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All Souls might readily do as much for learning in are, Oxford and Cambridge, though much injured Oxford by her fellowships as she now does to pre- | by competitive examinations, have been far less vent learning—as she now does to turn the attention injured than England in general; and this they of the ablest men towards what will pay in examin owe to the residential system. Little thought of, ations, and to shut their ears to the still small voice perhaps neglected, by the builders, the head-stone of of latent imagination and original power. If All the educational edifice is here to be found. Where Souls gave her two fellowships each year for evidence mind meets mind in the free intercourse of youth there of research, the ablest of the men studying the sub- springs from the contact some of that fire which, jects of her choice would demand of their teachers under our present system, is rarely to be obtained in inspiration and guidance in the highest work. Where any other way; and not only this, but many other the ablest men lead others would soon follow, and the priceless advantages in the battle of life are also conwhole intellectual atmosphere would rapidly change.

ferred. To these influences we owe in large part all All Souls unaided could do an immense deal to l that is best in the English character, and so valuable induce the other colleges to provide higher teach

are the qualities thus developed, or at least greatly ing, or, even better, to encourage their men to get strengthened, that we regard residential colleges as help outside the college walls. As it is, she provides essential to the success and usefulness of the newer the strongest of all the forces which chain Oxford to universities. The changes we have advocated in the that unhappy infatuation which has had so disastrous older universities would only add to this beneficent an effect on the imagination, the initiative, the re

system increased power for good by substituting sourcefulness of the nation.

for the barren pride of first classes and university The title of this article was chosen in the profound prizes the enthusiasm for a society which nobly holds conviction that interests much wider and more im- its own in those achievements which bring renown portant than those of Oxford and Cambridge are at wherever the advancement of learning is held in stake. Our ancient universities have heavy responsi

honour-a sufficient answer to the contention that to bilities, extending far beyond their historic walls.

deprive a college of teaching is to render it a board. Every new university and university college in the ing-house and nothing more. That the advancement Empire draws its teachers from Oxford and Cam

of learning is the desire of those who have signed bridge, and, for good or for evil, moulds the broad

the memorial we do not doubt, however much they features of its intellectual life upon the pattern sup

may disagree with the methods here suggested for plied by these ancient seats of learning.

the attainment of their ends. On our part we feel In the supreme interests of the Empire, as well as

such confidence in the beneficent influence of the of the university itself, we fully sympathise with the increase in efficiency for which they plead, that we aims of those who desire to render Oxford a more

should gladly see funds provided for the purpose. efficient instrument of research and the highest and

In former centuries the highest learning was most stimulating teaching, but we have no right to

encouraged in this country by the munificence of claim their sympathy or support for our own views

“ founders and benefactors”; and we are glad to on university and collegiate life. It may well be that

know that one of the needs set forth in the accomthe onlooker sees weaknesses and obvious measures

panying statement has already been generously met, of reform hidden from those on the spot, or appearing

and even more than met, by the establishment of a to them as a far-off ideal impossible of realisation,

department presided over by a Beit professor of at least in this generation. Speaking for those who

colonial history. But the signs of the times do not watch from without, who admire and would preserve

encourage us to anticipate any very large or fruitful and strengthen the truly inspiring elements of the

following of this fine example; and we see no proacademic life at both our ancient universities, we

spect of carrying out the suggested scheme in any. would gladly see them subject to the following simple,

thing like completeness, except by a re-arrangement but, as we believe, efficient measure of reform.

of the revenues of the university and the colleges, or The whole of the teaching should be entirely under

by the action of a Government which is convinced the control of the university, which in its boards

that the national well-being is imperilled, the national already possesses at least the foundation of the existence at stake. necessary apparatus. The college fellowships should be given in part for university teaching combined | THE SARCODINE FAUNA OF DEEP LAKES. with original work and in part for research alone, | Les Sarcodines des Grands Lacs. By Eugène to be held only during the continuance of investi Penard Pp. 133. (Geneva : H. Kundig, 1905.) gation. A career would thus be open for originality

