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CHARLES GRIFFIN & CO., LTD.,

NEW BOOKS AND NEW EDITIONS.

PUBLISHERS.

Write for Circular.

VOLUMETRIC APPARATUS

Now Ready Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Very Fully

Illustrated. 25$. net.
THE METALLURGY OF STEEL.

By F. W. HARBORD, A.R.S.M., F.I.C.
With a section on The Mechanical Treatment of Steel, by J. W.
Hall, A.M.I.C.E. With 37 Plates, 280 lilustrations in the Texi, and

nearly 100 Photo-micr graphs of Steel.
Just Out.
In Large Crown 8vo, with 201 Ilustrations.

6s. net AN INTRODUCTION TO THE DESIGN OF BEAMS, CIRDERS, AND COLUMNS IN MACHINES AND STRUCTURES.

By W. H. ATHERTON, M.Sc., M.I. Mech.E. In Medium 8vo. Handsome Cloth. With over 100 Illustrations. 1os. 6d. net.

CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK: Being Notes on the Practical Aspect and the Principles of Design. Together with an Account of the Present Methods and Tools of Manufacture.

By A. W. FARNSWORTH, A.M.I.Mech.E.
In Large Crown 8vo. Cloth. Fully Illustrated.

59. ner. OIL FUEL : Its Supply, Composition, and Application.

By SYDNEY H. NORTH,

Late Editor of the "Petroleum Review.' “Everyone interested in this important question will welcome Mr. North's important Text Book”- Nature. In Medium 8vo. Handsome Cloth. Illustrated.

155. net. CALCAREOUS CEMENTS: Their Nature, Manufacture and Uses, with some Observations upon

Cement Testing.
By GILBERT R. REDGRAVE, Assoc.I.C.E., and

CHARLES SPACKMAN, F.C.S.
One of the standard works on the subject."-Surteroi.

In Large Crown 8vo. Fully Illustrated. 6s. net
THE INVESTIGATION OF MINE AIR:
An Account by several Authors of the Nature, Significance, and Practical
Methods of Measurement of the Impurities met with in the Air of Collieries

and Metalliserous Mines
Edited by Sir C. LE NEVE FOSTER, D.Sc., F.R.S., and

J. S. HALDANE, M.D., F.R.S.

Verified and Stamped

at the NATIONAL PHYSICAL

LABORATORY.

JOHN J. GRIFFIN & SONS, Ltd., SARDINIA STREET,

LONDON, W.C.

THURSDAY, MAY II, 1905.

three following laws :-(1) A certain number of hydrological facts, corresponding to the low stages, or

minima discharges, of springs or watercourses, in FLOW OF UNDERGROUND AND RIVER

many cases depend almost exclusively on the total

rainfall of several preceding warm and cold seasons. WATERS.

It is only in the case of restricted watersheds that the Essais d'Hydraulique souterraine et fluviale. By rainfall of the last one or two cold seasons exercises Edmond Maillet, Ingénieur des Ponts et Chaussées.

a predominating influence, the number of preceding Pp. vi+218. (Paris : Librairie scientifique, A. Her

years on which the results depend increasing in promann, 1905.) Price in francs.

portion to the size of the basin. The preceding warm THIS treatise, which was presented in the first seasons have less influence than the following cold

instance to the Academy of Sciences of Paris in seasons; and they both have less influence in propor1903, is divided into two parts, the first theoretical and tion as they date further back, though this loss of the second practical, to which a paper has been influence varies inversely with the size of the basin. appended, mainly of a practical nature, on the curves The immediately preceding spring and summer rainof the discharge of springs and the abatement of river falls may introduce an element of disturbance if they floods. The book is addressed to mathematicians, are heavy and widespread, supposing that the perphysicists, geologists, geographers, meteorologists, meable strata predominate in the basin; but where the engineers, and all who are interested in the motion basin is almost wholly permeable, the rainfall of the and the distribution of rainfall, both on the surface preceding warm seasons may often be neglected. of the land and underground; and its object is to (2) The lowest level at a given point of a watercourse investigate theoretically and practically the variations in any year is approximately a function of the miniin the discharge of springs, and the low-water flow mum level of the preceding year, and of the amount of rivers, in order to be able to foretell the amount of of rain during the preceding cold season, and some this minimum flow, precisely as the height of the preceding months of the warm season is very wet or floods of rivers is predicted, as already effected in very dry, provided the proportion of impermeable certain cases by French hydraulicians, such as strata in the basin is small. In the case of many Dupuit, Belgrand, Lemoine, de Preaudeau and others, watercourses, the minimum yearly level varies little and also recently by the author with respect to two from year to year; and a succession of several years, of the sources of the River Vanne.

