Page images


on the "

It will be noticed that the scheme I have outlined is ledge and practice in connection with the circulatory system closely analogous to the system already general in con- since Harvey's time, and the methods by which it had been nection with medical training, where the lecturing and brought about. He also directed attention to some of the professorial staff on the technical side consists almost more prominent examples of the beneficial results on an entirely of old students (occasionally from other colleges) extensive scale of scientific and practical research, and who are beginning to make their way professionally, or alluded specially, as being closely connected with the who, by the time they have become professors, have circulatory system, to the brilliant victories" which had actually made their way to the highest ranks of their been achieved against malaria in various parts of the profession.

world, many of them forming an integral part of this vast Empire. While paying a tribute of respect and admiration to all those who at the risk of life and health have gone

forth to dangerous climates to study and fight against this HARI'EY AND THE PROGRESS OF

and other tropical diseases, Dr. Roberts mentioned specially

Dr. J. E. Dutton, the latest “ martyr of science, as he MEDICIL SCIENCE.'

had been aptly called, whose lamented death recently FTER some introductory remarks, Dr. Roberts re

occurred on the Congo, where he had gone to study sleepA ferred to Harvey's work, and especially to his great

ing sickness on behalf of the Liverpool School of 'fropical discovery of what is commonly spoken of as the circu

Medicine. He expressed on behalf of the college their lation of the blood, though his published treatise is really

deep sense of the great services which Dr. Dutton had

rendered to the medical profession and to hunianity, their movements of the heart and of the blood. He re-affirmed their implicit belief in the absolute priority

profound regret at the premature cutting oli of such a of Harvey's claim to this discovery, and spoke of its

valuable life and promising career, and their heartfelt magnitude and far-reaching effects, which had been de

sympathy with his bereaved family and friends. scribed in various and glowing terms, in no

The orator concluded as follows ;--The last and inost

way exaggerated. Vor must they forget the formidable difficulties

agreeable duty laid upon me by Harvey's direction is to under which Harvey carried out his investigations; the

" exhort the Fellows and Members, for the honour of the profound errors which he had to combat and overthrow,

profession, to continue in mutual love and affection among and the confusion he had to clear away; his indomitable

themselves, without which neither the dignity of the perseverance; and the masterly yet courteous manner in College can be maintained, nor vet particular men receive which he disputed and ultimately overcame the objections might expect, ever remembering that concordia res par de

that benefit by their admission into the College which they which had been raised against his views. The orator then gave an outline of Harvey's career,

crescunt, discordia magnae dilabuntur." With regard to dealing more especially with his association with the

the future position and reputation of this college in relation College of Physicians, where he held the position of

to scientific research and the progress of medicine, there Lumleian Lecturer from 1615 to 1656, in the very first

can be no doubt or misgiving when we see amongst our course of lectures presenting a detailed exposition of his

younger fellows and members so many who are endowed views concerning the circulation of the blood, which con

with great abilities, who are full of energy, intellectual tinued to form one of his subjects for several years. In

vigour, and enthusiasm in their work, and whose achievethe deed by which Harvey conveyed to the college his

ments have already brought them into conspicuous prominestate, he laid down three definite and distinct injunctions profession. May we not confidently hope that they will

ence and, in some cases, into the foremost ranks of our or instructions as to the subject-matter of the oration, which it was their duty to follow. The first injunction unflinchingly strive to maintain the high standard of

also ever keep in mind Harvey's last exhortation, and is that " there shall be a commemoration of all the benefactors of the said College by name and what in particular

character and conduct which he has placed before them? they have done for the benefit of the said College, with

But should they at any time feel the need of an example, an exhortation to others to imitate these benefactors and

a stimulus, or an inspiration, let them steadily fix their to contribute their endeavours for the advancement of the

attention and thoughts upon the personality, the life, and

the work of our " immortal and beloved Harvey," whom society according to the example of those benefactors.' Dealing with this injunction, Dr. Roberts first mentioned

it is our privilege and pride and happiness to commemorate

on this anniversarv. individually Harvey himself ; Thomas Linacre, the practical founder of the College of Physicians; and John Caius. He then considered generally as benefactors those who had held high office, alluding specially to that of Presi. dent; those who had founded lectureships, or had given HIGH TEMPERATURE RESEARCH ON THE endowments for prizes, medals, or scholarships ; those who