R. PEYARD'S enthusiastic and minute investi

D gations into this group of the Protozoa are to our ancient seats of learning and render them well known. In the course of many years' study of indeed worthy of the name. Residence in homes the Sarcodina of the Lake of Geneva and of the sur. of ancient learning would gain added inspiration rounding country, he became convinced that there is when the greatest traditions of the past were re- a special sarcodine fauna of deep lakes. The facts on newed and maintained. Even with things as they which he founded his theory, already embodied in his

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two great monographs of the Rhizopods and Heliozoa, | our own value, this volume is valuable to students of are here presented in a form more accessible to the the Sarcodina, as there is no question of Dr. Penard's student. About fifty species and varieties are de- painstaking accuracy of observation. His descripscribed and figured, the majority being peculiar to tions are clear and concise, while the illustrations in deep lakes, the others characteristic of, though not the text are excellent. confined to, deep lakes.

On looking over the diagnoses of the species, it cannot fail to be remarked that many of them are

STEAM TURBINES. distinguished by very trivial differences from other

(1) Steam Turbines, with an Appendix on Gas Turknown species. Considering the intolerable burden of

bines. By Dr. A. Stodola, of Zurich. Translated synonymy in zoological nomenclature which results

from the second revised and enlarged German from the practice of describing species on insufficient

edition by Dr. L. C. Loewenstein. Pp. xvi + 434; grounds, it is a pity that Dr. Penard should have

illustrated. (New York : D. Van Nostrand Comconferred a specific name upon a form (Difflugia

pany; London : Archibald Constable and Co., Ltd., curvicaulis, Penard) which he naïvely admits he re

1905.) Price 215. net. gards as scarcely even a fixed variety. Other in

(2) Bau der Dampfturbinen. By Prof. A. Musil. stances are not wanting in the volume of species

Pp. 6+233. (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1904.) which seem to be of very little value. It is obvious

Price 8 marks. that he makes insufficient allowance for the recognised variability of the species of the group. He puts too

(1)THE steam turbine has for some years now, much reliance on size as a specific character, and gives

I thanks to the inventive genius of Mr. Parsons, an exaggerated value to minute differences in the size

| become a formidable rival of the reciprocating steamand form of the scales which encrust many species.

engine on land, and the past three years have seen a Making all allowance for the slight differences on

| rapid increase in its use for marine purposes. On which he separates the abyssal species from the re- cross-channel steamers there is no doubt that in a few lated species of shallower waters, it appears that there years it will completely oust its rival, while the adopis really some considerable amount of peculiarity tion of this type of engine for two of the Allan line among the abyssal Sarcodina. Species tend to appear | steamers, and the decision to use steam turbines for in the abyssal region under different forms or varieties | propelling the great Cunarders now being built, probfrom those found elsewhere. We would ask, how-ably herald the approach of the day when on these ever, whether this peculiarity is any greater than one big liners also the reciprocating marine engine will be would expect from the influence which must be entirely displaced. exerted by the very different environment upon the It is not surprising, therefore, that there has grown individuals produced in this region ?

up a rapid demand for good text-books on the steam Of interest in this country is Dr. Penard's assertion turbine in which both the theory and the constructive that some representatives of the abyssal fauna of the details of the numerous types now on the market are Swiss lakes have been found by him in Loch Ness. fully dealt with. In addition to numerous papers and The difficulty of accounting for the passage of abyssal articles which have been printed in the Transactions forms from one lake to another is just touched upon, of our leading engineering societies and in the and dismissed with the short statement that several technical journals, we have had two editions of Mr. of the species have also been found at the margins of Neilson's book, and now, by this English translation, the lakes, as well as in the depths. One is tempted the latest edition of Dr. Stodola's classic work is made to make another explanation of this fact, and say available to British engineers. that it proves that they are not peculiarly abyssal. In his preface to the second edition, Dr. Stodola Dr. Penard does not say whether he regards this points out that he has been able in the period which coming to the shore as a normal mode of migration | elapsed since the issue of the first edition to investiof abyssal species.

