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PHOTOGRAPHY AND NATURAL HISTORY
DRY plate photography cannot be altogether re-

garded as an unmixed blessing. The facilities which it affords to the amateur have brought down upon us a veritable avalanche of books on natural history subjects, some of which had better never have been written.

Mr. Snell's unpretentious little volume is, however, not of this number. On the contrary, it is of its kind excellent, and will prove a boon to those who are fond of nature-photography but, by force of circumstances, are unable to afford an expensive camera or to spend time and money in search of subjects far afield.

Commencing with a most useful chapter on the methods to be adopted in photographing living animals, the author, in the following chapters, demonstrates the practicability of the rules he has

American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education how important it was to make a study of “ fatigue " in its relation to training and education, to find out the conditions under which our work has its maximum beneficial effect, and the limits to the exercise of our muscles favouring the performance of intellectual work. From data worthy of credence, he was of opinion that brain work influenced favourably bodily development, as well as vice versa.

The basis of these and similar observations requires to be broad, and it was interesting to note at the Cambridge meeting how the want of the proposed survey was evident to nearly every speaker. Prof. Cunningham has pointed out how changed conditions of life are palpably attended by changes of physical standard, but we have no clear knowledge of these changes, the best facts concerning our country being still those collected five-and-twenty years ago by the anthropometric committee of the British Association. The racial substitution of a dark element for a fair in the population of London, noted by Dr. Shrubsall as an outcome of his investigations on hospital inmates and healthy individuals, demands a survey to determine its extent and nature.

In the remarks upon deterioration, made at the Cambridge meeting by the president, Mr. Balfour, this requirement stands out quite plainly again in his expression of opinion that fresh air has so large an influence upon the physique of the race.

That a knowledge of the conditions of respiration in towns is at the present day of eminent importance is also patent to everyone who may read, in a recent report of the Registrar General, that in the urban districts of England the death rate from respiratory system diseases is no less than double that of the rural districts.

Now while much attention has been paid to the air of schools and buildings, we have no knowledge whether the lung movement—the chest expansionof the town dweller is much less than the countryman's, and the answer of a survey to this question is highly desirable. It may be that want of exercise of lung is a deteriorating influence like bad quality of

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air.

Now that a practical scheme of anthropometry with a responsible recommendation of such a scheme lies before our legislators, concerning a matter absolutely beyond the reach of private effort, surely the nation cannot afford to despise such knowledge, nor is the day past when this country can give a lead in the organisation of information to aid the public health.

Unlike Sweden, Germany, and Italy, we have no conscripts to form a source of similar information. The methods proposed are simple :-height, weight, chest girth; head-length, breadth, and height; breadth Fig. 1.-Spider's Web or Snare. From Snell's “The Camera in the Fields of shoulders and hips; vision and degree of pigmentation are to be measured. Economy and efficiency laid down. Small mammals, birds, reptiles, will be observed by the provision of whole time Amphibia, fishes, and insects are each, in turn, made surveyors instructed at a single centre, and 80,000 to furnish illustrations. Finally, some very valuable adults and 800,000 children should be measured hints are given on the photography of botanical annually, re-visiting each district every ten years. subjects.

The eugenics of Mr. Galton are not at present There are tricks, it is said, in every trade! This practical politics, though, as an analogous subject, it is notoriously true of photography. Some of the is interesting to note that the stud books of hunters, more harmless sort are lucidly described in this shires, and hackneys have not only improved the volume. The methods, for example, employed in the breed, but raised the standard of health and improved photography of mice and rats, snakes, and young the average of health in horses exhibited.

birds will come as a surprise to many. Many of us, As to expense, the sum required is less than that probably, have been amazed at the apparent skill and spent on stud books, and similar to that of the Geo- patience displayed by many “nature-photographers" logical Survey. Provision is made, though not too in securing pictures of field-mice climbing wheat liberally, for the survey of the land on which we live; stalks, or rows of nestlings sitting peacefully along surely it is not too much to ask that a scheme for the a bough. Such pictures, it now appears, may be survey of the people should be established upon a “The Camera in the Fields." By F. C. Snell. Pp. 256. (London : national basis.

