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or metal case, in such a way that it cannot shift about, and hidden by large elevators and steel structures of every with a sufficient quantity of some absorbent material (such description. as sawdust or cotton wool) so packed about the receptacle
The New York correspondent of the Lancet states that as absolutely to prevent any possible leakage from the
a subcommittee of twenty-one coloured physicians and packet in the event of damage to the receptacle. The
clergymen has been organised by the New York Charity packet must also be marked “ Fragile with care."
Organisation Society's Committee on the Prevention of An exhibition of the results obtained last year by Prof. | Tuberculosis to fight tuberculosis among the coloured Flinders Petrie and his coadjutors in the field of Egyptian people of New York. The New York health board is archæology was opened at University College, Gower cooperating with the movement, and has placed its disStreet, on Thursday last, and will remain on view for a I pensary under the supervision of the medical members of month. Last winter excavations were carried on in the the subcommittee for three evenings
the subcommittee for three evenings a week. A course of peninsula of Sinai. At Sarabit el Khadem the mines were illustrated lectures treating of tuberculosis will be given of turquoise, and no copper was found. The interesting shortly in the churches for coloured congregations. It is feature on this site is the evidence of the Semitic-not
stated that there are between 60,000 and 65,000 coloured Egyptian-worship which was practised. The whole region
persons in New York city, and that their death-rate from is scattered over with shelters for pilgrims, usually con
tuberculosis is 5:33 per 1000, as against 2.37 per 1000 taining a Bethel stone, some of which have Egyptian in
among the whites. scriptions of the twelfth dynasty. The pilgrims came for The first part of the Home Office " Mines and Quarries : oracular dreams like Jacob's, and the shelters are only in | General Report and Statistics for 1904" has just been the region of the temple. They are quite distinct from issued. The total number of persons employed at the the miners' dwellings, such as are common at Wady mines of the United Kingdom was 877,057, of whom Maghara. This Bethel custom is a special feature of 847,553 worked at the 3333 mines under the Coal Mines Semitic belief, and is quite unknown in Egypt. The | Act and 29,504 at the 673 mines under the Metalliferous temple at Sarabit was originally a sacred cave-perhaps Mines Act. The total number at coal mines is the highest as early as Seneferu. It was carved by Amenemhat III., recorded since 1873, and that at metalliferous mines the and furnished with altars for the worship of Hathor. In
lowest. The output included 232,428,272 tons of coal, front of it, on the edge of the hill, was an enormous mass 3,043,045 tons of fireclay, 7,557,733 tons of ironstone, and of ashes of burnt offerings, showing the burnt sacrifices 2,333,062 tons of oil shale. The coal production is the on high places familiar to Semitic worship. The temple
highest recorded. The deaths from accidents amounted to was extended over these burnt offerings by Tahutmes III. 1055 in collieries and 35 in metalliserous mines, the death and other kings until Sety I. Of the temple itself a rate per 1000 persons employed being 1.24 in the former beautiful and instructive model is shown, the scale being case and 1.19 in the latter. It is gratifying to note that one-fiftieth. The whole length of the building is nearly the former rate has never been lower. 250 feet. Though it has been known since the time of No. 21 of the Publications of the Earthquake InvestiNiebuhr, no clearance had been made ; but now many new features have been brought to light from under the rubbish.
gation Committee (Tokyo) contains a lengthy paper by Prof.
Omori on horizontal pendulum observations at Tokyo; the The primitive shrine of Hathor was a rock cave, and the most interesting of the results is the conclusion that the discovery of a hawk with the finely cut name of Seneferu makes it probable that the shrine is as old as the third
first movement is usually towards the origin in the case
of near or moderately distant earthquakes, but in a small dynasty.
proportion of the records it is away from the origin. The It is announced in the Electrician that as a result of
author attributes this difference to a distinction in the the successful experiments with the De Forest wireless
cause of the earthquakes, the first type being due to the telegraphy in moving trains, the Chicago and Alton Rail
sudden collapse of a subterranean cavity, or the crushing way will supply wireless telegraphy apparatus on its two
down of a horizontal stratum, and the second type to the express trains running daily between Chicago and St.
