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hurricane in August, 1903, caused such widespread The National Geographic Magazine for July contains devastation that the Government of Jamaica deemed it many interesting communications, among which are an advisable to make temporary loans, thus assuming liabili- address delivered to the National Geographic Society by ties which would have been unnecessary had a cooperative Prof. E. A. Grosvenor on the “ Evolution of Russian system of borrowing money been in existence. In the same Government," an article entitled “ The Purple Veil," the volume diverse opinions are expressed on the question “ veil" being the product of the Lophius piscatorius, of rotation of crops in connection with cotton cultivation known popularly as the “ goose-fish," the “ all-mouth," in Jamaica. Cotton every third or fifth year, with inter and the “angler," and a short paper (superbly illusmediate crops of cassava or yams, maize, and legumes, is trated) on “ The Victoria Falls." The National Geosuggested; these rotations preclude the possibility of graphic Society, of which the magazine is the organ, is securing a second crop of cotton.
now housed under a deed of trust in the Hubbard An instructive discussion of the law of biogenesis that
Memorial Hall at Washington, the building being" in “ ontogeny repeats phylogeny” will be found in the paper
trust for the sole use and benefit of the said National forming Publication No. 30 of the Carnegic Institution of
Geographic Society so long, and for and during such period Washington, in which Mr. G. H. Shull bases his argu
of time, as said Society shall continue its corporate existments upon a study of the leaf variation in Sium
ence under its present charter, and shall cortinue to us cicutaefolium. In the seedlings the first leaf after the
and occupy the said land and premises and the improve. cotyledons is extremely variable, the second leaf is generally
ments thereon for the objects and purposes set forth in it simpler, but subsequently a pinnate leaf is developed which
certificate of incorporation." passes into a much dissected type. Well marked but less The July number of the Popular Science Monthly conregular variations occur at periods of rejuvenescence and tains an illustrated article on the University of Virginia, on the inflorescence. Mr. Shull concludes that ontogenetic which, founded eighty years ago by Thomas Jefferson, has leaf-characters afford no satisfactory clue to phylogeny, now as its first president Dr. E. A. Alderman. The illusbut that differentiation is due to the changed structure of trations contained in the paper show that the university the protoplasm.
possesses many buildings devoted to the teaching of science “ PERCEPTION IN PLANTS” is the title of an article in Another article deals with Prof. C. A. Young, who, after Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift (June), in which
more than fifty years' devotion to science, recentis Prof. L. Kny discourses on tropisms and movements pro | retired from the professorship of astronomy at Princeton duced by other causes. Under heliotropism Prof. Kny University and the directorship of the Halstead Observ. mentions the views recently advanced by Haberlandt that atory. the epidermal cells of a leaf are to be regarded as the
Is view of the approaching meeting of the British perceptive region, and that their shape and contents enable
Association in South Africa, a special number of Know them to act like a lens in collecting the rays of light. A ledge and Illustrated Scientific News has been issued. It photograph representing a surface view of the leaf of
contains portraits of the president and of the presidents of Anthurium Maximiliani tends to support this hypothesis, sections, a programme of the proceedings, with a route and also the observation that such a leaf, when submerged
map, and many articles dealing with South Africa and in water, fails to react.
likely, therefore, to be of interest to those taking part in We have received from Messrs. Flatters and Garnett,
the association's meeting. Ltd., 48 Deansgate, Manchester, slides exhibiting the MR. MURRAY announces "Voteworthy Families structure of the root in the male fern and onion. They | (Science)," by Mr. Francis Galton, F.R.S., and Mr are remarkably good, and slides such as these will be of E. S. Galton. The work will form vol. i. of the publivalue to collections used for teaching purposes. The pre cations of the Eugenics Record Office of the University paration of the material has been carefully attended to, of London. Another book to be brought out by Mr. and the details of cell and nuclear division are well shown. Murray is “ The Book of the Rothamsted Experiments," Vol. i. of the report of the Royal Commission on
by Mr. A. D. Hall, the director of the Rothamsted London Traffic (appointed in February, 1903, to inquire into
Experiment Station. and report upon the means of locomotion and transport in Messrs. Joux WHELDON AND Co., of Great Queen Street, London) has just been issued. It will be followed by seven
| Lincoln's Inn Fields, have sent us part i. of their nex more volumes, dealing respectively with the following sub- | botanical catalogue dealing with Cryptogamia, and conjects :- vol. ij., minutes of evidence taken, with index and taining some 700 titles of books and papers. digest ; vol. iii., appendices to the evidence taken, and
Messrs. J. H. DALLMEYER, LTD., have just issued their index ; vol. iv., appendices to the report and index ; vol. v., 1 maps and diagrams furnished to or prepared by the Royal
new list of photographic lenses, cameras, telescopes, prieCommission ; vol. vi., maps and diagrams furnished to the
matic binoculars, &c. Royal Commission ; vol. vii., report of the advisory board A Second Italian edition of " Mattoni e Pietre di Sabbia of engineers, and index; vol. viii., appendix to same.