T. Fisher Unwin, 1905.) Price 5s.

THE

secured in the privacy of a small back yard! It is fear we should only be speaking to deaf ears, and only necessary first to catch your mouse. This done, therefore refrain. Let us add that in all this we he is penned in a glass cage and confronted by the have not one spark of jealousy, but rather unbounded camera. So soon as an attractive posture has been and respectful admiration, in regard to the work our assumed, the exposure is made. A suitable back- American cousins have so successfully and so ground is all that is needed to deceive even the very | | thoroughly carried out. elect!

The trustees of the Geographical Society of BaltiThus is the mystery explained of some of the more have, it appears, set themselves to accomplish wonderful pictures of " wild life with the camera" two main objects by means of the body they govern, that have excited the envy and admiration of many namely, in the first place, to furnish their public who have sought, and sought in vain, in our fields with an annual course of lectures connected with and hedgerows to obtain similar pictures!

geography, and, in the second place, to foster geoThe illustrations in this book are unusually good | graphical research in general, and from time to time and plentifully distributed. The specimen given here- | to publish monographs dealing with some particular with was selected with no little difficulty, inasmuch piece of geographical investigation carried out under as the high standard of excellence, both in taste and the auspices of the society. The volume before us is execution, which these pictures present rendered the first of these proposed monographs, and its comchoice difficult.

W. P. P. pleteness and wealth of illustrations render it a more

than usually striking and handsome example of

American thoroughness. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE

The object of the expedition was to investigate BAHAMAS.

the origin and natural history of the Bahamas,

and also to conduct studies on lines intimately associTWO years ago there was published in this country

ated with the well-being of their inhabitants. The an account of a cruise to the Andaman and scientific staff included no less than twenty-four Nicobar Islands ? by an American party for the pur members, with Dr. G. B. Shattuck as director, most pose of obtaining natural history and ethnological

of whom are specialists in one or more particular specimens for the National Museum at Washington, departments, the special subjects of investigation and every Englishman worthy the name who read

being geology, tides, terrestrial magnetism and that work can scarcely have failed to experience a climatology, soils, botany, mosquitoes, fishes, other feeling of shame that it was not long ago anticipated vertebrates, medicine, and history. Even this, howand rendered superfluous by the enterprise of his own ever, by no means represents the full force employed countrymen. If such a feeling exist in the case of in making public the results of the expedition, for a work dealing in a more or less cursory manner many of the collections were handed over to specialists with the results of a private expedition to remote who did not accompany the latter, the reptiles and islands of little or no commercial importance, how amphibians being, for instance, consigned to Dr. must it be intensified when we find an American L. 'Steineger, the birds to Mr. J. H. Riley, the scientific society undertaking a systematic biological, | mammals to Mr. G. S. Miller, and so on. geological, historical, and sociological survey of a For months previous to the departure of the exgroup of islands which are supposed to rank among pedition, the director was engaged in equipping and the more important possessions of the British Crown?

organising its various sections, procuring the That the work should have been undertaken by

necessary apparatus, so that everything, even down American enterprise is, ipso facto, a confession that to the most minute detail, should be in such a state it required doing; in other words, that it ought to of completeness that work might be commenced the have been done by Englishmen, and the fact of its very moment of arrival. The expedition sailed froni being left to our Transatlantic cousins is virtually Baltimore on June 1, 1903, equipped for a two an admission that our rulers—in spite of what we | months' cruise. Since a number of its members were are being continually told as to the all-importance of in Government offices, from which they could only science if we are to continue to hold our position as obtain leave during the months of June and July, the a nation-are blind to the needs and signs of the length of the cruise had been necessarily limited to times in matters scientific! That we should have that period, and every effort had consequently been hitherto possessed no detailed and comprehensive made that work should progress with the greatest account of a group of islands dotted over an area possible despatch during the time available. Unabout as large as the British Islands, which has fortunately, bad weather was experienced during the formed part of our Empire for generations, is, indeed, outward voyage, so that Nassau, the first stopping little short of a national disgrace, and the fact that place, was not reached until June 17, and as it was Americans have cut in and done our own work for necessary to start on the return journey before the us in our own possessions speaks volumes as to the end of July, only about five weeks were left for work. amount of attention that has been paid to the cry of The more southerly islands of the Bahama group had “ Wake-up, England!”