sudden splitting asunder or widening of a vertical cavity Louis, and ultimately on its whole system. Messages were
by the expansive action of steam or gases. In another received while the train was running at fifty miles per
part of the paper, however, he points out that in the case hour. For some time while the train was approaching
of artificial earthquakes caused by explosions, the first the Mississippi River above the elevated stretch leading to
movement is outwards if these take place on the surface Merchants' Bridge, the increase in strength of the signals
of the ground, but inwards if the explosive is buried at was very marked, but when the train entered the frame
some little depth. Other points which are commented work of the bridge it was found that signals became
on are the resemblance between the records of earthquakes almost imperceptible owing to the screening action of the
of similar intensity and originating in the same region, bridge. It was observed also that the signals were
and the occasional occurrence of long-period undulations
combined with shorter-period vibrations in the first phase stronger when the train was broadside on to the transmitting station and running at right angles to it.
of distant earthquakes.
The fact that the radiations were following the course of the The investigations of the relation between variation of river in preference to overland paths was very marked as barometric pressure and sea level on the coast of Japan, the train pulled out of Alton, Illinois. At one point the which were noticed in NATURE of November 3, 1904, has track runs within a few hundred feet of the river, and at been continued by Prof. Omori, who shows, in the Prothis point the signals from St. Louis, thirty miles away, ceedings of the Tokyo Physicomathematical Society (vol. which had just previously become very weak, were in ii., No. 20), that the relationship found on the Pacific creased in intensity to a surprising degree. No difficulty extends to the western coasts of Japan, so that all round seems to have been experienced even when the train was these islands the rise of sea-level is greater than that due many miles from the transmitting station and was thread to the local diminution of barometric pressure alone. The ing through the yards and sidings of Chicago, completely I consequence of this is that a low barometer means :
decrease of pressure on land but an increase of pressure and pharmaceutical preparations, together with photoon the surrounding sea bottom, the latter being about graphic and balneological notes and new literature. 1-6 times as great as the former. An interesting result, Such a journal, provided it gives concise descriptions of attributed to this cause, is given in No. 21 of the Publi the principal new inventions of the various countries, and cations of the Earthquake Investigation Committee, where not of Germany only, should supply a decided want. the behaviour of a horizontal pendulum during the storm of October 10-11, 1904, is described ; the low-pressure area
IN a paper contributed to the June number of the passed to the east of Tokyo, and during its passage the
Zoologist Mr. J. G. Millais points out that the English horizontal pendulum indicated a tilting, which reached
| black rat--the type of Mus rattus of Linnæus-is by no 3-5 seconds of arc, to the east-that is, in the direction of
means the blackest representative of the species, that disthe low barometric pressure-indicating an increase of
tinction falling to a race which it is proposed to call pressure on the sea bottom in that direction.
M, rattus ater, and of which specimens have been taken
in England. No doubt this is right enough, but when the We have received the report of the Government Observ. author proceeds to suggest English names for the various atory, Bombay, for the year 1904. This observatory deals local races of the species in question he follows a course chiefiy with terrestrial magnetism, meteorology, and which, in our opinion, cannot but land him in difficulties. seismology ; it has issued a long series of valuable publi The species itself he rightly calls the black rat, but for cations, and many years ago Mr. Charles Chambers, then its local races the name of Alexandrine rat is taken, so that director, prepared an elaborate discussion of the meteor the typical form becomes the northern Alexandrine rat, ology of Bombay. The care bestowed upon the records of while the new race is termed the black Alexandrine rat. the photographic self-registering instruments may be Their proper designations should be the Alexandrine black gathered from the fact that the watchmen go round once rat and the Black Sea black rat. every hour, night and day, to see that the clocks are all going and the lights burning. Their regular attendance is
In the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh automatically recorded on the photograms themselves. | (vol. iii., part iii., No. 22) Sir Charles Elliot describes the The total rainfall for the year amounted to only 33.4 inches,
nudibranch molluscs collected during the Scottish National being 41-7 inches below the normal value for twenty-four
Antarctic Expedition. These comprise but two species, years (1873-96); this is the smallest fall recorded at the two of which are, however, referable to new and interestobservatory. Milne's seismograph registered thirty-five ing generic types. The most remarkable feature is the earthquakes during the year.