e Calce," by M. E. Stöffler and Prof. M. Glasenapp, has
been published by the firm of l'Irico Hoepli, of Milan The June issue of the Bulletin de la Société d'Encourage
This edition is provided with eighty figures in the test ment pour l'Industrie nationale has been received. It
and three folded plates at the end of the volume. contains a report, presented by M. A. Moreau on behalf of the Constructions and Fine Arts Committee, on The second edition of “ The Central Alps of the “ Ruberoid”; an account of a scheme for the extension Dauphiny," by W. A. B. Coolidge, H. Duhamel, and of the international system to screws with a diameter of F. Perrin has just been issued by Mr. Fisher Unwin. The less than 6 mm.; and a paper by M. Maurice Alfassa on work, which is one of the “Conway and Coolidge's the organisation of labour in the l'nited States. The Climbers' Guides " series, has been revised and brought economic notes, those on chemistry, and those on the down to the end of 1904, and the arrangement of the mechanical sciences are as usual suggestive and interesting. I sections has to some extent been altered.
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
of the shower. Some thirty of the apparent paths of the TIE SOLAR ACTIVITY: -The “ maximum " character of
Perseid meteors were plotted, and are shown on a chart the present solar-activity epoch is being well maintained
accompanying the paper. by the frequent appearance of large groups of spots. THE FRENCH ECLIPSE EXPEDITIONS.—Thanks to the Observations made on July 6 showed two medium sized liberality of the French Government and the activity of spois coming round the eastern limb, and as this group M. Loewy and his colleagues, French astronomy will be travelled across the visible disc it developed considerably. worthily represented amongst the expeditions which are On July 13 it formed a large ard somewhat scattered going to Spain, Algeria, and Tunis to observe the coming group of which the roughly estimated extent was about total eclipse of the sun. 100,000 miles, and which could be readily seen by the Observers from the Paris and Besançon observatories properly protected naked eye. On July 10 this group was will establish themselves near to Cistierna, in Leon, MM. followed by a much more striking, although somewhat Deslandres and Ravet are going to Burgos, whilst M. less extensive, group, consisting of two exceedingly well André (Lyons) will observe the eclipse at Tortosa. defined and large nuclei surrounded by well marked The munificence of M. Bischoffsheim will enable the penumbrze and smaller spots. On July 14 both groups observers from Nice to carry out their programme on the were readily cbservable with the naked eye, this being coast near to Alcala, a station selected by M. de la Baume the second occasion during the present year on which two Pluvinel. naked-eye groups have been on the solar disc simul M. Trépied (Algiers) intends joining MM. Stéphan and taneously.
Borrelly (Marseilles) at Guelma, Algeria, where MM. Single groups of this character have occurred four or Nordmann and Salet (Paris) and MM. Bourget and five times since the first appearance of the large group in Montangeraud, of the Montpellier Observatory, will also February. The accompanying reproduction shows the be located. M. Bigourdan will go to Sfax, where he
intends to make actinometric observations with a Violle actinometer.
The director of the Paris Municipal Observatory, M. Jaubert, will also endeavour to make actinometric observations from the balloon Centaure, which is to ascend from Constantine, and a second Violle actinometer will be set up at that place for taking readings on the ground. Thermometric observations will be made on the ground and from a balloon at the Eiffel Tower, whilst actinometric observations will also be carried out at the Pic du Midi Observatory.
A REMARKABLE METEOR.-An unusually splendid meteor was observed by Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney on July 13.
The object was seen to traverse the eastern sky at oh. 56m. a.m., and presented the appearance of an intensely bright and pure white globe having a diameter equal to about one-sixth of that of the moon. The meteor travelled in a N.E. direction along a path which sloped downwards, and which was nearly parallel to a line joining a point midway between a and B Andromedæ and B Persei at a distance from that line of about 12° measured along a great circle towards the south.
Dr. Stoney was not able to see the whole of the path followed by this brilliant object, but he saw it for some 30° or 350, and estimates that his determination of the
direction may be 2° or 3° in error, and of the distance of forms and positions of the spots at 11.45 a.m. on Thursday the apparent path from the reference stars, perhaps +2°. last, and has been taken from a photograph secured with the photospectroheliograph of the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington, the primary slit being adjusted on the continuous spectrum instead of on any special
THE SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY.
THE annual general meeting of this society was held A PROJECTION ON MARS.-A telegram from Prof. Picker
1 at University College on Monday of last week. The ing. published in No. 4030 of the stronomische Nach. i council reported a total membership of 4326, an increase richten, announces that on July 2 Mr. Lowell discovered
of 192 compared with the same period last year. It rea projection on the terminator of Mars. The object was
ferred to the very successful meeting of the society in situated near to Propontis, its position angle being 19o.