or several cold seasons, more rainy or more dry than M. Maillet believes that he is the first to have in- the average, is needed to produce modifications, dicated a method by which exact quantitative dis- which, moreover, are slow and progressive with the charges can be systematically predicted, such as a lapse of time. (3) In the Seine basin, the low-water graphic curve, based upon Dausse's law concerning levels at given points of many of the watercourses the permeable strata of the Seine basin, enabled him draining almost wholly permeable strata, differ little to determine the yearly minima discharges of two from their mean secular height. These variations sources of the Vanne several months beforehand. cannot be abrupt, except under the immediate inLater on, by means of the hypothesis of a particular fluence of rainy summers on the impermeable strata form of the free water-surface, he succeeded in obtain of the basin; and in any case they would be proing a law which proved to be in accordance with ex- gressive, as a result of a gradual increase in the mean perience, as indicated in the first half of the theoretical rainfall for a certain number of years. Subject to peetion of the book. In the second half of this por- these reservations, an appreciable variation in the tion, the stability, or the nature of the motion of low-water level must be due to other than meteorunderground waters, under different conditions, is ological causes. investigated, allowing for the increase in volume pro- The second. practical, part of the book occupies duced by rain; and assuming a simple form for the little more than a third of the space devoted to impermeable bed over which the water flows, it is theoretical considerations, though divided into ten shown that where the line of the bed is convex up- chapters, which are, consequently, very short for the wards the maximum height of the flood will be rapidly most part. It contains some practical applications of attained, and where concave, the flood will rise slowly, the views and theories developed in the first part, to and that the influence of a part of the stream on the the prediction of various hydrological phenomena, and maximum will be greater in proportion to the fall of also some experimental verifications; and the works the bed. The connection, also, between the low-water of Belgrand, and the observations and publications of levels, or minima discharges, at any point of a water. the hydrometric service of the Seine basin, form the course of spring and the rainfall, is considered in as basis of this inquiry. After a very brief introduction, general a form as possible ; and it is proved that, in the chapters deal successively with proportion of rainpractice, the lowest discharge may often be regarded / fall which feeds underground waters, prediction of the is a function of the combined rainfall of the preceding 'drying up of the sources of the Somme from the rainhot and cold seasons, and experiences very light fall. prediction of the discharges of Cérilly spring, a variations from fear to year, especially in large river source of the Vanne, prediction of the minima di basins, unless the warm season is very rainy and im- charge of the sources of the Vanne, application to permeable strata intervene.

the sources of the Dhuis, prediction of the low-watt The results of the theoretical investigations com- levels of the Marne at La Chaussée, drying up of the prised in the first six chapters are summed up in the : Laigne, remarks on springs suposing Havre, and

OPTICAL CONVENTION, 1905. BIRKBECK COLLEGE

...

President :
DR. R. T. GLAZEBROOK, M.A., F.R.S.,

Director of the National Physical Laboratory.

Vice-Presidents:
Sir WM. DE WIVELESLIE ABNEY, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S.

THE RIGHT HON. THE LORD BLYTHSWOOD.
SIR W. H. M. CHRISTIE, K.C.B , M A., F.R.S.,

Astronomer Royal. The Right Hon. The Earl of CRAWFORD, K.T., LL.D., F.RS.

MR. Thos. R. DALLMEYER, F.R.A.S.
The Hon. ALBAN G. H. GIBBS, M.A., M.P.,

Master of the Worshipful Co. of Spectacle Makers.

SIR HOWARD GRUBB, F.R.S. The Right Hon. The LORD Kelvin, O.M., G.C.V.O., F.R.S. THE RIGHT Hon. THE LORD RAYI EIGH, O.M., D.C.L., F.R.S. The Right Hon. The EARL OF Rosse, K.P., D.C.L., F.R.S. THI HE OPTICAL CONVENTION will be beld at the North

AMPTON INSTITUTE, CLERKENWELL, E.C., from May 31 to June 3, inclusive.

The object of the Convention is to bring into co-operation those interested in Optical Matters, from all sides of the question, theoretical, practical, and commercial.

The mornings will be devoted to papers and discussions on Optical subjects. These will be collected in a volume to be issued by the Convention

There will be an EXHIBITION OF OPTICAL & SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS of British manufacture, in the large ha!l of the Northampton Institute, during the Convention, open daily from 12 to 10 p.m. In connection with this, a catalogue is in preparation, which will be a useful work of reference in regard to instruments manufactured in this country.

The Subscription for Membership of the Convention will be five shillings. Applications for membership should be aodressed to the Hon. Sec., Mr. F. J. Selby, M.A., Elm Lodge, Teddington, Middlesex, who will be glad to furnish further particulars if desired. ADMISSION to the Exhibition,, daily, ONE SHILLING,

after 7 p.m., Sixpence. Tickets admitting to the Exhibition at any time while it is open, 2/6.