absence in the collection of all representatives of Doris
and its allies, a feature common to the Discovery collecFrom information received from the president of the tion of this group, which has been entrusted to the author International Aeronautical Committee, we find that in the for description. Certain holothurians of the genus Psolus months of January to April last the average monthly from the Antarctic present a superficial resemblance to number of stations participating in the balloon and kite dorids, although this is not regarded as more than ascents was sixteen; kite observations were made each accidental. month at Oxshott by Mr. Dines, and at Aldershot, by the military balloon section, in February and March. The As a supplement to part iii. of Prof., Herdman's most notable heights attained, by means of unmanned report on the pearl oyster fisheries of the Gulf of balloons, were 19,420 metres at Strassburg and 21,733 Manaar, published by the Royal Society, Messrs. metres at Berlin. In April kite and unmanned balloon Shipley and Hornell describe several new parasitic worms observations were made from the Prince of Monaco's yacht (some referred to new generic types) obtained from in the Mediterranean. These are the first ascents made elasmobranch fishes frequenting the pearl-banks. Possibly, with unmanned balloons in the open sea, and these although not probably, some of the cestodes may be the successful experiments show that Prof. Hergesell's idea of parent form of the pearl-producing larvæ. No direct light obtaining such observations over the oceans may possibly is thrown by the investigations on the problem of the be realised.
provenance of the pearl-producing parasite. BULLETIN No. 35 of the Storrs Agricultural Experiment The departmental committee appointed to investigate Station, Conn., deals with the Camembert type of soft certain matters connected with the sea-fisheries of Suthercheese. The conclusion is arrived at that the ripening is | land and Caithness reports that cod and ling have of late due to definite moulds and bacteria. One mould vears been much less abundant than formerly on the coast. (? Penicillium candidum) seems to produce the changes As regards a proposed close time for herrings, it was conwhich result in the texture of the cheese, and it, together sidered that the fishermen themselves are the best judges with the Oidium lactis, produces the flavour, lactic acid as to whether such a protective measure is advisable. bacteria giving the necessary acidity and retarding the Trawling in the Moray Forth (which is not permitted to action of other bacteria. It is found possible so to control British craft) by foreign vessels is held to be responsible the process of ripening that the desired result may be for considerable injury to the fishery. obtained with reasonable uniformity.
ACCORDING to the report for 1904, the Marine Biological We have received the first number of a new periodical, Association of the West of Scotland has had a very the Medico-technologisches Journal, edited by Dr. Berthold successful year, the only drawback being certain difficulties Beer, which is to be devoted to medical and surgical instru with regard to the staff. The year witnessed the practical ments and the various apparatus employed in bacteriology, completion of the large extensions of the station generously photography, radiography, hygiene, &c., and appertaining provided by Mr. J. Coats, jun., which were opened by Sir to the medical sciences and physical therapeutics. It John Primrose in September last, and promise to meet all contains a prefatory article by Dr. Beer, and descriptions present requirements. The hope is expressed that it may of Zeiss's apparatus for the demonstration of ultra be found possible to retain the invaluable services of the microscopic particles and of various surgical instruments S.Y. Mermaid during the present season.
Nos. 4 and 5 of the admirable series of Cold Spring | HB and the two chief nebular lines, N, and N,, to pass Harbour Monographs are respectively devoted to the life
through almost without any diminution of intensity. The history of the chrysomelid beetle Chlamys plicata,
second screen freely transmitted all radiations between
^ 3880 and 1 3740, but absorbed all others, whilst with commonly called “case-bearer," and of the “ mud-snail"
the third the absorption commenced at ^ 5050, increased (dog-whelk), Nassa plicata, E. M. Briggs and A. C. Dimon rapidly to totality at HB, extended to 1 4000, and then being the respective authors, or, as some would say, quickly decreased until at 1 3727 the transparency was authoresses. The case-bearer is remarkable for the fact | very nearly complete. In this screen the two chief nebular that its encased larvæ resemble not only undeveloped buds | lines were faintly transmitted, but it was an easy matter of the alder, but likewise the fruit of the high-vine black
| to eliminate their action by employing a plate of suitable
sensitiveness. Combining the first and third screens cut berry. Of the “ mud-snail” the life-history and habits | out HB, leaving only N, and N, effective. are described in considerable detail, and a number of Marked differences of the intensities of several areas, observations recorded with regard to its reactions to as shown on the various photographs obtained with light, &c.