America last year, and to the pleasure felt at the visit It may be remembered that in the first Bulletin issued
to England of its American president, and a considerable from his observatory Mr. Lowell described a projection
contingent of American and colonial members. Statistics on the terminator of Mars, discovered by Mr. Slipher on
were furnished as to the number of original papers read May 25, 1903, its position angle varying from 204° to
before the various sections of the society, and reference 200°. In that case the observations led to the suggestion
made to the efforts of the society and its members during that the projection was in reality a cloud of dust some
the year in connection with the use of duty-free alcohol 300 miles in extent which was travelling over the planet's
for manufacturing and other trade purposes. The report surface at about 16 miles per hour (see NATURE, No. 1763,
of the hon. treasurer, Mr. S. Hall, indicated the continued vol. Ixviii., p. 353, 1903)
prosperity of the society, though the cost of the journal
had appreciably increased. OBSERVATIONS OF PERSEIDS.-Intending observers of the Mr. Gordon Salamon, chairman of the London section, coming Perseid shower will probably find Mr. Robert next offered a welcome to the members of the society, and Dole's account of his 1904 observations, published in especially to the American and colonial members, on their No. 6, vol. xiii., of Popular Astronomy, of interest. assembling in London. The president then delivered his During a total watch of th. 41m. on the nights of address. August 6, 9; 10 and 12, Mr. Dole, observing at Flagstaff, Dr. W. H. Nichols, after expressing his obligations to Arizona, saw 123 Perseids and 100 shooting stars, the Prof. Edward Divers, F.R.S., who had acted as deputy horary rate of the Perseids being about 18.5. August i president during the greater portion of the year, alluded and 13 were completely cloudy, and consequently the to the extension of the American membership of the society, observer was unable to determine the period of maximum which had been marked during his year of office by the
establishment of a New England section at Boston. He unless they pursue their scientific studies outside, as, for spoke of the advantage which resulted from the holding of instance, at night schools, they are not likely to make great regular meetings within reach of members as being a con advances. In every laboratory there must be a chemist in siderable addition to that ensuing from the possession of control, who in turn shall be supervised by the chief the valuable journal of the society, which he described as chemist of the company. Unnecessary duplications being in itself worth many times the cost of membership. avoided, a force thus organised becomes capable of doing
Sir William Ramsay's presidential address of the previous an enormous amount of work in a given time and with year dealt with the results of thirty years' experience in great accuracy. the education of chemists, education being understood as The beginner confines his duties for a number of months, the production of an attitude of mind rather than the and frequently for years, to a works laboratory, and inimparting of definite knowledge, though the latter could cidental to his analytical work he gains a certain knownot be neglected. Dr. Nichols considered the “attitude ledge of the general routine which obtains at that plant. of mind " undoubtedly the pith of the matter. The young After the laboratory service, if the chemist has displayed chemist fresh from college was only, after all, just pre ability to advance, he is promoted to a position which will pared to learn how to apply the knowledge he had acquirea, bring him into direct contact with the manufacturing proand to build on it by his daily experiences. As to some cesses, and his duties will gradually change from those extent taking up the question where Sir William Ramsay of analyst to those of a manufacturing assistant, until laid it down, he proposed to discuss the question of the he has become proficient enough to warrant promotion management of a chemical industrial organisation. The to the position of assistant superintendent, to which he plan he proposed to outline, though it might differ widely | is thereafter advanced at the earliest opportunity, either from the views held by others as the result of their ex- | at the works at which he has received his tuition or at periences, was the outcome of many years of observation another works where such a position has become vacant. and work, and had stood the test of years in a company The assistant superintendent is under the direction of operating more than a score of plants, widely separated the superintendent, and from him should receive a regular and yet all working as a unit.
training in all the various duties pertaining to the position Below the board of directors, with its officers and ex of superintendent, and when such a position becomes ecutive committee, the following departments were neces vacant, the assistant who, in the judgment of the desary, viz. :-purchasing, sales, transportation, finance, con partment, is best qualified to fill the advanced position, is struction, operating, research or investigation, and statis recommended for the promotion. The ability to administer tical. To harmonise these two committees were re chemical works can be obtained only by experience, and quisite :-(1) a manufacturing committee, consisting of the realising this fact the most efficient superintendents should managers of the operating, construction, purchasing, and act as teachers to the younger men in their development investigation departments, the chairman being the chair- | from one position to another. man of the executive committee; and (2) a sales committee, Chemists who are not attracted by outside or works composed of the managers of the sales, operating and positions, but who prefer research work, naturally gravitate purchasing departments, with a member of the executive in due time from the works laboratory to the research committee.