FELSPARS. had contributed to the library or to the general funds; and those who by their professional or scientific attainments and achievements, as well as by their high personai Arielaborate investigation of the melting points of the

felspars, devised and carried out by Messrs. Day character, general culture and scholarship, and intellectual and Allen in the physical laboratory of the United States and moral qualities have shed unfading renown and lustre Geological Survey, is described in a memoir just received.' upon the College of Physicians.

The geological importance of laboratory research at high In discussing the second injunction, namely, to

temperatures was strongly urged by the late Clarence King the Fellows and Members of this College to search and and Dr. Becker, and the well known work of Dr. Carl study out the secrets of nature by way of experiment," the Barus has already furnished petrologists with a number of orator made a passing allusion in favour of vivisection, valuable data. The laboratory, discontinued in 1892 for claiming for this method of investigation the cordial sup- want of funds, has been re-established by the exertions port of the medical faculty as a whole, with comparatively of Dr. Becker, and the piece of work before us has been few exceptions. After referring to what the College had in part subsidised by the

of the Carnegie done as a body in advancing scientific research, he enlarged Institution. upon the great activity and promising aspects of modern The authors describe in detail, for the benefit of other research, more particularly in relation to subjects con- experimenters, the thermoelectric method by which they nected with the medical profession, and expressed his have been enabled to measure high temperatures with an belief that Harvey would be amazed and fully satisfied error of not more than one degree, li was also found were he to come on the scene at the present time, and necessary to adopt some method of determining the instant realise the extent and thoroughness with which his exhort- of melting (where such exists) independently of the ation is being carried into effect in all directions. Dr. personal judgment of the operator. It appears that in Roberts then gave an abstract of what he had prepared for the oration with reference to the progress of know- 1 "The Isomorphism and Thermal Properties of the Felspars." Pant i.

Thermal Study By Arthur 1.. Day and E. T. Allen. Part is. Optical 1 Abstract of the Harveian Oration delivered at ihe Royal College of Study. By J. P. Iddings. Wi'h an introduction by George F. Becker Physicians on June a1 by Dr. Frederick T. Roberts.

Pp. 95 ; xxvi plates. (Washington, 1905.)

" exhort


[ocr errors]





such minerals as the felspars the viscosity of the fused | temperature is to be regarded as a superheated solid or as substance may be of the same order as the rigidity of the a liquid crystal, in which deorientation is prevented by solid crystal approaching fusion, so that there is to the extreme viscosity. eye no abrupt change. The discordance between the results

Specific Gravity

Felspar Temperature Crystals Glass


2.765 2700 Ab Ang

1500 2733 2.648 Ab, An,

1463° 2710 2'591 Ab, An,

2 679

Ab, An
1367° 2 660

2.483 AbzAn

1340° 2.649 2.458 Albite


2-382 We reproduce in tabular form the chief numerical results obtained. he general conclusions arrived at are of great importance. The melting point curve for the lime-soda-felspars, as well as the curve of specific volume, is continuous, and not very different from a straight line, and we have almost conclusive proof that this group of minerals forms a truly isomorphous series. Further, it belongs to type i. of Bakhuis Roozeboom, the melting point falling steadily from one end of the series to the other. Here a further point of interest arises. According to theory, the crystals first formed from the fused mass should be richer in anorthite than the liquid from which they separate, and should contain an increasing proportion of albite as crystallisa

tion proceeds. Day and Allen, however, verified Film 1.–Tabular Crystals of Bytownite from Middle of Crucible. From "The

in several cases that their crystals had the same Isomorphism and Thermal Properties of the Felspars."

composition as the mother liquid. This can only be due to undercooling, the beginning of crystal

lisation being deferred until the temperature had of different experimenters is largely attributable to this fallen below the range proper to normal crystallisation. fact. The method followed was therefore to plot as Those natural rocks in which the felspar crystals show a curve the relation between temperature and time, and to zoned structure (the outer zones richer in albite) must have note the place where a change in the shape of the curve crystallised without undercooling, and, indeed, their felspars indicates an absorption of latent heat. To avoid the disturbing influence of impurities, the several felspars to be examined were prepared artificially. Thin slices of the crystallised products were studied optically by Prof. Iddings, and they are illustrated in the memoir by a series of beautiful plates.

