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pearance of a grating could be produced in the field of to have been from north-north-east to south-south-west, the microscope without there being anything on the stage. , and the same direction is given by Schenck from near The lines sren were achromatic interference bands pro the junction of the Orange and Vaal Rivers. During 1904 duced with the help of two of Thorp's gratings of equal outliers of the Conglomerate were found farther north, . pitch placed behind the objective.-Mr. Rousselet directed near the junction of the Elands and Olifants Rivers.--On attention to a living specimen of Plumatella punctata new Oolitic strata in Oxfordshire : E. A. Walford.--The (Hancock) sent by Mr. Hood, of Dundee. The rare fresh- causes of variegation in Keuper Marl and in other calcarewater polyzoon has apparently not been recorded in ous rocks : G. T. Moody. The author concludes that the England since its discovery by Hancock in 1850. It differs variegation of the Keuper Marls and of other calcareous from other species of Plumatella mainly in having a soft, rocks has been brought about by the percolation of chalytransparent ectocyst.A communication by Mr. E. M. beate water through the light-coloured mass, the more Nelson on the tubercle bacillus was taken as read. porous parts of which have in consequence become stained Mr. A. E. Conrady gave a résumé of his second paper

with ferric oxide, while the harder and more crystalline on theories of microscopic vision. In his former paper parts, being non-porous, have remained unchanged. The he dealt with the formation of the image of a simple

uniformity in distribution of ferric oxide in some red plane grating, showing that it could be fully accounted rocks, such as the New Red Sandstone, suggests that the for on the basis of Abbe's theory. In the present paper iron contained in them has probably been derived from he considered more complicated structures, such as dot chalybeate water in a similar manner. and cross-line patterns.

Challenger Society, June 28.—Dr. R. N. Wollenden

| in the chair.-Dr. H. R. Mill exhibited the new chart Geological Societv, June 21.–Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S.,

of the world, recommended by the International Geopresident, in the chair.–The relations of the Eocene and

graphical Congress, and published at the cost of the Prince Cretaceous rocks in the Esna-Aswan reach of the Nile

of Monaco. From 72° N. to 72° S. are sixteen sheets on Valley: H. J. L. Beadnell. At the meeting of the Inter

Mercator's projection ; each polar chart of four sheets is national Geological Congress held in Paris in 1900, the

on a circular projection. The submarine contours and author brought forward evidence from the Baharia Oasis

soundings are in metres, symbols indicating the bottom and Abu Roash to show that there was a marked un

deposits. The land is black; the contours of the ocean conformity between these two systems in the northern

are coloured in deepening shades of blue. Meridians (from part of the country. The Jebel-Awaina succession shows

Greenwich) and parallels are ruled for each degree.--Dr. that in the southern part of the country, where the l'pper

W. T. Calman exhibited the two Decapoda brought from Cretaceous and the Lower Eocene occur in their fullest

the Antarctic region by the Discovery, Cranson antarcticus development, there is no sharp line of demarcation between

and Chorismus antarcticus, and explained their bearing on the Cretaceous and the Tertiary, and no disturbances in

“bipolarity." -The Secretary showed a chart reprothe stratigraphical succession. This is confirmed by the

duced in line-process from one of the society s blank succession in the Kharga Oasis, where there is no trace

charts, in order to show the method of preparation.--On of an unconformity. Dr. J. Ball's conclusions to the con

behalf of Messrs. E. W. L. Holt and W. M. Tattersall, frary were mainly based on the supposed irregular varia

Dr. Calman read a preliminary note on the Antarctic tion of the Esna Shales; but, where this occurs, it is

Schizopoda captured by the Discovery. The collection conmainly due to the fact that, with a slight increase of

tained several new species of Euphausiidæ and Mysidæ, carbonate of lime, these beds became almost indistinguish

and the authors were able to show that Euphausia able from the overlying marls and marly limestones of

superba (Dana), Sars, E. Murrayi, Sars, E. australis, the Eocene. The author finds in Jebel Nur el Ghenneiem

Hodgson, E. glacialis, Hodgson, and E. antarctica, Sars, some 180 feet of green clays between the Echinocorys

are all referable to a single species.--The Secretary read (halk and the Eocene marls and limestones, and a per

a note on the probable time required by the larva of an fectly conformable succession throughout. Near Ain Amur

epibenthic animal to cross the Atlantic, and made some there is a considerable development of fossiliferous lime

remarks on the desirability of revising the nomenclature stones at the summit of the Cretaceous rocks, and many

of ocean currents on an international basis. of the fossils are hardly distinguishable from Eocene species. The author is of opinion that the Farafra sur