in consequence to be left unvisited; but apart from The contrast between our own apathy and American this omission, the greater part of the work which had enterprise in scientific matters of this nature is in

been planned was brought to completion, and all the tensified when we compare what is being done for members of the staff are to be congratulated on the the natural history of the Philippines by their new rapidity with which they executed their respective owners with what has been left undone in the case tasks. Except dredging and fishing, most of the of the West Indies (and many other islands we could work was done on shore, but all the field-work was, mention) by their ancient lords. We were about to of course, merely preliminary to study in the labor. urge our rulers, for very shame, to set about doing atory. In examining the living products of the sea. for the other West Indian islands what Americans beda sight of rare beauty--great advantage was have already accomplished for the Bahamas, but we derived from the glass-bottomed boat which formed 1 “The Bahama Islands." Edited by G. B. Shattuck. Pp. xxxii +-630 ;

part of the equipment. 03 plates. New York: The Macmillan Co., London: Macmillan and Co.,

Our statesmen should not fail to notice that, accordLtd. (published for the Geographical Society of Baltimore), 1905.) Price ing to opinion in America, the construction of the 21. 28. net 9 “In the Andamans and Nicobars." By C. B. Kloss. (London: John

Panama Canal in the near future (which is said to be Murray, 1903.)

assured) is destined to bring renewed prosperity to the West Indies, and the hope is expressed by the THE fourth International Ornithological Congress was editor that the facts recorded in the work before us opened by Prof. Oustalet at the Imperial Institute on " may be instrumental, if only in a small degree, in

Tuesday. Dr. Bowdler Sharpe, the new president of the causing the Bahama Islands to share" in this pros

congress, delivered an address. perity. Commentary on this statement is superfluous.

The picture presented by the islands is well de The death is announced of M. Edouard Simon, the scribed in the following passage by the editor :

eminent French engineer. He took an active part in the "No words can describe the beauty of Nassau as

management of the Société d'Encouragement pour one approaches the harbour from the sea. The ocean

ocean l'Industrie nationale, and contributed twenty-four papers of deep sapphire suddenly changes to a lagoon of emerald green surrounded by shores of snow-white

to its proceedings. coral sand. Beyond, the white limestone houses of | At the National Museum at Washington a series of the town, intermingled with groves of graceful palms, specimens has been arranged to illustrate the associand half-concealed by gorgeous poincianas, rise in a ations and mode of occurrence of gold in nature, and Mr. gentle slope against a sky of purest blue. The green

George P. Merrill, the curator, has published in the transparent water; the intense blue of the sky; the blotches of blood-red poincianas; the snow-white

Engineering and Mining Journal a useful list of associdrifts of coral-sand; the vivid green of the foliage

ations represented in the collection. In the forty-eight all these unexpected and yet harmonious contrasts

cases enumerated, the gold occurs native, and in particles strike the eye together, and stamp on the memory a of sufficient size to be recognised by the unaided eye. picture of rugged beauty which nothing can efface.