gate experimentally several important problems unIn the special case of Loch Ness, there are facts touched in the first edition, as, for example, the fricwhich make it difficult to believe that the abyssal tional resistance of turbine wheels in air. In the Rhizopods are peculiar species. No abyssal species first section, after dealing with the elementary theory of any other class has yet been found in Loch Ness. | of the steam turbine, a concise and clear classification Some of the forms which are regarded as purely | is given of the various types which have so far been abyssal in the Swiss lakes are found in the shallow | practically successful. The more advanced thermobays of many Scottish lochs, and even in peat bogs. dynamic problems which are met with in the theory This may prove an interesting fact in distribution if of the steam turbine form the subject of the second it can be shown that species which are superficial in section, and details are given of a series of valuable Scotland have to descend to some depth in Switzer experiments on the flow of steam from orifices; these land in order to find congenial conditions of tempera experiments are of great importance, and the results ture. Among Dr. Penard's abyssal forms which have are very striking, and will undoubtedly prove of great been found in Scottish moss may be mentioned Helio value to those engaged in the design of diverging pera petricola, var. amethystea, Penard, and Cypho. nozzles for turbines. In connection with this chapter, deria ampulla, var major, Penard.

Mollier's diagrams for the properties of saturated Making due discount for his too high appreciation steam are explained; these diagrams have been reof minute differences, and appraising his species at produced, and, for the English edition, similar ------- - -- diagrams, expressed in English units, have been pre- descriptions of several types of turbines, beginning pared by the translator. The design of the details of with the Laval, which is described in detail with a the more important types of turbines is then investi- number of illustrations. The important problems due gated, and such details as the shape, the construction, to the use of a flexible shaft in this turbine are investiand the strength of the blades, and the design of the gated, also the question of the governing of the tur. bearings of the shafts are fully dealt with.

bine. The steam consumption of this type when under In section iv., a full description is given of the test is given in a series of tables, and the relation various types of steam turbine which have so far been of the actual steam consumption to the theoretical is constructed and have been practically successful, and, dealt with in some detail. The second type of turbine in the case of several, the results of experiments by taken up is the Parsons, again illustrated with a trained observers are given in detail. This portion of number of well drawn plates, and here also the the book will be found of particular value to users question of the governing of the turbine forms an of steam power who are anxious to have some know-| important section ; details of the actual steam conledge of the relative merits of the various types of sumption under varying loads are given, and the turbine now on the market. The application of the results have been put into the form of a series of steam turbine to marine purposes is scarcely dealt curves, which will be of great use to the student. with in as full and comprehensive a manner in Dr. It may be well to point out that Prof. Musil exStodola's book as the rest of the subject, and a little pressly excludes from the scope of his text-book the more information might well have been given as to application of the steam turbine to marine purposes. the relative merits of the steam turbine and the re

The other types of turbines which are dealt with by ciprocating engine for various purposes.

Prof. Musil include the Zoelly, the Riedler-Stumpf, The last section of the book deals with some of the the Curtis, and the Rateau. For each type good demore advanced scientific problems, treated largely scriptions of the mechanical details are given, with from a mathematical point of view, which occur in very clearly drawn illustrations, and in the case of the connection with the theory and construction of the Zoelly and the Kateau results of tests are also given. turbine. We might instance such problems as that

Prof. Musil's book will be found of especial value by of the distribution of pressure in any cross section of |

students in engineering colleges, and by draughtsan expanding gas or steam jet, the deflection, due to men in those engineering works where turbines are its own weight, of a horizontal disc of variable thick

now built.

