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pearance of a grating could be produced in the field of the microscope without there being anything on the stage. The lines seen were achromatic interference bands produced with the help of two of Thorp's gratings of equal pitch placed behind the objective.-Mr. Rousselet directed attention to a living specimen of Plumatella punctata (Hancock) sent by Mr. Hood, of Dundee. The rare freshwater polyzoon has apparently not been recorded in England since its discovery by Hancock in 1850. It differs from other species of Plumatella mainly in having a soft, transparent ectocyst.-A communication by Mr. E. M. Nelson on the tubercle bacillus was taken as read.Mr. A. E. Conrady gave a résumé of his second paper on theories of microscopic vision. In his former paper he dealt with the formation of the image of a simple plane grating, showing that it could be fully accounted for on the basis of Abbe's theory. In the present paper he considered more complicated structures, such as dotand cross-line patterns.
Geological Society, June 21. —Dr. J. E. Marr, F. R.S., president, in the chair.-The relations of the Eocene and Cretaceous rocks in the Esna-Aswan reach of the Nile Valley H. J. L. Beadnell. At the meeting of the International Geological Congress held in Paris in 1900, the author brought forward evidence from the Baharia Oasis and Abu Roash to show that there was a marked unconformity between these two systems in the northern part of the country. The Jebel-Awaina succession shows that in the southern part of the country, where the Upper Cretaceous and the Lower Eocene occur in their fullest development, there is no sharp line of demarcation between the Cretaceous and the Tertiary, and no disturbances in the stratigraphical succession. This is confirmed by the succession in the Kharga Oasis, where there is no trace of an unconformity. Dr. J. Ball's conclusions to the contrary were mainly based on the supposed irregular variation of the Esna Shales; but, where this occurs, it is mainly due to the fact that, with a slight increase of carbonate of lime, these beds became almost indistinguishable from the overlying marls and marly limestones of the Eocene. The author finds in Jebel Nur el Ghenneiem some 180 feet of green clays between the EchinocorysChalk and the Eocene marls and limestones, and a perfectly conformable succession throughout. Near Ain Amur there is a considerable development of fossiliferous limeStones at the summit of the Cretaceous rocks, and many of the fossils are hardly distinguishable from Eocene species. The author is of opinion that the Farafra sucression falls into line with that which obtains in the Southern part of the country. An important piece of Confirmatory evidence is furnished by the discovery of a rich fauna in "ashen-grey clays in the Esna-Aswan reach of the Nile Valley by Dr. W. F. Hume, in the clays above the Pecten-Marls in the neighbourhood of Esna. A contribution to the study of the Glacial (Dwyka) Conglomerate in the Transvaal: E. T. Mellor. The survey of a district lying east of Pretoria and extending from Dear the diamond-fields to Middelburg has recently afforded much additional information with regard to the Glacial Conglomerate in this part of South Africa. The district lies on the northern edge of the principal area occupied by the Karroo system, and includes a number of outliers, the area between which affords information as to the source of the material of the Conglomerate and the character of the land-surface on which it was deposited. This surface is smoothed, grooved, and scratched by ice-action. The Karroo system is here only 400 or 3 feet thick, and the Conglomerate usually about 50 feet; but, where deposited in hollows, it may reach 200 feet or more in thickness. The fragments are usually from 1 to 3 feet in diameter, but may attain as much as 8 or 10 feet; they are often facetted and sometimes show striations. The majority of the boulders are of local origin. True bedding-planes are rare in the conglomerate, but there are included patches of sandstone, mudstone, or shale, some of which show ripple- or eddy-markings. The stria are remarkably constant in direction, and they and the transport of boulders indicate an ice-movement from the north-north-west to the south-south-east. In the Prieska district Rogers and Schwarz found the movement
to have been from north-north-east to south-south-west, and the same direction is given by Schenck from near the junction of the Orange and Vaal Rivers. During 1904 outliers of the Conglomerate were found farther north, near the junction of the Elands and Olifants Rivers.-On new Oolitic strata in Oxfordshire: E. A. Walford. The causes of variegation in Keuper Marl and in other calcareous rocks: G. T. Moody. The author concludes that the variegation of the Keuper Marls and of other calcareous rocks has been brought about by the percolation of chalybeate water through the light-coloured mass, the more porous parts of which have in consequence become stained with ferric oxide, while the harder and more crystalline parts, being non-porous, have remained unchanged. The uniformity in distribution of ferric oxide in some red rocks, such as the New Red Sandstone, suggests that the iron contained in them has probably been derived from chalybeate water in a similar manner.