With the view of lessening the danger of lead-poisoning The impression thus received does not suffer when later the tourist wanders about the quaint old town

now encountered by diamond-cutters, the Dutch Governto examine at leisure the details of the picture."

ment has offered a prize of 6000 florins for the most Our limits of space allow of only a brief reference

satisfactory substitute for the tin-lead alloy now used to the details of the work of the expedition. An for holding the diamonds during the process of cutting. interesting and important feature connected with the Applications, which may be written in English, should be geology of the Bahamas is that they are composed sent before January 1, 1906, to Dr. L. Aronstein, Polyalmost entirely of débris derived from corals and other technic School, Delft, Holland. calcareous organisms, and rest on a shallow, submerged platform, separated by deep ocean-troughs

In the Free Library at Hampstead there is displayed from the adjacent land-masses of North America and at present a selection from the collection of flint implethe West Indies. Few of the Bahama animals appear ments made by the late Mr. Henry Stopes. The exhibit to be distinct from those of the mainland, although | gives a sample, not only of the whole collection, but of some of the mammals have been described (in earlier that part which deals with the ancient inhabitants of the publications) as separate local races. Of some of

Thames Valley, and it has been selected to interest the these latter the skulls are now for the first time

passer-by and educate his eye what to look for in his figured. An attractive feature of the volume is formed by the numerous coloured plates of marine

walks abroad. Bahama fishes, which convey an excellent idea of Science announces that Dr. Franz Boas has resigned the brilliant hues characteristic of all fishes which the curatorship of the anthropological department of haunt coral-banks. Of especial interest is the plate the American Museum of Natural History. He will conof the " mouse-fish " or Şargasso-fish, the remarkable

tinue his connection with the museum, conducting the reshape and coloration of which are doubtless developed to harmonise with its surroundings of floating sea

searches and publications of the Jesup North Pacific Exweed.

pedition and of the East Asiatic Committee. This notice may be fitly brought to a close by the

A REUTER message from Fort de France (Martinique) expression of our opinion as to the high value and importance of the work initiated by the Baltimore

dated June 12 reports that Mont Pelée in the past few Geographical Society, and by the tendering of our

days has been displaying some renewal of activity. It is congratulations to all those by whom it has been so |

reported that on Saturday night, June 10, “the dome successfully and faultlessly executed.

suddenly became illuminated. The dome collapsed on

Sunday morning, and a mass of mud overflowed into the NOTES.

valley below, while a cloud of smoke rose to a height of

1000 yards.' The council of the Society of Arts has awarded the Albert medal of the society for the present year to Lord

The departmental committee appointed by the Board of Rayleigh, “In recognition of the influence which his re- Agriculture and Fisheries to inquire into the nature and searches directed to the increase of scientific knowledge causes of grouse disease has made the following appointhave had upon industrial progress, by facilitating, amongst

ments :-Dr. C. G. Seligmann as bacteriologist to the other scientific applications, the provision of accurate

commission, Mr. A. E. Shipley, F.R.S., as expert on the electrical standards, the production of improved lenses, and subject of internal parasites, Dr. H. Hammond Smith as the development of apparatus for sound signalling at sea.” assistant bacteriologist and additional field observer, and THE De Morgan medal of the London Mathematical

Mr. G. C. Muirhead as field observer. Society has this year been awarded to Dr. H. F. Baker, The Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and F.R.S., for his researches in pure mathematics.

Ireland has arranged with Mr. J. J. Harrison to publish THE annual conversazione of the Institution of Electrical a full scientific report upon the physical and psychoEngineers will be held at the Natural History Museum, physical characteristics of the pygmies whom the latter South Kensington, on Thursday, June 29.

has brought to this country. For this purpose the council The annual general meeting of the Society of Chemical of the institute has appointed a select committee consistIndustry will be opened on Monday morning, July 10, at ing of the following anthropologists and medical men, who, University College, Gower Street, when the president, with the assistance of Mr. Harrison, will carry on the Dr. Wm. H. Nichols, will deliver an address.

necessary investigations :--Sir Harry Johnston (chairman),

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Prof. Arthur Thomson, Dr. A. Keith, Dr. W. H. R. | A LARGE portion of the March issue of the Proceedings Rivers, Dr. R. Murray Leslie, Prof. W. Gowland, Mr. l of the Philadelphia Academy is occupied by the first porJ. Gray, and Mr. T. Athol Joyce.

