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CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK: Being Notes on the Practical Aspect and the Principles of Design. Together with an Account of the Present Methods and Tools of Manufacture.
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59. ner. OIL FUEL : Its Supply, Composition, and Application.
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CHARLES SPACKMAN, F.C.S.
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three following laws :-(1) A certain number of hydrological facts, corresponding to the low stages, or
minima discharges, of springs or watercourses, in FLOW OF UNDERGROUND AND RIVER
many cases depend almost exclusively on the total
rainfall of several preceding warm and cold seasons. WATERS.
It is only in the case of restricted watersheds that the Essais d'Hydraulique souterraine et fluviale. By rainfall of the last one or two cold seasons exercises Edmond Maillet, Ingénieur des Ponts et Chaussées.
a predominating influence, the number of preceding Pp. vi+218. (Paris : Librairie scientifique, A. Her
years on which the results depend increasing in promann, 1905.) Price in francs.
portion to the size of the basin. The preceding warm THIS treatise, which was presented in the first seasons have less influence than the following cold
instance to the Academy of Sciences of Paris in seasons; and they both have less influence in propor1903, is divided into two parts, the first theoretical and tion as they date further back, though this loss of the second practical, to which a paper has been influence varies inversely with the size of the basin. appended, mainly of a practical nature, on the curves The immediately preceding spring and summer rainof the discharge of springs and the abatement of river falls may introduce an element of disturbance if they floods. The book is addressed to mathematicians, are heavy and widespread, supposing that the perphysicists, geologists, geographers, meteorologists, meable strata predominate in the basin; but where the engineers, and all who are interested in the motion basin is almost wholly permeable, the rainfall of the and the distribution of rainfall, both on the surface preceding warm seasons may often be neglected. of the land and underground; and its object is to (2) The lowest level at a given point of a watercourse investigate theoretically and practically the variations in any year is approximately a function of the miniin the discharge of springs, and the low-water flow mum level of the preceding year, and of the amount of rivers, in order to be able to foretell the amount of of rain during the preceding cold season, and some this minimum flow, precisely as the height of the preceding months of the warm season is very wet or floods of rivers is predicted, as already effected in very dry, provided the proportion of impermeable certain cases by French hydraulicians, such as strata in the basin is small. In the case of many Dupuit, Belgrand, Lemoine, de Preaudeau and others, watercourses, the minimum yearly level varies little and also recently by the author with respect to two from year to year; and a succession of several years, of the sources of the River Vanne.
or several cold seasons, more rainy or more dry than M. Maillet believes that he is the first to have in- the average, is needed to produce modifications, dicated a method by which exact quantitative dis- which, moreover, are slow and progressive with the charges can be systematically predicted, such as a lapse of time. (3) In the Seine basin, the low-water graphic curve, based upon Dausse's law concerning levels at given points of many of the watercourses the permeable strata of the Seine basin, enabled him draining almost wholly permeable strata, differ little to determine the yearly minima discharges of two from their mean secular height. These variations sources of the Vanne several months beforehand. cannot be abrupt, except under the immediate inLater on, by means of the hypothesis of a particular fluence of rainy summers on the impermeable strata form of the free water-surface, he succeeded in obtain of the basin; and in any case they would be proing a law which proved to be in accordance with ex- gressive, as a result of a gradual increase in the mean perience, as indicated in the first half of the theoretical rainfall for a certain number of years. Subject to peetion of the book. In the second half of this por- these reservations, an appreciable variation in the tion, the stability, or the nature of the motion of low-water level must be due to other than meteorunderground waters, under different conditions, is ological causes. investigated, allowing for the increase in volume pro- The second. practical, part of the book occupies duced by rain; and assuming a simple form for the little more than a third of the space devoted to impermeable bed over which the water flows, it is theoretical considerations, though divided into ten shown that where the line of the bed is convex up- chapters, which are, consequently, very short for the wards the maximum height of the flood will be rapidly most part. It contains some practical applications of attained, and where concave, the flood will rise slowly, the views and theories developed in the first part, to and that the influence of a part of the stream on the the prediction of various hydrological phenomena, and maximum will be greater in proportion to the fall of also some experimental verifications; and the works the bed. The connection, also, between the low-water of Belgrand, and the observations and publications of levels, or minima discharges, at any point of a water. the hydrometric service of the Seine basin, form the course of spring and the rainfall, is considered in as basis of this inquiry. After a very brief introduction, general a form as possible ; and it is proved that, in the chapters deal successively with proportion of rainpractice, the lowest discharge may often be regarded / fall which feeds underground waters, prediction of the is a function of the combined rainfall of the preceding 'drying up of the sources of the Somme from the rainhot and cold seasons, and experiences very light fall. prediction of the discharges of Cérilly spring, a variations from fear to year, especially in large river source of the Vanne, prediction of the minima di basins, unless the warm season is very rainy and im- charge of the sources of the Vanne, application to permeable strata intervene.
the sources of the Dhuis, prediction of the low-watt The results of the theoretical investigations com- levels of the Marne at La Chaussée, drying up of the prised in the first six chapters are summed up in the : Laigne, remarks on springs suposing Havre, and
OPTICAL CONVENTION, 1905. BIRKBECK COLLEGE
Director of the National Physical Laboratory.
THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD BLYTHSWOOD.
Astronomer Royal. The Right Hon. The Earl of CRAWFORD, K.T., LL.D., F.RS.
MR. Thos. R. DALLMEYER, F.R.A.S.
Master of the Worshipful Co. of Spectacle Makers.
SIR HOWARD GRUBB, F.R.S. The Right Hon. The LORD Kelvin, O.M., G.C.V.O., F.R.S. THE RIGHT Hon. THE LORD RAYI EIGH, O.M., D.C.L., F.R.S. The Right Hon. The EARL OF Rosse, K.P., D.C.L., F.R.S. THI HE OPTICAL CONVENTION will be beld at the North
AMPTON INSTITUTE, CLERKENWELL, E.C., from May 31 to June 3, inclusive.
The object of the Convention is to bring into co-operation those interested in Optical Matters, from all sides of the question, theoretical, practical, and commercial.
The mornings will be devoted to papers and discussions on Optical subjects. These will be collected in a volume to be issued by the Convention
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ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. The ANNIVERSARY MEETING of the Society for the ELECTION of PRESIDENT and COUNCIL, &c., will be held in the THEATRE, BURLINGTON GARDENS, on Monday, May 22, at 3 p.m., the PRESIDENT in the Chair.
In place of the Annual Dinner of the Society a BANQUET in honour of the retiring President, Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., will be held on the Evening of the Anniversary Meeting, May 22, at the Hotel Metropole, Whitehall Rooms, Whitehall Place, at 7.0 p.m. for 7.30. Dinner charge. klus. Friends of Fellows are admissible to the dinner as far as space will permit. Applications for tickets should be made to the Chief Clerk, i Savile Row, Burlington Gardens, W.
LEONARD DARWIN, Secretaries.
J. F. HUGHES, Savile Row, Burlington Gardens, W.
HIGHER MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE AND OTHER STUDENTS. Correspondence Tuition by highly qualified graduates of
Oxford, Cambridge, London and Royal Universities, in Algebra, Trigonometry, Theoretical Mechanics, Difier. ential and Integral Calculus, Pure Geometry, Geometrical Drawing. &c.
Departments are at work preparing for London and Royal University Examinations, Science and Art, Civil Service Examinations, and all Pror. Preliminaries ---Apply to Mr. J. CHARLESTON, B.A., Burlington Corre spondence College, Clapham Common, London, S.W.
THE AGENT-GENERAL for the CAPE
OF GOOD HOPE has been instructed to receive applications for the vacant post of PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY to the SOUTH
AFRICAN COLLEGE, CAPE TOWN, up to June 1 next, Candidates must be under 35 years of age, and their applications should
be supported by copies of testimonials and a medical certificate. The salary offered is 6500 per annum on appointment, £600 per annum
after three years' service, £700 per annum after ten years' service, together with a merit grant of 675 per annum after five years, increasing to £100 after ten years. An allowance of £50 will be made to cover the cost of the journey to the
Colony. The accepted Candidate is to assume duty in Cape Town during the first
week in July, or so soon thereafter as possible. 100 Victoria Street, London, S.W.,
May 2, 1905.
BATTERSEA PARK ROAD, S.W. Principal-SIDNEY H. WELLS, Wh.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.M.E.
A special SUMMER COURSE of Eight Lectures, followed by Laboratory Work in GAS ANALYSIS, will be held by Mr. J. WILSON, M.Sc. (Head of Chemical Department), on Wednesday Evenings, commencing May 17.
Lecture. 7.15 to 8.15. Lab., 8.15 to 9.45. Fee, 5s.
The “N” Fellowship, tenable at Cambridge
and open to former science students of Newnham and Girton Colleges, will be vacant in the autumn. The holder is required to conduct original research in science during her tenure of the fellowship, with preference to the chemical physiology of animals and plants. Appli cations must be sent in by June 8 to the PrinciPAL OF NEWSRAM COLLEGE, from whom further particulars may be obtained.
For other Scholastic Advertisements, see page xvi.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH
WALES, BANGOR. (A CONSTITUENT College of the UNIVERSITY OF Wales.)
Applications are invited for the post of ASSISTANT LECTURER IN THE DAY TRAINING DEPARTMENT now vacant. Special subjects: Elementary Science, Blackboard Drawing. Salary, 4120.
Applications and testimonials should be received not later than Monday, June 12, by the undersigned, from whom further particulars may be obtained.
JOHN EDWARD LLOYD, M.A.,
TYPE-WRITING UNDERTAKEN BY
HIGHLY EDUCATED WOMEN ACCUSTOMED TO SCIEN TIFIC MSS. (Classical Tripos, Intermediate Arts, Cambridge Higher Local, thorough acquaintance with Modern Languages). Research, Revision, Translation. Scale of charges on application. The Cam.
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