different screens, are plainly seen on the reproductions
accompanying Prof. Hartmann's paper. Evidently the Two addresses, on “Spirals” and “Ambidexterity,". radiation à 3727 is extraordinarily intense in all parts of which were delivered before the Hampstead Scientific
the nebula, whilst in some parts it is almost the sole Society by Sir Samuel Wilks, Bart., F.R.S., on April 14
radiation, producing strong photographic images where
the eye sees nothing. The nebula G.C. 1180 surrounding and May 12 respectively, have just been issued in pamphlet
the star c Orionis is scarcely visible on the N, and X, form by Mr. S. C. Mayle, of Hampstead. The society is photograph, but it is a prominent feature on that obtained to be congratulated on having the active support of so with the ultra-violet light, and is fairly bright on the eminent a man as Sir Samuel Wilks.
This differential action suggests to Prof. Hartmann the At the meeting of the Aëronautical Society of Great presence of at least three
presence of at least three gases in the Orion nebula, one Britain to be held on Wednesday next, the following com
of which emits the chief nebular radiations, the second munications will be read :-“ Some Remarks on Aërial
hydrogen, and a third, which emits the radiation at Flight," by G. H. Wenham ; “ Demonstration of a Bird
1 3727 (Astrophysical Journal, No. 5, vol. xxi.).
PeriodiCITY OF AËROLITE Falls. Among a number of like Flying Machine," by Dr. F. W. A. Hutchinson ;
interesting papers published by the Royal Astronomical “ Balloon Varnishes and their Defects," by W. F. Reid;
Society of Canada (“ Selected Papers and Proceedings," and “ The Thrust of Aërial Propellers,” by W. G. Walker. 1904) we notice one by Mr. W. H. S. Monck in which
the author suggests that aërolites, like meteors, effect a
certain periodicity. He first shows that the months of OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
May and June stand out prominently in his catalogue of
aërolites as the two months of the year in which a greater OBSERVATIONS OF THE SATELLITES OF SATURN AND proportion of known falls have taken place. The number URANUS.-An important set of observations of the satellites per diem for these two months is 1.34, whilst for the rest of Saturn and Uranus, involving some hundreds of of the year it is only 0.81. individual “settings," was made by Messrs. Frederick
In an argument supporting the suggested periodical reand Hammond with the 26-inch equatorial of the U.S. lation between various aërolite falls, Mr. Monck cites Naval Observatory during 1904. The position angle and | instances in which (1) aërolites fell within one or two distance of each satellite were measured from a second days of each other in the same year ; (2) aërolites fell on satellite, the angle about the inner body always being almost the same date in two consecutive years ; (3) aërolites taken. The observations extended over the period May 24 fell on nearly the same date after an interval of two or to October II, and the detailed results are published in three years; and the number of cases quoted seems to place No. 4026 of the Astronomische Nachrichten.
the matter beyond one of chance coincidences. Further, an GEODETIC MEASUREMENTS FROM SOLAR ECLIPSES.—The analysis of the catalogue dates and numbers indicates a Journal of the British Astronomical Association (vol. xv., | marked tendency for series of falls to congregate about June 22) contains a paper in which Mr. C. E. Stromever certain dates, and for these falls Mr. Monck tentatively points out that if the central shadow of the coming August
deduces periodicities varying from seven to twenty years. eclipse be accurately located, all the necessary data will be The Reality Of SUPPOSED CHANGES ON THE Moon's available for the determination of the geocentric difference SURFACE.-In a paper published in the June number of of any two observation stations. He proposes two methods the Bulletin de la Société astronomique de France for eye observations, and two photographic methods, of M. Puiseux discusses at some length the various obsert. which one in particular seems capable of being carried ations of alleged changes on the lunar surface under the out with the desired precision ; it consists in photographing influence of the solar radiation. Going back to the a trail of the central phase of the eclipse on to a moving earliest observations of details, he carefully considers each film.