T. H. B. ness, and the straightening out of such rotating discs under the action of centrifugal forces. In an appendix, the possible future of the heat

OUR BOOK SHELF. engine is briefly discussed; the main directions in An Angler's Hours. By H. T. Sherringham. Pp. which increased economy may be hoped for appear to

xii + 264. (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., be in the decrease of the passive resistances, such as

1905.) Price 6s. net. friction, &c., in the supply of the heat to the motor

MR. SHERRINGHAM deserves the thanks of all anglers

who have an idle hour and no fishing for having only at the highest possible temperature and in the

re-published his essays in book form, and he who is abstraction of the waste heat only at the lowest forced by sad circumstances to enjoy his fishing possible temperature, and in the avoidance, so far as vicariously will find his time well spent in our scribe's possible, of all non-reversible changes of condition. company. There is a pleasant and old-world flavour Dr. Stodola is of opinion that in the future a heat

in his style; whether he rises early to catch tench motor which combines the high thermal results of the

while the dew is still thick, or drowses away his

Sunday afternoon in the July heat of a sunny garden, gas engine with the constructive advantages of the

he is an entertaining companion, who boldly confesses steam turbine will supplant all other types. Such a to his crimes in the first person or conceals his motor will be found in the gas turbine, a motor which triumphs, like Julius Cæsar, in the third with equal at present has not reached practical constructive art. But there is instruction in his essays too, such stages.

mild instruction as may best suit an idler, and much (2) After a brief account of the history of the steam

shrewd observation of the habits of fishes delicately turbine from the days of Hero, and a discussion of

imparted in pointing the moral of a failure or adorning

the tale of a success. the lines upon which recent invention has proceeded, Many important considerations are thus put forward Prof. Musil gives a very useful bibliography; then, as and discussed; for instance, the possibilities of the fiv is usual in books on this subject, there follows a as a lure for other fish than trout and their kind, and classification of the various steam turbines now in use.

the hopes held out to the fisherman who finds himself The theory of the well known Laval nozzle is then

by some sluggish southern stream if he will only not

despair but go forth and tempt the Cyprinids that dealt with mathematically, and the proportions of such

| haunt its troutless waters with flies and tackle suited nozzles are worked out in detail; the results of experi- ' tu their tastes. mental investigation into this question are given, and Again, there is the harmless, necessary worm; Mr. the effect on the flow through such nozzles of super

Sherrington handles him gently (especially when heating the steam is discussed. The thermodynamic

dragging him from his burrow), and adjures us to problems involved in this branch of the theory of the

treat him as a friend in need and no mere despicable

device for luring fish to an undeserved and unedisyturbine are also treated by the author with the aid

ing end. We may be cursed with the instincts of a of entropy diagrams.

poacher, but must confess to a leaning towards that The remainder of the book is devoted to detailed conception of the angler's art which advocates the removal of fish from the water by the most effective

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. means if fish are wanted, and by the most pleasant if amusement is our aim or if the waters hold few fish. The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions We recall a schoolboy who fished for loaches with a

expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake gentle if he wanted loaches, but used a kitchen fork

te return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected tied to the end of a stick if he wanted sport, and we have known others who rose superior to adverse

manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. circumstances, one who found all he wanted with a

No notice is taken of anonymous communications.) fly rod and small dace on the Cambridge Backs and

Education in Belgium and Holland. another who could glory in the capture of eels with a gaff in the same unpromising water.

During a recent cycling tour in parts of Belgium and Mr. Sherringham has not withdrawn the veil that Holland, as well as during the outward and homeward shrouds his early exploits, and he may have been more

voyages on a Dutch trading steamer plying between a orthodox; but now he despairs of nothing, but finds

neighbouring Cornish port and Amsterdam and Antwerp,

I have been greatly struck by several examples of the good in all; if there are no fish he can study nature,

apparent educational superiority of Holland and Belgium and if there is no water he can shrewdly meditate on

over our own country, and at the present moment these the ways of fish and men; an hour with him and his

examples may not be without interest to your readers. rod by a troutless tarn is as good as an hour by the