Anorthite was the selspar most easily crystallised, and its curve gave a sufficiently sharp melting point at 1532° Other varieties amined had the compositions Ab, Ans, Ib, In, .ab.An, Ab.An, These gave progressively lower melting points; but it was found that, in passing from anorthite towards the albite end of the series, viscosity rapidly increases and obscures the phenomenon of fusion, the break in the curve of heating becoming for Ab, An, barely perceptible deviation. For albite, and also for orthoclase, the method fails to give any result, and in a certain sense it may be said that the alkali-felspars have no melting point. In this connection, a special series of experiments gave some remarkable results. A small fragment of crystalline albite, embedded in albite glass, was heated to 1200° and slowly cooled. Thin slices showed that the crystal had melted to a glass only along cleavage and other cracks. The experiment

repeated with higher temperatures of heating up to 1250°, and it was found that, though the lanes of glass encroached more and more upon the crystal, con

Fig. 2.–Spherulite of Plumose Bundles of Prismatic Crystals of Labradorite. From siderable relics of the latter were still left, pre

“The Isomorphism and Thermal Properties of the Felspars." serving undisturbed their original orientation. It thus appears that a mineral like albite, which must have been formed within a certain range of temperamelts to an ultra-viscous liquid, may be maintained for ture, which can be more or less closely determined. In half an hour at a temperature well above its normal this and other petrological applications the work of the inelting point without being completely fused. It seems authors affords a valuable supplement to that of Vogt. doubtful whether the crystalline substance at such

[ocr errors]



Α. Η.

a а


of these designs much resembles that of similar designs

found in other parts of Mexico and in Central and South WE have on several occasions directed attention to America. These textile designs, which are of great variety

works by American ethnologists dealing with in- and beauty, acquire much more interest from the suggestive vestigations on the meanings of the designs and patterns of interpretation of their symbolism which Dr. Lumholtz has aboriginal decorative art. This fruitful and interesting afforded us. field of inquiry is by no means exhausted, and two papers The American Museum of Natural History is to be conon the subject have recently been published by the American gratulated on possessing collections about which so much Museum of Natural History which merit the careful atten- valuable information has been obtained, and students are tion of students. Dr. Clark Wissler has made a valuable to be congratulated on having these riches inade accessible study of the decorative art of the Sioux Indians which is to them by means of such beautifully illustrated memoirs. a model of clear and concise expression and of adequate

A. C. H. illustration. As he truly states, the investigation becomes psychological, because it is necessary to know what ideas the artists have of their designs, and what motives lead to their execution. The assumption that all primitive

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL decorative designs are executed with consciousness that

INTELLIGENCE. they symbolise some definite obiect or relation in nature OXFORD.-An examination for a geographical scholaris fairly supported by the facts so far accessible, but does ship will be held on October 12 next. Candidates, who it follow that these symbolic designs were produced by a must have taken honours in one of the final schools of the gradual transition from the realistic representation? That university, should send their names to the reader in geosome of them were so produced has been satisfactorily graphy, Old Ashmolean Museum, by, at latest, October 2. demonstrated ; but is this the law of growth for decorative The value of the scholarship is 60l. art? It appears, among the American Indians, that the more abstract the idea, the simpler and more geometric professor of pathology so long as he holds the readership

Dr. J. Ritchie, reader in pathology, has been constituted the design. On the other hand, it is obvious that a vigorous conventionalisation of representative forms must

in question, tend to reduce them all to a few simple geometric designs, In such an event, confusion as to the symbolic aspect of fellowship of the value of 100l. was awarded to Mr. Joseph

At the recent congregation of the University of Leeds a similar designs must arise in the minds of the artists, necessitating re-interpretation or creation of new symbols.