authoritative report of suspected change up to the most - The method described can be carried out both within | recent observations of the reported increase of the diameter and outside the shadow, but the best results will be 1 of Linné during lunar eclipses. Summing up all the obtained if the observer is just on the edge of the shadow. evidence thus examined, M. Puiseux arrives at the cooThe method can also be used with annular eclipses, and clusion that the case for real changes taking place on the if found to be trustworthy would be a valuable means for surface of our satellite is not established. He believes tha' gradually determining the geocentric distances of various the change of sensitiveness of the retina when observing points, even of islands in mid-ocean, which can never be faint objects is sufficient to account for the changes visually triangulated.
observed, whilst the different conditions of exposure when MONOCHROMATIC PHOTOGRAPHS OF TIIE Orion NEBULA. photographing the eclipsed moon might easily introduce On obtaining a series of spectrograms of the Orion nebula the changes suspected from the examination of photographs. with a small objective-prism quartz spectrograph, Prof. THE CIRCUMZENITHAL APPARATUS.-A new circumzenithal Hartmann found that different parts of the nebula emit apparatus, devised by MM. Nuši and Frič for the deterlight of very different composition, whilst large areas, of mination of latitude, &c., was briefly described in these characteristic forms, shine solely by the ultra-violet radi columns for August 20, 1903. A full and illustrated den ation at 1 3727. This variety of the light emitted by the scription of the instrument, and of the various improves several areas of the nebula led Prof. Hartmann to employ ments suggested by experience in its use, is now given colour screens in obtaining direct photographs with a in the Bulletin International of the Académie des Sciences Steinheil reflector of 24 cm. aperture and 90 cm. focal de François Joseph I. (Prague, 1904) by the inventors length. Three screens were used; the first completely together with a detailed account of the observations already absorbed all wave-lengths shorter than a 4800, but allowed I made and the methods employed in reducing the same.
THE NEEDS OF OUR OLDEST UNIVERSITY. fessor's stipend, demonstrators, assistants, apparatus, and THE following statement has been drawn up by those
material for research and for teaching, and the general ex
penses of maintenance. professors and heads of departments of the University
With such an income a professor could encourage several of Oxford whose names are appended, each being responsible for the details of his own and allied subjects, but expressing
of his most promising men to do original work, giving them
employment in teaching or working for the department also a general sympathy with the scheme as a whole. It
during a part of their time. indicates the cost at which, in their opinion, all important
Attention to the large and insistent needs of the existing existing deficiencies (except those of law) may be met by a
and proposed scientific departments has been accompanied generous provision for research as well as for teaching. To carry out the scheme here set forth would require a
by a generous provision for the necessities of other subjects, capital outlay of about 564,00ol., and an annual income of
and especially by the suggested increase of the Bodleian
income to 23,oool. a year-even then less than one-third of about 93,000l.
the annual sum supplied to the National Library. A large proportion of the capital sum proposed for building
We feel that it is not too much to claim that the annual the new laboratories, together with the whole sum proposed
output in research and teaching from the small inadequately for the purchase of land near the museum, might be saved
endowed-often miserably endowed-departments of the if the chemical and physical departments were moved from
university, justifies the confident conclusion that a liberal their present position. It is estimated that at a cost of about
provision for existing and imminent needs would be fol60.000l. all existing or proposed departments in these
lowed by results of the highest importance to the Empire branches of science could be accommodated, and space found
as well as to the university. The results would be threefor other proposed laboratories in the buildings thus set free.
fold—the advancement of learning, which is the highest With the sums hereafter named, in addition to her present
| and noblest function of a university ; the adequate teachresources, Oxford could successfully meet every pressing need
ing of many subjects of the first importance, now imas well as those demands which it is believed will pour in
perfectly provided, or not provided at all; the inestimable from many parts of the Empire, from the United States, and
benefits conferred upon students by living in an atmosphere from Germany.