tion of a paper by Mr. H. A. Pilsbry on the terrestrial The committee of the Privy Council appointed to con

molluscs of the south-western United States. sider and determine certain points in connection with the In the American Geologist for April Mr. L. M. Lambe establishment of a National Museum and National describes in detail, with an excellent figure, the structure Library in Wales has decided that the two institutions of the cheek-teeth of a Canadian representative of the should be separate, the National Museum to be established genus Mesohippus, one of the forerunners of the horse. at Cardiff and the National Library at Aberystwyth. The

THE Perthshire Museum, which from the very beginning support, local and otherwise, offered by Cardiff for the

of its existence has devoted its energies to the illustration foundation and maintenance of the museum and library included :-(1) four acres at Cathays Park (20,000l.);

of the biology and physiography of the district, has just (2) collections in municipal museum

published an illustrated hand-book to the collection, which and art gallery

forms a short but excellent guide to the animals, plants, (38,000l.); (3) a capital sum of (7500l.); (4) public subscriptions amounting at present to (32,500l.); (5) a

and rocks of the county. This is as it should be, and the

d. rate under Museums and Gymnasiums Act, 1891 (1940l.); and

museum is to be heartily congratulated on the line it has (6) collections of books in municipal library (81,766 volumes

taken up. and 9118 prints, drawings, &c.) (30,000l.).

In the Johns Hopkins University Circular, No. 5, Mr. Dr. Henry de Rothschild (says the Paris correspondent

E. A. Andrews discusses the so-called annulus ventralis of

the crayfishes of the genus Cambarus, and confirms the of the Chemist and Druggist) has recently offered two prizes for competition which will be awarded next year.

view that its function is to serve as a sperm-receptacle. The first one is a prize of 2001. for the best work on the

It is, however, further shown that this structure, which

is common to all the members of the genus in question, subject of the best alimentary rations of a child from its

and is unknown in other crayfishes, is essential to reprobirth until the age of two years. The second one is a

duction, and if eliminated would lead to the extinction prize of 120l. for the best study on the supply of milk

of the group. In the same issue Mr. R. E. Coker disto a big city (hygiene, technology, transport, legislation,

cusses Dr. H. Gadow's theory of orthogenetic variation sale, &c.). These prizes may be divided should the jury

among tortoises and turtles, and comes to the conclusion of award consider it advisable. The competition is open to

(from the examination of a very large number of speciforeigners, and papers should be sent in before June 1,

mens) that it is not confirmed by the evidence available. 1906. The secretary is M. C. Nourry, 49 rue des SaintsPères, Paris.

FISHERMEN and fishmongers in Illinois appear to have

been aware for some time of the existence of a shovelIt was mentioned last week that the U.S. Weather

beaked sturgeon belonging to a species unknown to science. Bureau is taking up the discussion of meteorological

Eight specimens of this white sturgeon, as it is called by observations from the point of view of their relations to

the local fishermen, have, however, recently come under solar physics. The programme of the bureau with regard

the observation of Messrs. Forbes and Robinson, by whom to the coordination of solar and terrestrial observations is,

the species is described as the representative of a new it may be noted, on the lines of the resolution of the

genus, under the title of Parasca phirhynchus albus, in Southport meeting of the International Meteorological

the Bulletin of the Illinois Laboratory of Natural History Committee, which constituted a commission for the express

(vol. vii., art. 4). Its uniformly light colour, long small purpose of that coordination. The commission held its

eye, long and narrow snout, bare under-parts, small and first meeting at Cambridge last year, and will meet again at Innsbruck in September. Prof. Bigelow is one of the

numerous plates, and superior number of ribs differentiate members, and there is no doubt that the work in this

it sharply from the common shovel-beak or "switch-tail"

(Scaphirhynchus platyrhynchus). About one specimen in direction of the Washington Weather Bureau will be carried out in cooperation with the commission.