Marshall, of the Victoria University School of Chemistry. Thus any given interpretation need have no certain relation PROF. STEPHEN M. Dixon, holder of the chair of civil to the origin of the design itself; indeed, the association engineering in the Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, has of the symbol and the idea can be shown in some cases been appointed to the new professorship of civil engineering to be quite secondary. Amongst the Sioux there are two in the University of Birmingham. main kinds of decorative art-realistic painting and con- It was mentioned by the principal of King's College, ventional bead- or quill-work; the former is done by the London, at the recent distribution of prizes and certificates men and the latter by the women, and there is every to the successful students that Prof. W. G. Adams, F.R.S., reason for assuming that the pictographic mode is on the

is about to resign his chair after forty-two years' work in whole the older. One sex has often appropriated the the college. designs used by the other to express divergent ideas, and thus we see how even within the same tribe two or more

The Rogers prize of zool. of the l'niversity of London modes of expressing symbolic motives may make simul

has this year been awarded to Dr. B. J. Collingwood for

on “Anæsthetics, their Physiological and taneous use of the same graphic designs. In a short paper of fifty pages on the decorative art of

Clinical Action." The essay submitted by Dr. A. G. the Huichol Indians of Mexico, Dr. C. Lumholtz has

Levy was highly commended, and an honorarium of 5ol.

was awarded him. managed to crowd some 350 figures, so that we have abundant material for study. All these designs, he

A MOVEMENT is now in progress for providing the North says, are expressions of religious ideas that pervade the Wales University College with new buildings at entire existence of these people; in other words, they are

estimated cost of 175,000l., of which 30,000l. has been permanent prayers. Girdles and ribbons, inasmuch already promised. The site has been given by the corthey are considered as rain serpents, are in themselves poration, which has presented the deed of gift to Lord prayers for rain and for the results of rain, namely, good Kenyon, president of the college. The president has excrops, health, and life. All the designs on pouches, shirts, pressed the hope that the rest of Wales will follow the skirts, and so forth express prayers for some material

liberality shown at Bangor, and that there will be no more benefit, or for protection against evil, or adoration of

need for the best professors of the college to leave Bangor some deity. Thus the magic double water-gourd, even in for more lucrative positions in other parts of the United its most conventionalised form, means a prayer for water,

Kingdom. the source of all life and health. Animals like the puma, ACCORDING to the Electrician, a committee of the Liver. jaguar, eagle, &c., express prayers for protection, as well pool City Council, instructed by the Finance Committee as adoration for the deity to which the creatures belong. to report as to how far the educational methods employed The little white flower, toto, which grows in the wet, at the Liverpool University were in the interests of the corn-producing season, is at once a symbol and a prayer city and met its requirements, have reported that they for corn, and in all sorts of forms it is to be found woven are satisfied that the University is doing its best to ensure in their costumes. Flowers play, and always have played, that its students shall enter into the business of life with an important part in the religion of these Indians; with their intellectual powers fully developed by providing the them flowers, like the plumes of birds, are prayers for students with a wide range of duty and sound methods rain and life. Dr. Lumholtz doubts if there is such a thing of instruction, and they have therefore recommended that as ornamentation solely for decorative purposes among the the sum of 10,000l. should be granted during the present Huichol, or, for that matter, among any primitive people. year upon the same conditions under which a similar Prof. Boas points out that on the whole the style of grant was made for the first time last year. The report decoration of ceremonial objects differs considerably from of the finance committee has come before the City that of the ornamental parts of garments. The former are Council and has been approved. Of the amount in question, crude and pictographic, with slight tendency to 1oool, is devoted to scholarships for Liverpool men. ventionalism, while the latter are regular, well executed, and strongly conventionalised, and the general character

Copies have been received of the Johns Hopkins Unie

versity Circular containing the programme of courses for 1 “Decorative Art of the Sioux Indians." By Clark Wissler. Bull. Am. the session 1905-06, and of the Yearbook of the Armour Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. xviii., pp. 231-278. (New York, 1904.) " Decorative Art of the Huichol Indians." By Carl Lumholtz. Mem.