of research. The present occasion has been thought a favourable one for
H. B. Baker, F.R.S., Lee's reader in chemistry ; Henry stating clearly the full cost which, in the opinion of those
Balfour, curator of the Pitt-Rivers Museum ; R. E. Baynes, who have signed this document, would enable Oxford con
Lee's reader in physics ; T. K. Cheyne, Oriel professor of fidently and hopefully to face the great responsibilities which
the interpretation of Holy Scripture ; R. B. Clifton, F.R.S., have been placed upon her. But whatever be the outcome,
professor of experimental philosophy: S. R. Driver, Regius her professors and heads of departments gladly welcome professor of Hebrew; F. Y. Edgeworth, professor of political the inspiring opportunity for research and for education economy; E. B. Elliott, F.R.S., Waynflete professor of pure which these new responsibilities will assuredly bring. . They
mathematics; Robinson Ellis, Corpus professor of Latin will cheerfully attempt to meet the coming needs, even with literature: W. Esson, F.R.S., Savilian professor of the present inadequate resources, but they consider it right geometry; Arthur J. Evans, F.R.S., keeper of the Ashto point out that their work will be done under the greatest molean Museum ; C. H. Firth, Regius professor of modern difficulties and therefore inadequately.
history; P. Gardner, Lincoln and Merton professor of The insufficient endowment of many university departments | archæology : Francis Gotch, F.R.S., Waynflete professor of and the necessity for further equipment have been subjects of
| physiology ; H. Goudy, Regius professor of civil law; anxious consideration for many years, culminating in the F. Li. Griffith, reader in Egyptology; W. Lock, Ireland l'ice-Chancellor's letter of February 20, 1902, to heads of
ary 20, 1902, to heads of professor of exegesis of Holy Scripture; A. E. H. Love, institutions and departments-published with the answers in
F.R.S., Sedleian professor of natural philosophy; R. W. the “Statement of the Needs of the University” (Oxford,
Macan, university reader in ancient history; A. A. 1902). The estimates of expenditure given below have been
Macdonell, Boden professor of Sanskrit ; D. S. Margoliouth, Largely based upon these published replies to a letter which
Laudian professor of Arabic; Henry A. Miers, F.R.S., prowas issued before our necessities became still more press fessor of mineralogy; W. R. Morfill, professor of Russian ; ing in consequence of the will of Mr. Rhodes. Many addi1 A. S. Napier, Merton professor of English language and tional needs not contemplated in the replies to the Vice. literature; E. W. B. Nicholson, Bodley's librarian; W. Chancellor have also come to light in the course of this
Odling, F.R.S., Waynflete professor of chemistry ; R. L. inquiry, and are provided for in the following scheme. The
Ottley, Regius professor of pastoral theology; H. F. Pelham, published statement of needs is itself introduced by the fol Camden professor of ancient history ; E. B. Poulton, F.R.S., lowing sentence (p. 3): “It is hardly necessary to add that Hope professor of zoology; Arthur Sidgwick, university in dealing with prospective needs it is generally impossible reader in Greek; W. A. Raleigh, professor of English to form even an approximate estimate of the new and ever literature; John Rhys, Jesus professor of Celtic; James increasing wants which the rapidly-growing requirements of Ritchie, reader in pathology; W. Sanday, Margaret proour time may bring, and indeed in some instances (even since fessor of divinity; A. H. Sayce, professor of Assyriology ; these statements were prepared) have already brought within Henry Sweet, university reader in phonetics; W. J. view."
Sollas, F.R.S., professor of geology; John S. Townsend, It has been assumed in the following statement that every
Tollowing statement that every | F.R.S., Wykeham professor of physics; H. H. Turner, important university chair, including all those to which the | F.R.S., Savilian professor of astronomy; E. B. Tylor,
epartment providing for one of the chief scientific | F.R.S., professor of anthropology ; Sydney H. Vines, subjects is attached, should be of the value of gool. a yrır. F.R.S., Sherardian professor of botany; W. F. R. Weldon, in fixing this sum the traditions of the last Commission have | F.R.S., Linacre professor of comparative anatomy; Joseph been followed, but it is necessary to bear in mind that the Wright, professor of comparative philology. growth of universities in the future and the competition be- The late Regius professor of medicine, Sir John Burdon tween them may ultimately render such a sum insufficient to Sanderson, F.R.S., has expressed his approval. attract and retain the greatest workers and teachers. Bodleian Library.--Fire-proofing, additional storage, . Under existing conditions we are convinced that it is additional reading-room, warming picture-gallery, electric. adequate, but the university would require a large increase lighting of camera (see also Central University Instituof income before she could provide for every important chair tion below, which it is suggested might liberate the stipend with which it is sometimes erroneously believed additional space for the Bodleian) (25,000l. : ----); large to be endowed.