(1) We were staying at a little inn near Dinant, in Kennet in the mayfiy time. We will not attempt to Belgium, and our hostess, seeing us occupied in drying cull passages and quote them, or to draw invidious some botanical specimens, brought us the herbarium of distinctions between one essay and another, but will her son, a boy of about thirteen. These specimens were leave each idle angler to do this for himself, with a admirably dried and mounted, and were labelled with candid admission that our own hours with Mr. Sher- details concerning the characters of the order, &c., in ringham were all pleasant and instructive, but we

such wise as to constitute a valuable educational asset. should like more of them. A word of praise is also

On inquiry, we found that the lad was a pupil at the due to the publishers, who have produced a book the

lycée of Dinant, and that botany was a compulsory sub

ject there, although the lad had not yet reached the stage size and print of which add to its convenience as an

of learning foreign languages. The boy himself was so adjunct to a pipe, an easy chair, and idleness.

bright and intelligent, and so brimful of enthusiasm for L. W. B.

botany, that we at once supposed him to be exceptionally Botany of Cook's First Voyage. Illustrations of

| intelligent; but some old friends of the family informed

us that until a year ago he was shy and “lumpish," and Australian Plants. By Sir Joseph Banks, P.R.S.,

that the transformation had been effected by the lycée. and Dr. D. Solander, F.R.S. Part iii. Pp. iv +25;

Commend me to such schools ! with 75 plates. (Trustees of the British Museum, (2) The skipper of the Dutch steamer on which we re1905.) Price 255.

turned told me that in the elementary schools of AmsterINASMUCH as Solander was a pupil of Linnæus, this

dam the children are taken at intervals to the “ Zoo ” work furnishes a link with the founder of systematic

to receive object-lessons on the animals about which they botany, and it is known that Linnæus himself looked

read at school, and on other occasions are taken into the

fields to receive object-lessons on the wild flowers; and forward with great anticipation to the publication of

what struck me especially was that this “ mere sailor " the results of the collections made on this the first

--this skipper of a tramp steamer-fully appreciated the voyage of Captain Cook. The expectation was not value of such practical instruction as giving an interest fulfilled, and although certain of Solander's original and sense of reality to his children's school-work. It was descriptions were transcribed for sending to press, the also rather surprising to hear such a man express the MS. on Australian plants did not even reach this opinion that a little knowledge of astronomy rendered stage. A draughtsman, Sydney Parkinson, accom certain theological doctrines impossible of belief. panied the expedition and executed a number of draw

(3) The skipper of the outgoing Dutch steamer exings, of which less than a third were finished for

plained to me that the standard for mates' and masters'

certificates in the Dutch mercantile marine is higher engraving purposes. Parkinson died on the voyage

than in ours, there being three stages of mates' certifihome, and other artists continued the work. The

cates instead of our two, and that before taking out a specimens and drawings were available, and were master's certificate it is necessary to attend a course of consulted by Gaertner and Sir Joseph Hooker, but

simple medical instruction for some months-surely a very unfortunately Bentham failed to do so when com reasonable regulation. On the subject of Englishmen's piling his “ Flora Australiensis.” Possibly Banks usual inability to speak a foreign language, he opined that was responsible for some of the work, but the text is this inability was due to our laziness-not realising, probtaken from a MS. bv Solander, and this is repro

ably, the absurdities of our traditional school system. duced with brief notes and determinations by Mr.

(4) The second mate of one of these steamers-a rough J. Britten, who has also written the interesting intro

lad of twenty-one-seeing me reading a volume of verse duction printed with this part. In the notices of the

in a well known “ series " with distinctive binding, asked earlier parts reference was made to some of the

me if I knew a book like that with Longfellow's poetry,

for he had it at home and liked it! I cannot imagine generic names, and, at a time when the rules of

an Englishman of the same age and status knowing a nomenclature are being discussed, it is appropriate

poet even in his own language, much less a foreign to instance the name Banksia, that the majority of

poet. botanists associate with a genus of the order Pro I must not occupy your space by drawing from these traceæ, whereas Mr. Britten, in accordance with his facts the moral that is obvious enough, but will conclude views, adopts Isostylis, and refers Banksia to the with two statements on which it is not pleasant to reflect. genus of the order Thymelaceæ, otherwise known

