, though the slit-like nostrils, position of the the advantages which may result to their own Society, as eye and semi-tubular ears are delineated with fair correct well as the promulgation of scientific knowledge; and if ness. The anterior horn of this individual is said to I might presume to express an opinion on this subject, it have been 3ft, long : and, as figured, from its slender would be in favour of the head being presented to the

College. It would there be preserved as a testimony of praiseworthy liberality-it would soften prejudice, where perhaps there is a deep-rooted antipathy to religion, but where conciliation is of great importance; and if it remain in its present situation for a few years it will be liable to destruction, or to essential injury at least.

“If you have never seen the Museum of the College of Surgeons it would afford me great pleasure to accompany you thither any Friday.

“I feel assured, my dear Sir, that you will excuse the liberty I have taken in addressing you on this topic ;-and believe me to be "Yours most obediently and


“ (signed) William Cooke.” In spite of this appeal, the skull evidently remained in the possession of the Missionary Society until Mr. Graham rescued it from oblivion. Although the occipital portion has been sawn off, it is a remarkably fine specimen, as shown by the accompanying photograph. The nasal horn is firmly attached to the skull; the frontal horn is detachable, but readily fits in place. The principal measure

ments are as follows :FIG.1.-Skull of the White Rhinoceros in the American Museum of Natural History.

Total length of skull, along top .. 778 mm. = 30$ inches

Length of grinding series ... ... 287 , = 11% ,, ness recalls Col. Hamilton Smith's description of the

frontal horn ... ... 280 , = 11 mysterious horn, brought from Africa, from which he

,, nasal horn

890, = 35 se sought to deduce the existence of a true unicorn in the

(Measured on a straight line.) interior of that Continent " (p. 146).

In 1902 this very skull was purchased from Mr. Cecil The skull is now exbibited with two war clubs manuGraham for the American Museum of Natural History by

factured from the nasal frontal horns of the white Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. Mr. Graham has made a large

rhinoceros, with a skull of the related woolly rhinoceros and valuable collection of rhinoceros horn weapons, clubs,

from Siberia, presented by the Moscow Museum, through knob-kerries, and battle axes, and in course of corre

Madame Pavloff, also with a skull of the Rhinoceros spondence he wrote of his discovery of the skull as

pachygnathus, a related or ancestral form, from Pikermi, follows:-" There is no record as to how or when the | presented by the Munich Museum through Prof. von specimen was first brought to England. I found it by


HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN. chance a few years ago in the City, lving neglected and American Museum of Natural History, New York, dirty on the floor of a back room of the London Missionary April 24. Society. No doubt it was presented by a missionary before 1821. I especially value the letter dated 1821."

Fictitious Problems in Mathematics. The letter referred to by Mr. Graham is from William Cooke, of the Royal College of Surgeons. It is dated Your reviewer gives a new definition of “a perfectly November 20, 1821, and addressed to William Alers rough body" (NATURE, June 1), which he says is that of Hankey, Esq., Fenchurch Street. It reads as follows:- the mathematician. The definition appears to me to con“My dear Sir,

tradict what he has elsewhere said. But I need not enlarge “ The head in the missionary museum supposed to be on this point, for his criticism of a problem should be the head of the unicorn, appears to belong to a species of tried, not by his definition, but by that given in the book Rhinoceros previously unknown in this country, at least, in which the problem occurs. there is no such specimen in the Hunterian Museum which The reviewer accuses Cambridge examiners" of endowmay be regarded as the National Depository for com- ing bodies with the most inconsistent properties in the parative anatomy. In that grand collection there are matter of perfect roughness and perfect smoothness

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