Institute of Technology, Chicago, for 1905-06. The Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Whole series, vol. ii. Anthropology, vol. ii. part iii.

Johns Hopkins University will begin its thirtieth year (New York, 1904.)

of instruction next October. The work will be carried on

his essay





in three divisions :—The graduate department, in which ether

to have an absolutely continuous structure, the arrangements are made for the instruction of advanced number M will be absolutely infinite. students in the higher branches of science and literature : The energy of the 2M coordinates of the ether is exthe medical department, in which students (men and pressible as a sum of 2M squares. The energy of the women) who have already received a liberal education 2N material coordinates may, again neglecting small are received as candidates for the degree of M.D., and terms, be divided into kinetic and potential energy. The in which doctors of medicine may attend special courses ; kinetic energy is expressible as a sum of N squares, namely, the collegiate department, in which students receive a the sum of the three components of energy of each electron liberal education leading to a degree. The Armour In- of which the matter is composed. Thus the total energy stitute of Technology was founded in 1892, and the work is expressible as the sum of 2M+N squares, plus an of instruction was begun in September, 1893. Courses are unknown potential energy of electrons. It now follows, now offered in mechanical engineering, electrical engineer- | as in the proof of the well known theorem of equiing, civil engineering, chemical engineering, fire protection partition of energy, that after an infinite time the sum engineering, general science, and architecture, and all lead of any p of these squares stands to the sum of the remainto the degree of Bachelor of Science.

ing a squares in a ratio which is equal to p/q, subject

only to the condition that p and q are large enough to In the course of an address on degree day, July 8, at be treated as infinite without appreciable error. Since the l'niversity of Liverpool, Lord Derby, the chancellor,

2M and N satisfy these conditions, it follows that the said that since they last met they had several laboratories, some complete and some in progress.

system tends towards a state in which the energy of the Another

ether is infinite in comparison with the kinetic energy building, to be opened in November, will be for the study

of the matter. In other words, there is a general tendency of natural history. They had also an extension to record

for the ether to gain energy at the expense of matter. of the chemical laboratories, to provide accommodation

It is, however, obvious that our own universe is at for the department of physical chemistry, and an addition

present far removed from its final state, so that the study to the existing department. This had been provided at an

of this final state is of less interest than the study of the estimated cost of 10,500l., which the president of the stages through which the final state is being reached. council, Mr. E. K. Muspratt, had promised to contribute.

In discussing the transition to the final state, a principle Since they last met 10,000l. had been given by Mrs, proved elsewhere (“ The Dynamical Theory of Gases, Barrow, the borough of Birkenhead had given an annual

chapter ix.) is of service. Suppose that a vibration of any grant of 5ool., and a grant of 10,000l. had been received

dynamical system is influenced by an external agency. from the Liverpool City Council, 1000l. from the county

Then the principle in question asserts that the ultimate of Lancaster, from Cheshire 300l., and from the borough of

effect of this influence is infinitesimal, except when the Bootle 500l. The sum of 1500l. had been given to endow

external agency changes to a considerable extent in a time a lectureship in memory of Sir William Mitchell Banks.

comparable with the period of the vibration. If the time Mr. E. Whitley had promised 10001., and under the will

of change in the external agency is n times the period of the late Mr. J. L. Bowes the University would receive

of the vibration, where n is large, then the ultimate change a legacy of Soool for the benefit of the department of

in the energy of the vibration vanishes to the same order chemistry and other purposes. The company subsequently as e-n, a quantity which soon becomes negligible as a proceeded to the new electrotechnical laboratory, and Sir increases. Joseph Swan formally opened the building, which he Thus, if is some small interval of time, so small that described as eminently suited for the purpose for which

the material system may be regarded as perceptibly unit was intended. The cost of the laboratory has been

altered through a time, then the change produced in defrayed by a sum of 12,000l., drawn from the university

the energy of ether vibrations of which the period is less fund, and the Lancashire County Council has contributed

than will be very slight. The energy of such vibrations 1000l. towards meeting the more pressing demands for

may therefore be treated as though it were incapable of equipment.

change, so long as our consideration of the system does not extend over a very long period.

