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PETER HEELE, 115 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, WC.
Maker of Physical, Chemical, and other Instruments,
and every kind of Spectroscope and Polarimeters. Telegrams-Arctitude, London.
:--" The firm of Leybold Nachfolger in Cologne has recently issued a very complete and interesting catalogue of physical apparatus and fittings sold by them. The book starts with a history of the instruments made in Cologne during the last century. In its second section we find an account of the construction and fittings of various chemical and physical institutions. After this follows the catalogue proper, filling some 800 large pages, profusely illustrated and admirably arranged. The book will be most useful to the teacher.” (No. 1846, Vol. 71.)
Fitted with ZEISS LENSES. Sizes—6x9 and 9 x 12 cm., and 31 in. x 47-in. and 5-in. X 4-in.
Also 9 X 18 cm. for Stereo and Panorama. SUITABLE FOR PLATES, PACK FILMS, AND
ROLL FILMS. Illustrated Catalogue, “ Pn," Post Free on application.
THE CATALOGUE WILL BE FORWARDED TO SCHOOLS
AND INSTITUTES ON APPLICATION.
The illustration shows a star micrometer of the form designed by Mr. A. R. Hinks, and made by us for the University Observatory of Cambridge, England, as well as for the Observatory of Tacubaya (see Monthly Notices, Roy. Astron. Soc., Vol. LXI., p 444). The coordinates of a star upon a celestial photograph impressed with a standard reseau are obtained very readily, the errors being imperceptible.
We also make a simple form of star micrometer, which is highly accurate in performance, although the adjustments are less elaborate.
We make a special feature of instruments for research, and we may mention as examples of our design and construction the Spectroheliograph at Kodaikanal, and an appar. atus for enlarging and rectifying stellar spectrograms at Poona.
We shall be glad to answer the enquiries of interested parties.
The Cambridge Scientific Instrument Company, Ltd.,
THURSDAY, JUNE 15, 1905.
in part by voluntary subscription, and the generous donor may hope that he is helping to raise up a race of scholars as devoted as O'Curry and O'Donovan, as
distinguished as Stokes and O'Grady. Up to this preSOME RECENT BOOKS ON CELTIC.
sent, there has been no corresponding movement Keltic Researches. By E. W. B. Nicholson.
among the Scotch Highlanders or the other Celtic xviii +212, (Oxford: Clarendon Press; London : peoples, but it will not be the fault of their congeners Henry Frowde, 1904.) Price 21s, net.
if their national aspirations remain unawakened. The The Mythology of the British Islands, By Charles Pan-Celtic Congress, which met for the first time in Squire. Pp. x+ 446. (London : Blackie and Son,
1901, has for one of its aims to increase the feeling of Ltd., 1905-)
“the sea-divided Gaels " themselves; it The Literature of the Celts, its History and Romance.
is attended by delegates from all the Celtic districts, as By Magnus Maclean. Pp. xv + 400. (London :
well from Brittany as from those on this side of the Blackie and Son, Ltd., 1902.)
Channel. "HOSE who have the study of Celtic at heart can- Apart from the enthusiasm of the Celtic-speaking
not but be rejoiced at the strides which it has races for their own language and institutions, there made in recent years. At no period have the inhabi. is a growing tendency among the other inhabitants of tants of the Celtic countries—those of Wales and Ire. these islands—themselves far from purely Teutonicland more especially-shown a keener interest in their to recognise the importance of the Celtic element and languages and institutions than at the present day; to wish to be enlightened as to its history and literathe number of scholars engaged in Celtic research has ture. It is doubtless to meet this demand that there never been so great; and this Celtic revival, so-called, have appeared of late years a number of books on Celtic is like to prove no passing outburst, fanned by eccen- subjects, written not so much for the specialist as for trics and sentimentalists; rather we should see in it the general public. Of the books at the head of this the coming of the race into its own again, the reap- notice two-Mr. Squire's “Mythology” and Mr. ing after many days of a rich harvest of literature and Maclean's Literature -are of this more
or less legend