Paris. cession falls into line with that which obtains in the Academy of Sciences, July 3.-M. Troost in the chair. southern part of the country. An important piece of — The theory of algebraic surfaces : Émile Picard.—The confirmatory evidence is furnished by the discovery of a propagation of waves along a liquid compressible column, rich fauna in "ashen-grey clays " in the Esna-Aswan composed of strips of unequal velocities and filling an reach of the Nile Valley by Dr. W. F. Hume, in the elastic horizontal tube, without longitudinal tension: J. (lay's above the Pecten-Marls in the neighbourhood of Boussinesq.-On camphoacetic and B-camphopropionic Esna.- contribution to the study of the Glacial (Dwyka) | acids : A. Haller Methyl camphocarbonate heated with Conglomerate in the Transvaal ; E. T. Mellor. The survey sodium methylate and iodoacetic ester gives methyl carbof a district lying east of Pretoria and extending from | oxymethylcamphoacetate, which, with alcoholic potash, near the diamond-fields to Middelburg has recently furnishes camphoacetic acid. A corresponding compound afforded much additional information with regard to the is obtained by substituting ethyl B-iodopropionate for the Glacial Conglomerate in this part of South Africa. The ethyl iodoacetate in the original reaction, and from which district lies on the northern edge of the principal area B-camphopropionic acid is obtained.-On the existence in Ocupied by the Karroo system, and includes a number of the black elder of a compound furnishing hydrocyanic outliers, the area between which affords information as acid : M. Guignard. The number of plants from which to the source of the material of the Conglomerate and hydrocyanic acid can be obtained is increasing every year, the character of the land-surface on which it was de and it has been suggested that it represents the first posited. This surface is smoothed, grooved, and scratched recognisable product of the assimilation of nitrogen in bor ice-action. The Karroo system is here only 400 or plants. In the elder, the fresh leaf furnishes the largest fra feet thick, and the Conglomerate usually about 50 proportion of the acid, averaging 0.01 per cent.--Synthesis ipet, but, where deposited in hollows, it may reach 200 of the three tertiary dimethylcyclchexanols and of the ferf or more in thickness. The fragments are usually from hydrocarbons connected with them : Paul Sabatier and Į to 3 feet in diameter, but may attain as much as 8 or A. Mailne. The cresols are converted into methylcyclo10 feet; they are often facetted and sometimes show hexanones by means of the reduced nickel reaction, and siriations. The majority of the boulders are of local these are converted by methylmagnesium iodide into the Corigin. Trur bedding-planes are rare in the conglomerate, 1 corresponding tertiary alcohols, good vields being obtained. but there are included patches of sandstone, mudstone, or | The preparation, physical properties, and reactions of the

hale, some of which show ripple- or eddy-markings. The ortho-, meta-, and para-tertiary alcohols are described.sirixe are remarkably constant in direction, and they and | On the evolution of the tertiary mammals. A reply to the transport of boulders indicate an ice-movement from the observations of M. Boule : Charles Depéret. A conthe north-north-west to the south-south-east. In the i troversial note dealing more especially with the ancestry Prieska district Rogers and Schwarz found the movement of the horse and bear.-V. P. Curie was elected a member

some

at

in the physical section in the place of the late M. A. of amines, the result being 1/700 lower than the figure of Potier.-On the specific inductive power of metals in the M. Leduc. The limiting densities for these gases were case of the calorific and luminous waves : André Broca. worked out, and the atomic weight of nitrogen deduced The author concludes that the hypothesis of the existence as 14.006.—The thermochemistry of neodymium : Camille of a considerable specific inductive power for the metals, Matignon.—The influence of the elements of brown flour although perhaps not sufficient to explain all the optical on the extraction of the gluten and bread-making : M. properties of metals in detail, is at least no more in con- Lindet and L. Ammann.-On the cause of the withering tradiction with the facts than the hypothesis of Planck of the vines in Tunis, Algeria, and the Midi: L. Ravaz. that this specific inductive power is zero.-An apparatus -On the presence of a hydrocyanic glucoside in the for measuring the factors, penetration, and quantity of leaves of the elder, Sambucus nigra : Em. Bourquelot X-rays, and a radiophotometric totaliser : G. Contre- and Em. Danjou. The elder leaf contains a glucoside moulins. Silver plates of varying thicknesses are fixed containing nitrogen, whichunder the influence of on to rotating sectors, and the effect of interposing these emulsin, gives glucose, hydrocyanic acid, and an in the path of the rays upon a phosphorescent screen is aldehyde.-Modifications and' role of the segmentary noticed. --The magneto-optical properties of ionoplastic | organs in