The total number of modes of vibration of any enclosed SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

or unenclosed piece of ether is, as has been said, either

very great or infinite, but the number of vibrations of an LONDON.

enclosed piece of ether of which the frequencies are below Royal Society, May 18. —" On the Chemical Mechanism

an assigned value is finite. Thus, we can now suppose M of Gastric Secretion." By J. S. Edkins.

replaced by some small number M', and the value of M'

will be finite. So long as we limit our consideration of June 8.-" On the Application of Statistical Mechanics the system to a finite time, say a million years, we may to the General Dynamics of Matter and Ether." By regard the energies of the remaining modes of vibration J. H. Jeans. Communicated by Prof. J. Larmor, Sec.R.S. as constant and very small. The ratio of ethereal to

The object of the paper is to apply the methods of material kinetic energy now 2M'/N, a quantity which statistical mechanics to questions connected with radiation cannot be infinite and may be very small. and the energy of the ether. An attempt is made to

If A is a small time satisfying the conditions specified, examine whether or not the modern theory of thermo- then the rate at which an ether vibration of high frequency dynamics of radiation can be regarded as resting on sound pgains energy will involve a factor e-po, so that the dynamical principles. The result arrived at is that the time required for the vibration to acquire a perceptible use made of the second law of thermodynamics in this amount of energy will involve a factor eps. This is, of theory, in particular in the proof of Stefan's law, is one course, only true when po is large. The energy of those which cannot be justified, and hence that those parts of vibrations for which po is not large is rapidly adjusted, the theory of thermodynamics of radiation which are based and a state will soon be reached in which these vibrations upon the use of the second law must be regarded as have the share of energy allotted to them by the theorem unsound.

of equipartition of energy. With the progress of time the The problem is obtained in its simplest form by con- energy of the remaining vibrations gradually becomes persidering either a finite universe, or else a finite portion ceptible, until ultimately the final state is reached. of an infinite universe, enclosed within a perfectly reflect- We cannoty however, realise in nature the boundary ing boundary. Let the number of degrees of freedom of impervious to all forms of energy, so that it is important the matter inside this boundary, neglecting the interaction to consider whether these predictions have to be modified with the ether, be N, so that there are 2N coordinates of if the boundary, instead of being perfect, is simply as the aggregate system which very nearly represent motion perfect as we can make it. of matter only. The number N is known to be actually It is found that there is no longer any tendency for the finite, although it may be supposed to be so large that the energy of the matter, even after infinite time, to vanish error involved in treating it as infinite will be negligible. in comparison with that of the ether inside the enclosure ; Let the number of degrees of the ether be M, giving 2M the two tend to assume a finite ratio, although neither coordinates to the aggregate system. If we suppose the of the actual energies can be permanent, as the system

inside the enclosure is no longer a conservative system. species are known) had previously been regarded as true This definite ratio between matter and ether, however, ferns, but now they must be classed with the Pteridelends a meaning to the expression " radiation at a given spermeæ. The barren foliage of the species included in temperature, at any rate so long as we are concerned Crossotheca is very varied, and though the majority of with the same enclosure and the same enclosed matter. the species possess sphenopteroid pinnules, one at least

Stefan's empirical law states that the radiation is pro- bears pinnules of the pecopteroid type. portional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature, In Sphenopteris (Crossotheca) Höninghausi each “ fertile and Bartoli and Boltzmann have attempted to raise the lobe bore six to eight broadly lanceolate sharply-pointed law to the level of a theoretical law.

microsporangia. In the early condition the sporangia arr Their argument rests fundamentally upon the application bent inwards, and form a small hemispherical bunch with of Carnot's principle to the working of a heat engine, in their apices meeting in the centre. At maturity the which the working substance is the ether.