Challenger Society, June 28.-Dr. R. N. Wolfenden in the chair.-Dr. H. R. Mill exhibited the new chart of the world, recommended by the International Geographical Congress, and published at the cost of the Prince of Monaco. From 72° N. to 72° S. are sixteen sheets on Mercator's projection; each polar chart of four sheets is on a circular projection. The submarine contours and soundings are in metres, symbols indicating the bottom deposits. The land is black; the contours of the ocean are coloured in deepening shades of blue. Meridians (from Greenwich) and parallels are ruled for each degree.-Dr. W. T. Calman exhibited the two Decapoda brought from the Antarctic region by the Discovery, Cranzon antarcticus and Chorismus antarcticus, and explained their bearing on 'bipolarity. "The Secretary showed a chart reproduced in line-process from one of the society s blank charts, in order to show the method of preparation.-On behalf of Messrs. E. W. L. Holt and W. M. Tattersall, Dr. Calman read a preliminary note on the Antarctic Schizopoda captured by the Discovery. The collection contained several new species of Euphausiidae and Myside, and the authors were able to show that Euphausia superba (Dana), Sars, E. Murrayi, Sars, E. australis, Hodgson, E. glacialis, Hodgson, and E. antarctica, Sars, are all referable to a single species.-The Secretary read a note on the probable time required by the larva of an epibenthic animal to cross the Atlantic, and made some remarks on the desirability of revising the nomenclature of ocean currents on an international basis.
Academy of Sciences, July 3.-M., Troost in the chair. -The theory of algebraic surfaces: Émile Picard.-The propagation of waves along a liquid compressible column, composed of strips of unequal velocities and filling an elastic horizontal tube, without longitudinal tension: J. Boussinesq. On camphoacetic and B-camphopropionic acids: A. Haller. Methyl camphocarbonate heated with sodium methylate and iodoacetic ester gives methyl carboxymethyleamphoacetate, which, with alcoholic potash, furnishes camphoacetic acid. A corresponding compound is obtained by substituting ethyl B-iodopropionate for the ethyl iodoacetate in the original reaction, and from which B-camphopropionic acid is obtained.--On the existence in the black elder of a compound furnishing hydrocyanic acid: M. Guignard. The number of plants from which hydrocyanic acid can be obtained is increasing every year, and it has been suggested that it represents the first recognisable product of the assimilation of nitrogen in plants. In the elder, the fresh leaf furnishes the largest proportion of the acid, averaging oor per cent.-Synthesis of the three tertiary dimethylcyclohexanols and of the hydrocarbons connected with them: Paul Sabatier and A. Mailhe. The cresols are converted into methylcyclohexanones by means of the reduced nickel reaction, and these are converted by methylmagnesium iodide into the corresponding tertiary alcohols, good yields being obtained. The preparation, physical properties, and reactions of the ortho-, meta-, and para-tertiary alcohols are described.On the evolution of the tertiary mammals. A reply to the observations of M. Boule: Charles Depéret. A controversial note dealing more especially with the ancestry of the horse and bear.-M. P. Curie was elected a member
in the physical section in the place of the late M. A. Potier. On the specific inductive power of metals in the case of the calorific and luminous waves: André Broca. The author concludes that the hypothesis of the existence of a considerable specific inductive power for the metals, although perhaps not sufficient to explain all the optical properties of metals in detail, is at least no more in contradiction with the facts than the hypothesis of Planck that this specific inductive power is zero.-An apparatus for measuring the factors, penetration, and quantity of X-rays, and a radiophotometric totaliser: G. Contremoulins. Silver plates of varying thicknesses are fixed on to rotating sectors, and the effect of interposing these in the path of the rays upon a phosphorescent screen is noticed. The magneto-optical properties of ionoplastic iron L. Houllevigue and H. Passa. A method for establishing coloured screens, destined to isolate certain groups of special radiations: F. Monpillard. A given weight of a colouring matter is diluted to a certain volume with an aqueous solution of gelatin, and this poured on to a glass plate of fixed area, thus giving an invariable weight of colour per square