annelids : Louis Fage.-On the iron : L. Houllevigue and H.: Passa.-A method for epipodites of the Eucyphote Crustacea: H. Coutière. establishing coloured screens, destined to isolate certain On the discovery of coal Abaucourt (Meurthe-etgroups of special radiations: F. Monpillard. A given Moselle): René Nicklès. A layer of coal, 2.65 metres weight of a colouring matter is diluted to a certain volume thick, has been found at Abaucourt, near Nomeny. It is with an aqueous solution of gelatin, and this poured on at a depth 896 metres, and on chemical analysis proves to a glass plate of fixed area, thus giving an invariable to resemble the gas coal of Saarbrück. Observations on weight of colour per square centimetre. L'he author has the preceding note: R. Zeiller.-On the geology of the succeeded in producing screens giving a maximum of Pre-alps in the neighbourhood of Jaen : Robert Douvillé. luminosity in ihe green (1 530), yellow orange (1 588), -Contribution to the tectonic of the southern Carpathians : yellow (~ 500), and red (1 630).—The preparation of binary G. M. Murgoci.-On the origin of lactose. The ablation compounds of metals by thermochemical reactions : A. of the mammæ in lactation : Ch. Porcher.—The fixation Colani. Some examples of the application of aluminium of chemical substances on living cells : MM. Charrin and powder for reduction at a high temperature; the products Le Play. are usually contaminated with aluminium and sometimes with iron.—The constitution and properties of the aluminium steels : Léon Guillet. So long as the percentage of aluminium is below 2 per cent., there is no marked

CONTENTS.

PAGE change in the properties of the steel. Up to 15 per cent. the aluminium enters into solution in the iron, the iron- The Popularisation of Science. By W. R.

241 aluminium solution thus formed not dissolving carbon.- | Theoretical Geodesy. By Captain W. J. Johnston, Combinations of ferrocyanides and sulphuric acid : Paul R.E. ..

242 Chrétien. Hydroferrocyanic acid, dissolved in sulphuric Our Book Shelf :acid without any gas being evolved, forms a sulphonic

Vacher : “ The Food Inspector's Handbook.” –C. S. 243 acid of the composition H, FeCy (S0,H). With fuming sulphuric acid another compound is produced, FeCy,SO,,

Marro : “Manuale dell'Ingegnere Elettricista” 243 the decomposition and reactions of which have been Smith: “ Poisonous Plants of all Countries"

243 studied.-A modification of the initial quality of iron and Letters to the Editor : steel used in the manufacture of rivets consequent on the The Constant of Radiation as Calculated from Moleheating required in fixing : Ch. Frémont. It is found

cular Data.—The Right Hon. Lord Rayliegh, that the metal, after being heated and cooled under traction, is improved in quality mechanically.-On the acid

O.M., F.R.S. . . y-aldehydes : E. E. Blaise and A. Courtot. The authors Proposed Observation of Mercury during the Solar have been successful in obtaining these aldedydes in a pure Eclipse.—Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S. 244 state for the first time. An unsaturated acid is treated

The Planet Uranus.-W. F. Denning

244 with bromine, the dibromo-acid formed heated, a bromolactone being then formed by the loss of hydrobromic

The Exploration of the Atmosphere above the acid. Hydrobromic acid is then removed from this by

Atlantic.-A, Lawrence Rotch

244 boiling with quinoline, and the lactone thus produced, Ancient Antarctica. -Captain F. W. Hutton, hydrolysed with an alkali, gives the acid aldehyde required.

F.R.S.

244 .-The synthesis of the lactone of erythric acid: M.

The British Slugs. - Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell 245 Lespieau.-A new method of synthesis of the monoatomic and polyatomic alcohols: V. Grignard. This important Notes on Stonehenge. VII.-Ou the Dartmoor synthesis has been achieved by the author by acting with

Avenues. (Illustrated.) By Sir Norman Lockyer, organometallic derivatives of the type RMgX on the K.C.B., F.R.S.

246 halogen derivatives of the mono- or poly-atomic alcohols. Solar and Terrestrial Changes

249 The reaction takes place in two stages, RMgX + CICH,.CH..OH=RH+ČICH..CH..OMgX,

250 The Proposed College of Applied Science .

Notes and this on heating gives with a fresh molecule of a

251 magnesium compound

Our Astronomical Column :-
R'MgX' +CICH.CH OMgX =

July and August Meteors .

255 MgX/CI+ RI.CH.CH OMgX. The Formation of the Martian Snow-caps

255 The action of water on this last substance gives the alcohol Recent Observation of Eros . . R.CH,CH,OH. Several examples of the application of Standard Time in Various Countries this synthetical method are given.-On B-decahydronaphthylketone and B-decahydronaphthylamine: Henri The Academic Side of Technical Training. By Dr.

Harvard College Observatory Annual Report .
Leroux.-Some new derivatives of the mesoxalic esters :
Ch. Schmitt.--The action of ethyl iodide on sparteine :

Alex. B. W. Kennedy, F.R.S. Charles Moureu and Amand Valeur. The reaction gives Harvey and the Progress of Medical Science. By sparteine iodohydrate and two isomeric iodoethylates.- Dr, Frederick T. Roberts . . The densities of carbonic anhydride, ammonia, and nitrous High Temperature Research on the Felspars. oxide : Philippe A. Guye and Alexandre Pintza. The results for the densities of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide

(Illustrated.) By A. H. agree with those of Lord Rayleigh within the limits of Primitive Religious Art. By A. C. H. experimental error, 1/6000 to 119,000. Special precautions University and Educational Intelligence

200 were taken in the case of ammonia to ensure the absence Societies and Academies. (Illustrated.)

261

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