These Dutch steamers have driven out a line of English as Pimelea. This is merely quoted as an illustration s is merely quoted as an illustration steamers which formerly traded between Fowey and Ant

steamers w of the confusion of names which renders it most

werp, and now practically monopolise the china-clay desirable that a uniform system should be universally

trade between these two ports; and of the total crews of adopted. The present volume, with the two preceding

forty-one carried by the two boats mentioned above, thirtyparts, completes the Australian plants, and for this

nine were Dutchmen and two were Germans from the worthy tribute to the authors botany is indebted to

| Dutch border, whereas everyone knows that on English

vessels often only a small minority of the crew are English. • Mr. Britten for his careful revision and to the British Are such results surprising? F. H. PERRY-COSTE. Museum for the production.

Polperro, Cornwall, June 22.

The “ Bubbling” Method and Vapour Pressures. In a previous article (May 18, P. 59) the local

In the course of an endeavour to determine the osmotic arrangements for the meeting were described. There pressure of a solution by measuring the relative lowering will be receptions and social functions, excursions, of its vapour pressure, we have been led to abandon &c., at Cape Town, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, Oswald and Walker's bubbling method on account of its Johannesburg, Kimberley, and Bulawayo. The central inherent inaccuracy.

organising committee for South Africa (chairman, As the disabilities of this method seem to have been

Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S., hon. secretary, Dr. overlooked, we think that this note may be of use to

Gilchrist) has carried out the coordinating work of other workers in the same field. Oswald and Walker, it will be remembered, bubbled

the programme. The lists of local committees and dry air through the solution, then through the water, and

subcommittees contain nearly one thousand names, absorbed the moisture by means of sulphuric acid. The

from which it may be concluded that much interest loss of weight of the water measures the relative lower is taken in the meeting. ing of the vapour pressure of the solution, and the gain As already mentioned, lectures of a popular in weight of the sulphuric acid represents the vapour character will be delivered at the chief towns visited. pressure of the pure solvent, water.

These lectures have now been definitely arranged as Assuming the air to be at the same temperature through follows:-out, it can easily be seen that the space occupied by a Cape Town: W. J. Burchell's discoveries in South bubble of air, when leaving the solution, will be less than

Africa, Prof. Poulton; some surface actions of Auids, that which the same bubble will occupy when leaving the

Mr. C. V. Boys. Durban: Mountains : the highest water, that is, the bubble expands while travelling up the

Himalaya, Mr. D. Freshfield. Pietermaritzburg: water column, and will have taken up more water vapour than it should. The expansion of the bubble (and con

Sleeping-sickness, Colonel D. Bruce. Johannesburg: sequently the amount of vapour necessary to saturate the

Distribution of power, Prof. Ayrton; steel as an space occupied by it) is proportional to the difference in

igneous rock, Prof. Arnold. Pretoria: Fly-borne pressure at the top and bottom of the water column. If diseases, malaria, sleeping-sickness, &c., Mr. A. E. the total depth of the latter be, say, 6 inches, and the Shipley. Bloemfontein: The Milky Way and the barometer stand at 30 feet of water, then an error of clouds of Magellan, Mr. A. R. Hinks. Kimberley: I part in 60 is induced.

Diamonds, Sir William Crookes; bearing of engineerThis can conveniently be verified by passing air through ing on mining, Prof. Porter. Bulawayo: Zimbabwe, two or more Winkler's tubes filled with water; it will Mr. Randall-MacIver. always be found that the exit tube has lost weight.

The president's address to the association will be Owing to the form of the equation connecting osmotic and

delivered at Cape Town on August 15, and at vapour pressures, the effect of the above error is magnified.