increase of staff, filling up deficiencies in and maintaining Each new laboratory devoted to one of the principal special departments, printing the catalogue, binding (includbranches of natural science has been estimated to cost ing arrears) (- : 13,000l.). 30,000l,, exclusive of site. It is believed that this sum would In this and all other cases the sum placed before the provide fittings and sufficient apparatus to begin teaching colon indicates capital outlay, that placed after the colon and research on an adequate scale, allowance being made annual expenditure. for the material now in the possession of the university. It Central University Institution.-Containing workrooms has been assumed that every important laboratory, both new and lecture-rooms for professors not otherwise provided for, and old, should receive an income of 3000l. a year, for pro- university chest, delegates' rooms, committee rooms, &c., &c. The Clarendon building might be incorporated in Bod in scientific subjects, &c., for increase of the stipend of the leian (cost, including site in a central position, 80,oool. :-); chairs, for additional demonstrators and assistants, and for custody of same, warming, lighting, cleaning (- : 400l.); the expenses of research and of service and maintenance. stipend of librarian for departmental libraries ( : 200l.). The capital expenditure is placed first, the annual second.
Examination Schools.- Installation of the electric light under each chair : (1000l. :-).
Experimental Philosophy, Clarendon.-Light and Sound Theology.-Oriel professor of interpretation of Holy Scrip (25,000l., to include provision for elementary students and for ture, stipend (the chair to be detached from the canonry at examinations : 20001.); Electricity and Magnetism, Wuke Rochester) ( :900l.); Dean Ireland's professor, increase of ham (30,000l. : 2000l.) ; Heat, Lee's (30,000l. : 2000l., allowstipend : 500l.); two additional professors, ecclesiastical ing for Lee's readership); Inorganic Chemistry, Waynflete history - : gool.), Christian archæology (i 6ool.); four (30,000l., old laboratory for extension of mineralogy, geology additional readers (300l. each), ecclesiastical history, liturgi and the Radcliffe library : 22001.): Physical Chemistry, ology, Rabbinical Hebrew, Biblical archæology (-: 1200l.); Lee's (30,000l. : 20001., allowing for Lee's readership; Grinfield lecturer on Biblical Greek, increase of stipend, Mineralogy, Waynflete (15,00ol. : 22001., including an assis making the lectureship equal to a readership, with reader's tant chair of metallurgy); Geology (20,000l. : 3000l., includduties (- : 230l.); (additional readers (not exclusively con ing two assistant chairs); Comparative Anatomy, Linacre cerned with theology)-Aramaic, Armenian, Coptic, (- : 1000l.); Zoology, Hope (7000l., chiefly for cabinets (-: Ethiopic] (- : 1200l.); travelling fellowships (2) (- : 400l.); 2500l., including the maintenance of a tropical biological capital fund from which payment might be made for occa laboratory); Systematic Botany, Sherardian (- : 10001.); sional lectures (3000l. : -).
Animal Physiology, Waynflete (6000l.: 1000l.); Human Greek, New Professor of Mediaeval and Modern Greek. Anatomy (- : 1000l.). Stipend (- : gool.).
Secretary of the Museum Delegates and of the Scientin. Classical Palaeography.--Stipends of new readers, Greek Departments.- Increase of staff for the general purposes of and Latin (300l. each) : 600l.).
the museum and to enable the secretary to collect all fees of New chairs of Pali and Persian philology and literature the scientific departments (- : 400l.). (700l. each) (- : 1400l.)...
Sites for Scientific Departments.-For purchase of land in "Reader in Prakrit Philology and Literature.-Stipend the neighbourhood of the present museum (50,000l. :-). (- : 300l.); increased stipend of 100l. to each of the Geography.-Stipend of new chair ( : 700l.); assistant five teachers of Indian vernacular, and additional grant to lecturers : 7501.). Indian Institute for purchase and care of Indian antiquities, University Chest.-Increased income to meet expenses in &c. (300l.) (-- : 8ool.).