popular character. All three alike are the work of men In the case of the Welsh, the movement has been whose distinctions are not confined to Celtic, and bear partly the cause, partly the effect of the movement to witness to the increasing interest which it is exciting wards improved education, and is no longer of yester- among the British nation as a whole. day. It can be traced back some seventy years, to the Mr. Nicholson's “Keltic Researches," as the subfounding of the British schools by the late Sir Hugh title indicates, are a series of studies in the history of Owen. Thirty years later the same enlightened the ancient Goidelic languages and peoples. The patriot added discussions, both learned and practical, author's first object is to demonstrate to philologists on matters affecting the Principality, to the musical certain unrecognised or imperfectly recognised linand literary contests at the Eisteddfod. About the guistic facts; but, inasmuch as he has not made Celtic same time the study of the Welsh language, which his one and only study, he does not write in a narrow, owed what life it had to the devoted labours of specialising spirit; his linguistic facts are important, Chancellor Silvan Evans, received a fresh direction but he values them chiefly for the light which they from the papers and speeches of Prof. Rhys, who in- throw on history in general, on the Pictish question, on veighed against the school of Dr. Owen Pughe, and the Menapian settlements, and on the distribution of pointed the way to more scientific methods. The last the Celtic languages in Britain and on the Continent. fifty years have been marked by a steady, if gradual, The main philological result of the book is to show advance; the interest in Wales and things Welsh, and that the loss of original Þ, a loss supposed to be the the sense of nationality, have become ever keener and main characteristic of the Celtic languages, is of commore real, the language has secured a fresh lease of paratively late date in the Goidelic group, that, in fact, life, and the study of philology and history has been, was kept at Bordeaux until the fifth century A.D. and continues to be, vigorous and fruitful; not the Those who wish to be satisfied as to the soundness of least happy augury for the future is the fact that a his linguistic foundation are advised to turn to the apnumber of younger men, natives of the Principality, pendices, which make up a third of his book, immehave already made a name in these fields.
diately after reading the first eight pages. L'nlike the Welsh, by which it may have been in part We need scarcely point out that much of his matter suggested, the Irish revival is of comparatively recent is controversial, and that some of his conclusions are date. It is none the less vigorous on that account. liable to be disputed. For instance, many will refuse Within the last few years, owing largely to the efforts to admit that the Picts spoke a tongue virtually idenof the Gaelic League, Irish has been studied with tical with Gaelic; they will maintain with Stokes that eagerness by persons of every shade of opinion, and a they spoke something nearer akin to Welsh, or with determined attempt has been made to develop native Zimmer and Rhys that their language was not Aryan industries. A society has been founded for the publica- at all. On the other hand, there can be little doubt as tion of Irish texts-it has already done considerable to the correctness of his main linguistic results. Exwork-and a special school, the School of Irish Learn- ception may be taken to the interpretation of his pièces ing, has been started to give students a scientific train- justificatives, the Rom tablets and the Coligny calening in the language and to open up the rich treasures dar; but he is certainly right in inferring that, besides of Irish literature. The necessary funds are provided those of the Gallo-Brythonic branch, there existed in
Gaul a language or languages closely akin to Although the Welsh mabinogi and romances, and Goidelic or ancient Gaelic of the British Isles. Strange much of the Gaelic saga, have been made accessible in to say, although every Celtist knows that the peoples translations, it is unlikely that the British public as a of the Gallo-Brythonic group had p for qu from time whole nave formed anything like an adequate immemorial-petor in Gaulish petorritum=Latin qua- idea of Celtic mythology. The works in point contain tuor—and that those of the Goidelic branch retained but few explanations, and he who opens them for the qu like the Romans, the greater number have chosen first time, while he may be sensible of their charm, to assume that Gaulish was co-extensive with Celtic cannot but be bewildered by the novelty of his suron the Continent. In spite of the evidence of such roundings. He feels that he has ventured into a new names as Aquitania, Sequana, Sequani, it was the world, peopled by characters whose very names are, fashion to suppose that qu was unknown in Gaul and for the most part, unfamiliar. If he wishes to underthat all the Celts alike dropped the consonant p of the stand their setting, to trace the connection between Indo-European parent speech, as, for instance, in them, he must peruse innumerable lectures and learned Aremorica, Armorica, where are is approximately equi- essays, a task which is like to prove no light one. Mr. valent to the Greek papá. In laying stress on the fact Squire's book is calculated to meet his difficulty. In that the retention of the old qu and Indo-European p it he will at last be formally introduced to the personare characteristic of the Pictavian and Sequanian lan- ages of Celtic mythology, to the gods and giants of the guages he has done valuable service to the cause of Gaels, to the champions of the Red Branch of Ulsterphilology, and recalled Celtic scholars from a path of heroes of an epic almost worthy to rank with that of