BREAM BUILDINGS, CHANCERY LANE, E.C. FACULTY OF SCIENCE.

DAY AND EVENING COURSES. Chemistry

SJ. E. MACKENZIE, Ph.D., D.Sc (H. WREN, Ph.D., B.A., B.Sc.

(ALBERT GRIFFITHS, D.Sc. Physics ...

... D. OWEN, B.A., B.Sc.

B. W. Clack, B.Sc. Mathematics

E. H. SMART, M.A.

W. G. Birt, B.A., B.Sc. Botany

A. B. RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc.

F. E. FRITSCH, Ph.D., B.Sc. Zoology ...

H. W. UNTHANK, B.A., B.Sc. Qeology & Mineralogy Geo. F. HARRIS, F.G.S. Assaying, Metallurgy & Mining. Geo. PATCHIN, A.R.S.M.

RESEARCH in Chemistry and Physics in well-equipped laboratories. French, German, Spanish, Russian, Dutch, & Italian Classes.

EVENING CLASSES also in Biology, Physiology, Practical Geometry. Building and Machine Construction, Steam, Tbeoretical and Applied Mechanics, Land and Quantity Surveying, and Estimating.

Calendar 6d. (post free 8d.), on application to the SECRETARY.

.

At the SOUTH-WESTERN POLYTECHNIC,

Manresa Road, Chelsea, S.W., Day College Courses of thirty hours per week are conducted in preparation for the London University Degrees of B.Sc. in Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, in Chemistry, Physics and the Natural Sciences. The composition fee for the Session of three terms, 1904-1905, is £15. These Courses are recog. nised for “ Internal Students of the University, and consist of lecture and laboratory instruction. The Courses are conducted by:MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, W. W. F. Pullen, A. Macklow Smith; ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING,

A J.

Makower; CHEMISTRY, J. B. Coleman, J. C. Crocker, and F. H. Lowe; MATHEMATICS and PHYSICS, S. Skinner, W. H. Eccles, J. Lister and L. Lownds; BOTANY, H. B. Lacey and T. G. Hill; GEOLOGY, A. J. Maslen. In the evenings similar Courses will be conducted, but at £2 per Session. Also TECHNICAL DAY COURSES of three years' duration are arranged as a preparation for the Engineering, Electrical and Chemical and Metallurgical professions. The Laboratories and Workshop are open for REŠEARCH under the direction of The Principal and the Heads of Departments.

Further particulars may be obtained on application to The SECRETARY, who will send either the Day College Prospectus and Calendar or the Evening Class Prospectus for 3d. The Prospectuses may be had at the Office for id. each,

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. The ANNIVERSARY MEETING of the Society for the ELECTION of PRESIDENT and COUNCIL, &c., will be held in the THEATRE, BURLINGTON GARDENS, on Monday, May 22, at 3 p.m., the PRESIDENT in the Chair.

In place of the Annual Dinner of the Society a BANQUET in honour of the retiring President, Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., will be held on the Evening of the Anniversary Meeting, May 22, at the Hotel Metropole, Whitehall Rooms, Whitehall Place, at 7.0 p.m. for 7.30. Dinner charge. klus. Friends of Fellows are admissible to the dinner as far as space will permit. Applications for tickets should be made to the Chief Clerk, i Savile Row, Burlington Gardens, W.

LEONARD DARWIN, Secretaries.

J. F. HUGHES, Savile Row, Burlington Gardens, W.

HIGHER MATHEMATICS FOR SCIENCE AND OTHER STUDENTS. Correspondence Tuition by highly qualified graduates of

Oxford, Cambridge, London and Royal Universities, in Algebra, Trigonometry, Theoretical Mechanics, Difier. ential and Integral Calculus, Pure Geometry, Geometrical Drawing. &c.

Departments are at work preparing for London and Royal University Examinations, Science and Art, Civil Service Examinations, and all Pror. Preliminaries ---Apply to Mr. J. CHARLESTON, B.A., Burlington Corre spondence College, Clapham Common, London, S.W.

THE AGENT-GENERAL for the CAPE

OF GOOD HOPE has been instructed to receive applications for the vacant post of PROFESSOR OF ZOOLOGY to the SOUTH

AFRICAN COLLEGE, CAPE TOWN, up to June 1 next, Candidates must be under 35 years of age, and their applications should

be supported by copies of testimonials and a medical certificate. The salary offered is 6500 per annum on appointment, £600 per annum

after three years' service, £700 per annum after ten years' service, together with a merit grant of 675 per annum after five years, increasing to £100 after ten years. An allowance of £50 will be made to cover the cost of the journey to the

Colony. The accepted Candidate is to assume duty in Cape Town during the first

week in July, or so soon thereafter as possible. 100 Victoria Street, London, S.W.,

May 2, 1905.