centimetre. The author has succeeded in producing screens giving a maximum of luminosity in the green (A 530), yellow orange (A 588), yellow (500), and red (A 630). The preparation of binary compounds of metals by thermochemical reactions: A. Colani. Some examples of the application of aluminium powder for reduction at a high temperature; the products are usually contaminated with aluminium and sometimes with iron. The constitution and properties of the aluminium steels: Léon Guillet. So long as the percentage of aluminium is below 2 per cent., there is no marked change in the properties of the steel. Up to 15 per cent. the aluminium enters into solution in the iron, the ironaluminium solution thus formed not dissolving carbon.Combinations of ferrocyanides and sulphuric acid: Paul Chrétien. Hydroferrocyanic acid, dissolved in sulphuric acid without any gas being evolved, forms a sulphonic acid of the composition H,FeCy (SO,H). With fuming sulphuric acid another compound is produced, FeCy,SO2, the decomposition and reactions of which have been studied. A modification of the initial quality of iron and steel used in the manufacture of rivets consequent on the heating required in fixing: Ch. Frémont. It is found that the metal, after being heated and cooled under traction, is improved in quality mechanically.-On the acid y-aldehydes E. E. Blaise and A. Courtot. The authors have been successful in obtaining these aldedydes in a pure state for the first time. An unsaturated acid is treated with bromine, the dibromo-acid formed heated, a bromolactone being then formed by the loss of hydrobromic acid. Hydrobromic acid is then removed from this by boiling with quinoline, and the lactone thus produced, hydrolysed with an alkali, gives the acid aldehyde required. --The synthesis of the lactone of erythric acid: M. Lespieau. A new method of synthesis of the monoatomic and polyatomic alcohols: V. Grignard. This important synthesis has been achieved by the author by acting with organometallic derivatives of the type RMgX on the halogen derivatives of the mono- or poly-atomic alcohols. The reaction takes place in two stages, RMgX+CICH,.CH2OH=RH+CICH,.CH,.OMgX, and this on heating gives with a fresh molecule of a magnesium compound
MgX'Cl+R'.CH.CH.OMgX. The action of water on this last substance gives the alcohol R.CH.CH.OH. Several examples of the application of this synthetical method are given.-On B-decahydronaphthylketone and B-decahydronaphthylamine: Henri Leroux. Some new derivatives of the mesoxalic esters : Ch. Schmitt. The action of ethyl iodide on sparteine : Charles Moureu and Amand Valeur. The reaction gives sparteine jodohydrate and two isomeric iodoethylates.The densities of carbonic anhydride, ammonia, and nitrous oxide Philippe A. Guye and Alexandre Pintza. The results for the densities of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide agree with those of Lord Rayleigh within the limits of experimental error, 1/6000 to 1/19,000. Special precautions were taken in the case of ammonia to ensure the absence
of amines, the result being 1/700 lower than the figure of M. Leduc. The limiting densities for these gases were worked out, and the atomic weight of nitrogen deduced as 14.006.-The thermochemistry of neodymium: Camille Matignon. The influence of the elements of brown flour on the extraction of the gluten and bread-making: M. Lindet and L. Ammann. On the cause of the withering of the vines in Tunis, Algeria, and the Midi: L. Ravaz. -On the presence of a hydrocyanic glucoside in the leaves of the elder, Sambucus nigra: Em. Bourquelot and Em. Danjou. The elder leaf contains a glucoside containing nitrogen, which, under the influence of emulsin, gives glucose, hydrocyanic acid, and aldehyde. Modifications and rôle of the segmentary organs in some annelids : Louis Fage. On the epipodites of the Eucyphote Crustacea: H. Coutière. On the discovery of coal at Abaucourt (Meurthe-etMoselle): René Nicklès. A layer of coal, 2.65 metres thick, has been found at Abaucourt, near Nomeny. It is at a depth of 896 metres, and on chemical analysis proves to resemble the gas coal of Saarbrück.-Observations on the preceding note: R. Zeiller. On the geology of the Pre-alps in the neighbourhood of Jaen: Robert Douville. -Contribution to the tectonic of the southern Carpathians: G. M. Murgoci.-On the origin of lactose. The ablation of the mammæ in lactation: Ch. Porcher.-The fixation of chemical substances on living cells: MM. Charrin and Le Play.
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