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DR. H. STROUD'S
level can be quickly altered. ELECTRICAL
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three following laws :-(1) A certain number of hydrological facts, corresponding to the low stages, or
minima discharges, of springs or watercourses, in FLOW OF UNDERGROUND AND RIVER
many cases depend almost exclusively on the total
rainfall of several preceding warm and cold seasons. WATERS.
It is only in the case of restricted watersheds that the Essais d'Hydraulique souterraine et fluviale. By
rainfall of the last one or two cold seasons exercises Edmond Maillet, Ingénieur des Ponts et Chaussées.
a predominating influence, the number of preceding Pp. vi+218. (Paris : Librairie scientifique, A. Her
1 years on which the results depend increasing in promann, 1905.) Price in francs.
portion to the size of the basin. The preceding warm THIS treatise, which was presented in the first seasons have less influence than the following cold 1 instance to the Academy of Sciences of Paris in seasons; and they both have less influence in propor1903, is divided into two parts, the first theoretical and tion as they date further back, though this loss of the second practical, to which a paper has been influence varies inversely with the size of the basin. appended, mainly of a practical nature, on the curves | The immediately preceding spring and summer rainof the discharge of springs and the abatement of river falls may introduce an element of disturbance if they floods. The book is addressed to mathematicians, are heavy and widespread, supposing that the perphysicists, geologists, geographers, meteorologists, meable strata predominate in the basin; but where the engineers, and all who are interested in the motion basin is almost wholly permeable, the rainfall of the and the distribution of rainfall, both on the surface preceding warm seasons may often be neglected. of the land and underground; and its object is to (2) The lowest level at a given point of a watercourse investigate theoretically and practically the variations in any year is approximately a function of the miniin the discharge of springs, and the low-water flow mum level of the preceding year, and of the amount of rivers, in order to be able to foretell the amount of of rain during the preceding cold season, and some this minimum flow, precisely as the height of the preceding months of the warm season is very wet or floods of rivers is predicted, as already effected in very dry, provided the proportion of impermeable certain cases by French hydraulicians, such as strata in the basin is small. In the case of many Dupuit, Belgrand, Lemoine, de Preaudeau and others, watercourses, the minimum yearly level varies little and also recently by the author with respect to two from year to year; and a succession of several years, of the sources of the River Vanne.
or several cold seasons, more rainy or more dry than M. Maillet believes that he is the first to have in the average, is needed to produce modifications, dicated a method by which exact quantitative dis- which, moreover, are slow and progressive with the charges can be systematically predicted, such as a lapse of time. (3) In the Seine basin, the low-water
Taphic curve, based upon Dausse's law concerning levels at given points of many of the watercourses the permeable strata of the Seine basin, enabled him draining almost wholly permeable strata, differ little to determine the yearly minima discharges of two from their mean secular height. These variations sources of the Vanne several months beforehand. | cannot be abrupt, except under the immediate inLater on, by means of the hypothesis of a particular fluence of rainy summers on the impermeable strata form of the free water-surface, he succeeded in obtain of the basin; and in any case they would be proing a law which proved to be in accordance with ex gressive, as a result of a gradual increase in the mean perience, as indicated in the first half of the theoretical rainfall for a certain number of years. Subject to portion of the book. In the second half of this por- these reservations, an appreciable variation in the tion, the stability, or the nature of the motion of low-water level must be due to other than meteorunderground waters, under different conditions, is ological causes. investigated, allowing for the increase in volume pro- The second. practical, part of the book occupies duced by rain; and assuming a simple form for the little more than a third of the space devoted to impermeable bed over which the water flows, it is theoretical considerations, though divided into ten shown that where the line of the bed is convex up- chapters, which are, consequently, very short for the wards the maximum height of the flood will be rapidly most part. It contains some practical applications of attained, and where concave, the flood will rise slowly, the views and theories developed in the first part, to and that the influence of a part of the stream on the the prediction of various hydrological phenomena, and maximum will be greater in proportion to the fall of also some experimental verifications; and the works the bed. The connection, also, between the low-water of Belgrand, and the observations and publications of leeks, or minima discharges, at any point of a water. the hydrometric service of the Seine basin, form the course or spring and the rainfall, is considered in as basis of this inquiry. After a very brief introduction, general a form as possible, and it is proved that, in the chapters deal successively with proportion of rainpractice, the lowest discharge may often be regarded fall which feeds underground waters, prediction of the Is a function of the combined rainfall of the preceding 'drying up of the sources of the Somme from the rainhot and cold seasons, and experiences very light fall, prediction of the discharges of Cerilly spring, a variations from year to year, especially in large river source of the Vanne, prediction of the minima diy basins, unless the warm season is very rainy and im- charges of the source of the Vanne, application to perineable strata intervene.
the sources of the Dhuis, prediction of the low-water The results of the theoretical investigations com- levels of the Marne at La Chaussée, drying up of the prised in the first six chapters are summed up in the i Laignes, remarks on springs uppising Havre, and
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