He does not, indeed, claim to be the first to Troy-and to Finn and his Fenians. He will also point out that the Celtic languages of the Continent make acquaintance with the chiet figures of the Brywere not of one and the same type. He tells us that thonic Pantheon, with the earlier race of gods, and as early as 1847 Jacob Grimm showed that the charms with Arthur and his knights, who will be seen to bein the work of Marcellus of Bordeaux were in a lan- long to the same company. guage virtually identical with old Irish, and that Pictet
As our author does not claim to have written an afterwards proved that Indo-European p was retained original work, it goes without saying that we are not in one of these charms in the prefix pro. Half a cen- called upon to enter into a discussion of his subjecttury later (in February, 1891), in a paper read before matter. He has studied the works of the best scholars, the Philological Society, Prof. Rhys brought together and for the most part he adheres to them faithfully. certain qu names from the Continent to prove the same It is possible that in some cases he may show himthesis, and proposed that the language in Gaul akin self over positive, that he may be inclined to treat as to Goidelic should be called Celtican. He insisted on certain what his authority has advanced as a conjecthe significance of the words of Sulpicius Severus in
ture. But since his sole object in writing is to gain Dialog. I. 27, “ Tu vero, inquit Postumianus, vel Cel
a larger audience for the studies of others, slips of this tice, aut si mavis, Gallice loquere, dummodo jam Mar- kind cannot be regarded as serious. tinum loquaris.” So, too, Mr. Macbain, in the intro
In our opinion his book is both useful and attractive. duction to his etymological dictionary of the Gaelic His treatment of his subject is thorough and conscienLanguage (Inverness, 1896), inserts among the q
tious, and he has realised his hope of presenting it in group by the side of Goidelic “dialects in Spain and
a lucid and agreeable form. It will be matter for surGaul. This was not long before the Coligny calen- prise if he does not inspire his readers with some at dar and the Rom inscriptions came to light, showing least of his own enthusiasm. that the Sequani and the Pictones, at any rate, spoke Of Mr. Maclean's “Celtic Literature " there is no languages belonging to the same group as old Irish.
need to say more than a few words. It is some time There can be no question that the book deserves since it appeared, and we doubt not that many of the study. If it sometimes betrays inexperience--and the readers of this Journal are already well acquainted with author would be the first to admit this-it shows signs it It is the first attempt to give in brief compass an of many-sided learning, and in some cases of rare in- account of Celtic literature from the earliest times to sight; the whole breathes an impartiality and generous the present day. Like Mr. Squire's “ Mythology," it çandour which are wanting in many searchers after is intended to serve as a popular introduction; at the truth.
same time, it aims at satisfying those in quest of in“ The Mythology of the British Islands,” by Charles formation as to original sources and books of reference. Squire, is an introduction to Celtic myth, legend, From both points of view it has much to recommend poetry, and romance. It is intended, as we have seen, it; it will leave the general reader with a clear idea of not for the learned, but for the ordinary reader, and the main outlines of the subject, while the student will the subject is approached from the literary rather than find in it a painstaking and, within certain limits, a from the scholastic standpoint. Believing that the trustworthy guide. We are inclined to prefer the chapclassic fount from which the poet so long drew inspira-ters dealing with Celtic literature in modern times, tion has lost its potency, that the Greek stories can no with the Highland bards before the Forty-five, with the longer be handled save by the genius alone, the author master gleaners of Gaelic poetry, &c. has attempted to put the natives of these islands in which describe the influence of Celtic on English literapossession of a new heritage of myth and tradition, a ture are also interesting reading. The book ends with heritage which is as much their own as that of the a survey of Celtic studies and a list of Celtic scholars Teutons and Scandinavians.
past and present.
The pages WEATHER INFLUENCES.
few heavy showers would not be distinguishable from Ileather Influences: an Empirical Study of the days of continuous fall; probably a classification on Mental and Physiological Effects of Definite Meteor
the basis of duration rather than amount of rainfall ological Conditions. By Dr. E. G. Dexter. Pp. would yield results which would repay the labour xxxi +286. (New York: The Macmillan Company; involved in tabulating the records of self-registering London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.) Price 8s. 6d. rain gauges. net.