500 of the sturgeons taken at Grafton, Illinois, belongs to

the new species. The provisional programme drawn up and circulated The occurrence of a layer of mesodermic tissue in the by Prof. Hildebrandsson for the meeting of the Inter anterior part of the head of embryos of the laughing. national Meteorological Committee, referred to in the gull forms the subject of an elaborate article by Mr. H. preceding paragraph, is mentioned in Symons's Meteor Rex in parts ii. and iii. of vol. xxxiii. of Gegenbaur's ological Magazine (May). Among the subjects put Morphologisches Jahrbuch. The occurrence of mesoderm forward for discussion are suggestions for improving in this part of the head of sauropsidan embryos is, it observations which may be used for the cumparison of appears, a comparatively new discovery, and the laughingphenomena over wide areas, especially with regard to gull was selected as a good subject for further investinoting the exact time of observing each instrument, re gations concerning this feature. Three articles, two by ducing observations to standard conditions, and the like. Mr. G. Ruge and one by Mr. P. Bascho, in the same Attention is to be directed to the very important question issue are devoted to the discussion of the nature of certain of the causes and the prognostics of widespread heavy alleged vestiges in man of the panniculus carnosus of the rains, the importance of which as affecting floods is | lower mammals, such as the musculus sternalis, and the sonaturally felt much more on the Continent than in our called achselbogen. Much turns on whether the former of country of mild extremes. Prof. Pernter is to suggest a these muscles constitutes a superficial branch from the more precise classification of meteorological stations accord upper layer of the pectoral muscles, or whether it has no ing to the equipment and the nature of the observations genetic connection therewith. The view that the struccarried on. The question of the possibility of extending tures in question are really functionless representatives of the use of wireless telegraphy for obtaining reports from a skin-muscle is supported. In a fifth article Mr. E. the eastern Atlantic, and many others on which an inter-| Goppert discusses the last part of Dr. Fleischmann's studies national understanding is desirable, will be taken up. on the cranial skeleton of the Amniota.

We have received the year-book for 1905 of the the welfare of the country. That the Department of AgriLivingstone College, which gives interesting details of the culture thoroughly realises this fact is shown by circulars past year's work, experiences of past students from the Nos. 21 and 22, wherein is set forth the very liberal conmission fields in all parts of the world, and a few hints ditions under which practical assistance is given to on risks to health in the tropics and how to avoid them. farmers, lumbermen, and others in handling their forest

lands, as well as the practical assistance offered to all The Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute (vol. xxvi.,

tree planters. Bulletin No. 55, entitled “ Forest Conditions No. 3, June) contains notes on minimum sanitary require

of Northern New Hampshire,” gives a detailed account ments for building bye laws by Mr. Searles Wood, on

of the condition, composition, and stand of timber in this isolation hospitals by Dr. Davies, a lecture on canned foods region, with valuable suggestions as to the possibility of by Prof. Kenwood, and other interesting papers, reviews,

extended afforestation and the seemingly much needed and notes.

forest organisation and conservation in New Hampshire. THE Sitzungsberichte der kaiserl. Akad. der Wissenschaften (Wien, Bd. cxiii., Heft viii. and ix., Abt. iii.)

The Century Magazine for June contains an interesting contains a paper by V. L. Neumeyer on intraperitoneal

article by Mr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor entitled “ Our Heralds cholera infection in the salamander ; this animal he shows

of Storm and Flood," and gives a graphic description of is fifty to sixty times less susceptible than the guinea-pig,

the work of the U.S. Weather Bureau. The author an extremely active phagocytosis taking place on injection

rapidly reviews the whole of the useful operations of this of the microbe. Prof. M. Löwit contributes an exhaustive

service, but deals more especially with the predictions of study of intravascular bacteriolysis.