BATTERSEA POLYTECHNIC,

BATTERSEA PARK ROAD, S.W. Principal-SIDNEY H. WELLS, Wh.Sc., A.M.I.C.E., A.M.I.M.E.

A special SUMMER COURSE of Eight Lectures, followed by Laboratory Work in GAS ANALYSIS, will be held by Mr. J. WILSON, M.Sc. (Head of Chemical Department), on Wednesday Evenings, commencing May 17.

Lecture. 7.15 to 8.15. Lab., 8.15 to 9.45. Fee, 5s.
For other special courses for Int. and Final B.Sc., see prospectus,

The “N” Fellowship, tenable at Cambridge

and open to former science students of Newnham and Girton Colleges, will be vacant in the autumn. The holder is required to conduct original research in science during her tenure of the fellowship, with preference to the chemical physiology of animals and plants. Appli cations must be sent in by June 8 to the PrinciPAL OF NEWSRAM COLLEGE, from whom further particulars may be obtained.

For other Scholastic Advertisements, see page xvi.

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NORTH

WALES, BANGOR. (A CONSTITUENT College of the UNIVERSITY OF Wales.)

Applications are invited for the post of ASSISTANT LECTURER IN THE DAY TRAINING DEPARTMENT now vacant. Special subjects: Elementary Science, Blackboard Drawing. Salary, 4120.

Applications and testimonials should be received not later than Monday, June 12, by the undersigned, from whom further particulars may be obtained.

JOHN EDWARD LLOYD, M.A.,

TYPE-WRITING UNDERTAKEN BY

HIGHLY EDUCATED WOMEN ACCUSTOMED TO SCIEN TIFIC MSS. (Classical Tripos, Intermediate Arts, Cambridge Higher Local, thorough acquaintance with Modern Languages). Research, Revision, Translation. Scale of charges on application. The Cam.

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THE SYTAM SYSTEM

'05 O2 )

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W. WILSON.
VERNIER

Saves an incredible amount of wall space and
MICROSCOPE. completely utilises dark corners, recesses, and
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16 cm. in length. The microscope

Prevents crowding and confusion.
rotates on a horizontal axis, and Allows for extension as and when required.
can be clamped in any position. Always room for more, hence reorganisation

One power and one Eye-piece. seldom or never necessary.
With Scales reading to 'i mm. £6 10

Saves time, lightens work, and increases comfort
70 by producing perfect order in the Laboratory,
7.10 Library, Study, Home, Office, &c.
8 5

SOME SYTAM FITTINGS. 1 BELMONT STREET, CHALK FARM, N.W.

1. THE BOTTLE ELEMENT.

One hundred 4 oz. bottles are arranged in one Sytam Bottle - Element occupying less than 1 sq. ft. of wall space, each bottle is instantly

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one and the same element. Only a Few Tubes left.

2. THE CLOSED-FRONT BOOK ELEMENT. ARMBRECHT, NELSON & CO., THE OPEN-FRONT BOOK ELEMENT. 71 & 73 DUKE STREET, GROSVENOR SQUARE, W.

4. THE AUTHOR'S FILE. Telephone: GERRARD, 1942.

For division of subject into headings, chapters

or sections, 18-inch Apps-Newton Coil for sale, in perfect 5. THE TWIN DESK TRAYS.

condition. No trace of oxidation on the vulcanite. G. BOWRON, 57 Edgware Road, W.

6. THE PAMPHLET FILE. Metallurgical Laboratory, well equipped for experimental work, to let at low rent.

THE SYTAM FITTINGS CO.,

One minute from Station. Fifteen minutes to City. Apply MARSHALL & Co., Campbell Works, Stoke Newington, N. (close to Station, G.E.R.). Tel., 19 Dal-ton. 18 & 19 BASINGHALL BUILDINGS, LEEDS.

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This apparatus, when working off a 10 in. Coil, will give from 800 to 1000

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IF NATURE says :-“This is one of the most com: pact and efficient condensers which has come before our notice. We have tested it for condensing such volatile substances as ether, carbon disulphide, and acetone, and have found that even with rapid distillation the condensation is very complete. Generally speaking, in order to condensé ihese substances satisfactorily, it is necessary to employ a very long condenser ; of course, this means using a great amount of bench space. As the new condensers are used in a perpendicular posi. tion, the saving in space is very great."

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Price, as illustrated, LL but with New Pattern Spark Gap and New

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SECOND-HAND TELESCOPES. 6 in. Dallmeyer Equatorial, Clock, complete, £100. 43 in. Alvan Clark, Equatorial by Cooke, £50. Several 3 in. Student Telescopes, by

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