The majority of the curves show fluctuations which CHE effect of changes of weather on human
are greatly in excess of any which could be due merely THE activities has been the subject of much discus
to accidental variations. The number of data is in sion, and each of us has no doubt formed an opinion some cases extremely large (about 40,000 cases of on how he individually is affected by different meteor- assault), and there can be no doubt about the genuineological conditions. The problem as affecting the ness of the effects of meteorological changes. behaviour of humanity in the mass has, however, The interpretation of the results is, however, a received but scant attention hitherto. The statistical matter of considerable difficulty, and the possible method affords the means of obtaining numerical re- | influence of other than meteorological causes has to sults which enable us to estimate the importance of be steadily borne in mind. The general line of argusuch effects.
ment adopted regards the curves as compound funcMeteorological statistics are nowadays available tions of “irritability or “emotional state and from most centres of population; social statistics are “ available ” or “reserve energy.” Thus, to return also plentiful, yet of these only a limited number can to the temperature-assault curve, we find a marked b: made to yield information on the general conduct | deficiency of occurrences at low temperatures. This or the working capacity of the community as a whole. has been taken to mean that under these conditions In the book before us Dr. Dexter has collected and so large a portion of the vital energy is used up in discussed sixteen classes of data culled from school supporting normal metabolic processes that the surrecords, covering both questions of attendance and plus available for active disorder is small. Under conduct, police records dealing with cases of assault, warmer conditions our pugilist, in addition to being drunkenness, murder, suicide, arrests for insanity, more out of doors and thus seeing more of his discipline in penitentiaries and the health of the force, neighbour, has more reserve energy available for the death register, registers of attendance in the active warfare, and the work of the police is proporaut-patient departments of hospitals, and records of tionately increased. Above 65o the curve commences the number of clerical errors discovered in the books to rise with increased rapidity. Fighting energy is se certain banking establishments. The latter are the now at its prime, and at the same time “ irritability" mly data studied which deal exclusively with mental or quarrelsomeness is rapidly increasing. The temactivities. All the records refer to New York City | perature group 80°-85° shows a conspicuous maxi17 to Denver, Colorado. The meteorological statistics mum in the relative frequency of assaults. In the next with which they have been compared were obtained group, 85°-90°, the curve exhibits a sudden drop. from the l'.S. Weather Bureau.
Irritability may very possibly be at a maximum, but The effects of seasonal changes are first discussed, the energy necessary to commence war is lacking, and nd then the influence of each of the meteorological a mere desire to fight is not a punishable offence. It cements is considered separately, The general is an interesting fact that the curve for women shows method of arranging the material for this purpose the above effects even more conspicuously than the one ill be clear from the following description of that of for men. A similar accentuation of the general characdealing with the connection between temperature and teristics is shown in all cases in which the number of donauk. The days falling within the period con- data is sufficiently large to justify a separation of the sidered were arranged in groups according to their sexes, so that it would appear that women are, on the nean temperatures, each group extending over whole, more susceptible to weather influences than men. range of 5° F. On the assumption that temperature Some of the most interesting and at the same time fl.d" to effect on assault, the number of days in each most inexplicable curves are those which show the group is proportional to the “ expectancy of assault effect of the height of the barometer on human for that group. The actual number of occurrences of activities. With a few exceptions all classes of data sult on the days of the group is computed as a show a marked excess of occurrences for periods of percentage of the “
expectancy,” and curves have low barometer and a corresponding deficiency when laen drawn using the “ occurrences " as ordinates readings are high. We cannot set this down to the ind temperatures as abscissæ.
direct effects of the diminution of pressure on the In dealing with the element rainfall the usual human organism; crime, &c., does not increase with meteorological distinction has been drawn between altitude. Attempts at explanation by calling to our days of rainfall, on which 0.01 inch of rain or more aid the usual accompaniments of a low barometer, was measured, and dry days. It seems a pity that a viz. wind, rain, or cloud also fail, for when the further subdivision was not made. Most of us would effects of these elements are considered separately we by inclined to draw a wide distinction between showery find that in a number of cases the results contradict days with only a few hundredths of an inch of rain the hypothesis. Dr. Dexter directs attention to the fall and days of steady downpour. Even if such a peculiar “ feel ” which some people have for the further subdivision had been adopted, days with a approach of a storm, but this hardly amounts to an