Johannesburg on August 30. Mr. G. W. Lamplugh's

BERKELEY. Foxcombe, near Oxford.


report on the geology of the Victoria Falls will take

the form of an afternoon address to Section Cat Luminosity and Colour.

Johannesburg. In conjunction with my other methods of testing colour

Subjoined is a draft programme of the work of the vision, I have been using Rayleigh's apparatus for match

| sections : ing yellow with a mixture of spectral red and green. I

Section A (Mathematics and Physics).-Cape Town : find that the proportions of red and green depend upon

President's address; progress of the arc of meridian and the luminosity of the match (both the mixed colour and

geodetic survey of South Africa, Sir D. Gill; to what the simple one being of similar luminosity); for instance,

extent can the ether affect the motion of matter? Prof. J. I require two and a half times as much green in the

Larmor ; observations of atmospheric electricity in South mixed colour when the match is bright compared with a

Africa, Prof. Beattie and Mr. Lyle; leak of electricity match at a lower luminosity. Some persons make a match

from certain heated substances, Prof. Beattie : the foundwhich is nearly the same at several luminosities, others

ations of the kinetic theory of gases, Mr. Burbury ; applirequire more and more green as the luminosity is

cation of the kinetic theory of nebulæ, Mr. J. H. Jeans : diminished, and others when the luminosity is diminished

| radiation at low temperatures, Dr. J. T. Bottomley. There cannot make a match at all. So three normal sighted

will also probably be communications from Mr. Hough on persons may make a similar match at one luminosity, and

tides, and from Dr. Roberts on the Algol variables. at another one may appear to be an anomalous trichro

Johannesburg: On the teaching of elementary mechanics matic and the other colour blind. I find that a colour

(jointly with Section L if possible), Prof. J. Perry : on blind person (a dichromic with considerable shortening of

fight, Prof. G. H. Bryan; (1) electrical conductivity in the red end of the spectrum) may make a match like a

relation to chemical action ; (2) magnetic survey of South normal sighted one.


Africa, Prof. Beattie ; report of the seismological comSt. John's College, Cambridge.

mittee, Prof. J. Milne ; a form of dry Daniell cell, Mr. J. Brown; the strength of winding ropes in mines, Prof.

Perry; the experimental foundations of the theory of hear MEETING OF THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION conduction, Dr. C. H. Lees. There will probably be a IN SOUTH AFRICA.

communication from Mr. Sutton on the meteorology of THE arrangements for the forthcoming meeting of

South Africa. the British Association in South Africa have now

Section B (Chemistry).-Detailed information regarding

papers offered by members in South Africa has not yet been completed, and Mr. Silva White, the assistant | been received, but the following provisional arrangement secretary of the association, sailed for Cape Town in

has been made :-Cape Town : Recent advances in agrithe Walmer Castle on Saturday last, July 1. The cultural science, A. D. Hall; vegetable assimilation, Dr. number of members who will proceed to South Africa Horace T. Brown; enzyme action, Dr. E. F. Armstrong. to attend the meeting is 385, and of these no less These communications are intended to serve as a basis of than 276 members have intimated their intention to discussion of agricultural chemical problems. Johannesvisit the Victoria Falls at the conclusion of the burg: President's address; reports on various aspects of ordinary work of the association. The official party,

the metallurgy of gold by local experts. Communications consisting of leading representatives of science and

by Dr. H. Marshall on the experimental basis of the

dissociation hypothesis, and by H. Ingle on the soils of guests of the association, with the general and

the Transvaal, have been provisionally accepted. sectional officers for this meeting and the president,

Section C (Geology).-Cape Town: Opening remarks by numbers 140 in all, and will sail by the Saxon on the president'; the continent of Africa in relation to the July 29. Most of the other members will proceed to physical history of the earth. Prof. W. 1. Sollas: the the meeting by the Durham Castle and the Kildonan | classification of the Karroo beds of South Africa, Prof. R. Castle, both of which sail on July 22.

Broom; report of the committee on the fauna and flora

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