sporangia spread outwards, when they appear as a fringe Carnot's principle is, in effect, identical with the second hanging from the margin of the fertile pinnule, but are law of thermodynamics, and this in turn is a special case in reality connected for some distance to its lower surface. of a special proposition in statistical mechanics. In the The microsporangia are bilocular, the parallel loculi being present investigation the most general methods of statistical only separated by a narrow band of tissue. Dehiscence mechanics are used, and the conclusion arrived at is took place by a longitudinal cleft which passes down the different from that of the second law. The general in- inner surface of the sporangium in the line of the dividing vestigation ought, of course, to take precedence over the wall of the two loculi." attempted extension of the special case. It is, moreover, The figure shows a penultimate pinna enlarged two easy to find the exact point at which the general argument parts company with that used in the special case. In the special case, we are dealing only with forms of material energy such that there is an easy and rapid transfer of energy to the final state. The increase of entropy indicates simply the tendency to move towards this final state, and Carnot's principle is seen to be a special case of this general tendency in which it is supposed that the working substance is at every instant in the final state appropriate to its energy at that instant. When the ether is in question, it is found that the transfer of energy to vibrations of short wave-length, instead of being infinitely rapid, is, in point of fact, extremely slow, so that we never have to deal with a final state at all.

Moreover, it has to be assumed for Bartoli's argument that the energy of the working substance is a function of only two independent variables, e.g. the temperature and the density. This is not true in the case of an engine in which ether is the working substance; the ether energy is the sum of a number of vibrations of different wavelengths, and the number of vibrations which have to be included in this sum will depend on the nature as well as on the temperature of the matter with which the ether is in communication.

с Again, in the proposed argument for Stefan's law, the piston of the pump forms a moving boundary for the ether. The action of such a pump would change the frequency of vibrations in the ether, and energy which at one instant belonged to a vibration of one period would, a after passing through the pump, belong to a vibration of some entirely different frequency. The energy of the vibrations of high frequency no longer remains unaltered and very small, for there is a transfer of energy to these vibrations at every stroke of the pump. The system will rapidly assume the final state appropriate to the value of this total energy, and this is a state in which the energy of matter vanishes in comparison with that of ether.

times. The ultimate pinne c and d bear sterile pinnules Thus Bartoli's proof might be applicable to a universe in which pumps of the kind assumed had an actual existence,

at their base, above which are some fertile pinnules. These but has no application to cur own universe in which the

latter, however, are better seen at e. vibrations of highest frequency do not come into play at

It has previously been shown by Prof. Oliver and Dr.

Scott that the "seed" of Sphenopteris Höninghausi is all. It now appears that in attempting to obtain a law of

the Lagenosioma Lomaxi of Williamson. Sphenopteris radiation in conformity with the analysis of the present

Ilöninghausi is thus the first pteridosperm of which the paper, we shall not be able to use any method so general

male and female organs are known. as that of the second law of thermodynamics. The whole

The specimens described were derived from the 10-foot question is not one of partition of energy, but of transfer

Ironstone-measures, Coseley, Dudley, which belong to the

Westphalian series of the Coal-measures, and were comof energy.

municated to the author by Mr. H. W. Hughes. “ The Microsporangia of Lyginodendron." R.

Royal Microscopical Soci ty, June 21.-Mr. G. C. Kidston, F.R.S.

Karop, vice-president, in the chair. - Dr. Lazarus-Barlow In a preliminary note a description was given of the exhibited and described a new form of warm stage, devised microsporangia of Sphenopteris (Lyginodendron) löning- by him, that could be heated by oil or gas.-Mr. (ecil hausi, Brongt. It had been thought by some that the R. C. Lyster exhibited an improved form of warm stage, Telangium Scotti, Benson, might be the microsporangia heated by electricity.--Mr. C L. Curties exhibited of Lyginodendron, but the discovery of sporangia possess- arrangement for obtaining dark ground illumination with ing all the characters of Crossotheca, Zeiller, in organic high powers, which had been suggested to him by a conconnection with the sterile foliage of Lyginodendron trivance made by Leitz for attaining this object. He (Sphenopteris Höninghausi) shows that Telangium Scottishowed Pleurosigma angulatum on a dark ground under a must belong to another plant.

1/12-inch oil immersion objective. - Mr. Rheinberg The members of the genus (rossotheca (of which several directed attention to an experiment showing that the ap




« PreviousContinue »