floods, cold waves, and storm warnings. The cost of the

Weather Bureau and its numerous branches is set down LIEUT. CHRISTOPHERS, I.M.S., in a third report (Scien at one million and a half dollars yearly, while the amount Isfic Mem. Gov. of India, No. 15), details experiments on of saving to property is estimated at thirty millions. One the cultivation of the Leishman-Donovan body of kala of the most remarkable cases of flood prediction cited was azar, a disease of Assam. Rogers and Leishman have that of 1903, which was announced twenty-eight days obtained flagellated protozoa in cultivations of the para in advance, after torrential rains extending over some site. Christophers corroborates this, and although the 300,000 square miles. This food caused terrible damage Aagellated forms are very like Trypanosomata, he does | to property, but the public was prepared for it, and the not commit himself as to their exact nature.

loss was many millions of dollars less than it otherwise

would have been. Much care is given to warnings of cold A FOURTH fascicle of Mexican and Central American

waves in early spring and autumn; the bureau aims at plants, described by Dr. J. N. Rose, and forming vol.

giving at least twenty-four hours' notice of their occurviii., part iv., of the Contributions from the United States

rence, and occasionally issues many thousand telegrams National Herbarium, contains several revisions of genera

within a few hours. These blighting frosts sometimes in addition to the enumeration of many new species. destroy in one night the prospects of the agriculturist for Synopses are provided for Mexican species of Ribes, the year. The storm warnings issued to the seafaring Parosela, otherwise known as Dalea, and Heterocentron ;

community form, perhaps, the greatest success of the the opinion that Cnothera is a polymorphic combination efforts of the bureau. It is estimated that on the Great leads to the formation of a new genus Raimannia, con Lakes alone, the loss to shipping caused by storms has current with Hartmannia and Lavausia, and several species been reduced by 50 per cent. The article is beautifully of Ternstræmia are collated under the na'ne of Taonabo. illustrated with photographic reproductions of damage by

floods, representations of clouds, and the freaks of THE Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West

tornados; the fact of straws, &c., being driven into trees Indiehas published the full report by Dr. F. Watts on

can, fortunately, scarcely be realised in this country. sugar cane experiments in the Leeward Islands during the Sear 1903-4, and the results are presented in an abridged Messrs. ARMBRECHT, NELSON AND Co. have issued a form in the pamphlet series Nos. 33 and 36. Reference special price-list of the rare elements and their salts; a has previously been made to the experiments with different noticeable feature is the quotation for 16 oz. bars of varieties of canes, in addition to which manurial experi metallic calcium. This metal, which for so long has been ments have again been carried out. As the result of trials sold at a prohibitive price, is now obtained by a simple for four years the conclusion is arrived at that when, as electrolytic process, and has become a comparatively cheap is the custom, pen manure is worked into the soil, no commercial article. advantage attends the addition of other artificial manures, and that phosphates may even tend to decrease the yield | The influence of a magnetic field on luminous radiation of plant canes. It has, however, been found advantageous forms the subject of the Nobel lecture which was delivered to add nitrogenous manures to land planted with ratoon by Prof. Zeeman before the Swedish Academy of Science canes. The importance of nitrogenous manures is also | in 1903, and has recently been printed (Stockholm : P. A. affirmed by Prof. J. B. Harrison in his report referred to Norstedt & Fils). It deals with the history of the disin the Agricultural News, May 6, which relates to sugar covery and the theoretical significance of the “ Zeeman cane experiments in British Guiana.

effect." We have recently received three circulars, Nos. 21, 22, I The fourth volume of Ostwald's “ Annalen der Naturand 23, also a bulletin, No. 55, from the Forestry Bureau philosophie" contains a brief sketch, by B. N. Menof the l'nited States Department of Agriculture. Circular schutkin, of the life and work of M. W. Lomonossoff. No. 33, entitled " What Forestry means to Representative Reference has already been made in these columns Men," contains extracts embodying the opinions of fifty | (NATURE, vol. Ixxii. p. 42) to Prof. Menschutkin's more * parte, including President Roosevelt, regarding the value complete study in the Russian language of the work of of wientific forestry. They all agree without exception this eighteenth century philosopher; the present abstract that proper forest conservation is of vital importance to being written in German deserves notice, as it will serve

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