connection with additional buildings (- : 2000l.). Ashmolean Museum.-Extension of site, increase of
Modern History.--New chairs of economic history, museum, cases and fittings, including a numismatic depart
colonial history, and military history (oool. each) ( ment and space for growth of the departments mentioned
2700l.); " seminars," maintenance and equipment of (1ond. below (30,000l. :-); increased staff both for the museum
for each of the chairs) (-: 500l.); Lectureships--additional and common service of the Ashmolean museum and univer payment of existing lecturers and appointment of new lecsity picture-gallery, and stipend of librarian (-: 10001.); turers, class expenses (-: 1500l.). post-graduate studentship in archæology, art, &c. (-:
Political Economy.- Increased stipend of chair (2001.), se 1000l.); purchase of specimens, books, &c. (- : 1500l.).
also the new chair of economic history proposed under Classical Archaeology.-Increased stipend of chair, three Modern History; lecturers in economic theory, in statistics new readerships (-: 1500l.).
and applied economics, and in economic geography (2001 Increase required for creation of new chairs of Greek and each); expenditure on examinations, &c. (501.); secretary and Roman Epigraphy and Inscriptions (700l. each), Egyptology clerk (1501.), (- : 1000l.). (700l.), Assyriology (700l.), History of Religions (7001.), 1 English Language.-Two assistants in English language Northern Archaeology (900l.), History of Architecture (- : 600l.). (900l.) (-: 5300l.)
English Literature.--Increased stipend of chair (4001.); University Picture Gallery.-Extension of site, increase of two assistant lecturers in English literature (150l. each); gallery (10,000l. :--).
one reader in rhetoric and criticism (300l.) (-1000l.). Slade Professor of Fine Art.-Increased stipend for resi Modern Languages.-Increase of stipends of Taylorian dent chair, wages of attendant (- : 600l.); increase of sti
teachers to 600l, each (- : 1600l.); assistant lecturers (-: pends, purchases, &c. (- : 1000l.).
1000l.). Pitt-Rivers Museum (Ethnology).-Increased space, build New Chair of Phonetics.--Stipend (- : gool.). ing (80ool.), cases and fittings (4000l.), electric lighting Total (546,250l. : 93,8801.). (250l.), (12,250l. :--); increase of stipend, a professorship of anthropology might, at some future time, be combined with the curatorship (- : 700l.); assistants, service, general
PRELIMINARY REPORT OF THE DEPARTexpenses and purchase of specimens (-: 700l.).
MENTAI. COMMITTEE ON THE ROYAL Astronomy, Savilian.-Building and apparatus (10,000l.
COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND ROYAL :-); annual grant to make up a moderately efficient and SCHOOL OF MINES. well-equipped observatory with an income of 5000l. (-: TO THE Most HONOURABLE THE MARQUESS OF LONDON 3500l.). Increase required for creation of new chairs in scientific
DERRY, K.G., PRESIDENT OF THE BOARD OF EDUCATION subjects and the building and new laboratories, &c. Under
My LORD MARQUESS, each chair the first-named sum represents capital expenditure We, the Departmental Committee appointed by Your for a new building, or for adapting an existing structure; Lordship in April last to inquire into the present and the second sum represents the annual expenditure for the future working of the Royal College of Science (including stipend of the chair, provision of demonstrators and assist- | the Royal School of Mines), and into questions connected ants, the expenses of research and of service and main therewith, have the honour to submit a Preliminary Report. tenance :
I. In conducting the inquiry referred to us, we have held Engineering (30,000l. : 3000l.); Organic Chemistry 17 meetings, at which we have examined 21 witnesses, (30,000l. : 3000l.); Physiological and Applied Botany the remainder of the time having been devoted to con(20,000l. : 2000l.); Biochemistry (12,000l : 20001.); Experi sideration of the information thus supplied to us. The mental Psychology (15,000l. : 2000l.); Pathology ( : evidence which we have received has been largely con1500l., allowing for existing readership); Pharmacology cerned with the history of the Royal College of Science and Materia Medica (15,000l. : 1500l., allowing for existing (including the Royal School of Mines), with the character lectureship); State Medicine and Hygiene (10,000l. : 2000l.). of the instruction now given therein, and with the possiThe Regius professorship of medicine might perhaps be com bility of attracting students more advanced in their educkbined with one of the suggested new chairs of medicine. tion than the majority of those who now seek admission
Increase required for building new or adapting old | On this branch of our inquiry we should be prepared to laboratories and other capital expenditure, for existing chairs submit recommendations which we think would conduct