laboratory. Occasionally one is found whose ambitions lie The operating department was one of great complexity
in the direction of mercantile affairs, for which he thinks and importance, and needed a manager and assistant the experience of the chemical laboratory will best qualify manager. Of the chemists employed, evidence is required him. As a rule, however, the educated chemist does not not merely that they have received a good education and select advancement in the sales department or other have completed a technical course of instruction, but that business parts of the organisation, nor does it often happen they are of good judgment and capable of assuming re that he is qualified. sponsibility. It is desirable that they should have some The chemist, to succeed in technical work, must strive knowledge of mechanical engineering and the general for material results. It has been my experience that the principles of construction, though in his experience so rare post-graduate course seems to incline him towards the was a complete combination found that it was usually search of learning rather than to its application. He must necessary to engage good chemists with but a moderate have a clear, logical mind, a singleness of purpose, and knowledge of engineering, or good engineers with only an he must be able to separate the essential from the nonelementary knowledge of chemistry. It was to be hoped, essential. This is true of all professions, but it is parhowever, that as a result of the improved instruction in ticularly true in chemical work, where the essential must technical chemistry now being given, men would be turned | be selected from an unusually large assortment of nonout better prepared in this respect than had hitherto been essentials. the case. The great thing, however, was that the man should The efficiency of a navy depends very largely on the be practical, trustworthy, hard-working, and possessed of " man behind the gun.” So with chemists in a works natural ability and the capacity for development and or laboratory. The personal equation has much to do with advancement, or, as Sir William Ramsay puts it,“ have the the results. There is no “ royal road " to success here. right attitude of mind." The beginner should be kept long The rewards are for those who are willing to pay the enough on one subject to make rapid and accurate analyses price, and that price includes constant and intelligent work. and at the same time be encouraged to make himself | The habit of study is rarely acquired after college days, familiar with all the different methods of analysis bearing and if the undergraduate does not develop it he should upon his particular work, and to be sure that he tho- seek a less exacting profession than that of chemistry, roughly understands the basic principles and theory upon unless his ambitions will be satisfied with the daily grind which the work rests. After a sufficient experience along | of routine work. these lines, he arrives at a position where he may be able The investigation department is that part of the manuto improve existing methods or even invent new ones ; | facturing organisation which deals with all the new probut of course all new methods must be tested by rigid positions of a technical nature. Its work, which is enexperiment.
tirely distinct from current manufacturing, has to do with In a works laboratory a variable degree of accuracy is new, and the improvement of old processes. A new prorequired, depending upon the object for which the analysis position remains under the control of the investigation deis made. In some cases a tenth of i per cent. variation partment from the time of its inception until sufficient would not be serious. In other cases a ten-thousandth of data have been obtained to enable the construction departi per cent., or even much less, is highly important, and ment to design the necessary plant, if one be authorised as the object is to turn out analyses of the required ac by the executive committee. It is turned over to the operatcuracy in the least amount of time, it is of great advantage ing department only after the process is working smoothly for the chemist to have such general knowledge of the and the results considered satisfactory. use to be made of each analysis as will enable him to The organisation of the investigation department should avoid waste of time in unnecessary accuracy. For routine be sufficiently broad to permit the consideration of a manuwork it is becoming more and more the custom to employ | facturing proposition from the points of view of the business in works laboratories bright young men, graduates of man, the chemist, the engineer, and the patent attorney. high schools. Such young men are, of course, useful, but | It consists of the manager, a chemical council composed (in addition to the manager) of the chief chemical engineer, the investigation department is subjected to a preliminary the chief chemist who is director of the research labora | consideration, and is entered for record if it is to be made tory, and such consulting chemists and engineers as the a subject for investigation. It is then submitted to the company employs. The appointments in this council are chemical council, which decides on the method of investiintended to cover the most varied field of theoretical and gation to be pursued. A résumé of the literature is generally technical chemistry, and the manager is permitted to con made and a report obtained from foreign representatives sult outside experts if the company has not the necessary on the latest European developments. We may soon have talent at hand. A corps of chemists on research laboratory to add the Japanese. As the inquiry progresses, the work, an abstractor of current chemical literature, patent chemical council, which meets weekly, is kept informed experts, and a small office force complete the department of the progress made. staff.
The thorough consideration given at this early stage In the research laboratory a body of chemists, under the frequently prevents useless laboratory expense and much supervision of the chief chemist, is employed on research loss of time. work connected with investigations in hand. A limited Where an investigation of a process in use is being number of men are permanently retained on pure research made, a member of the investigation department is sent work,
to each of the works using it, to study the methods and The research laboratory reports weekly the progress on management and analyse its defects. His reports thereon all work in hand, and at the completion of each investiga are considered by the chemical council in the manner tion sends in a statement of the steps taken, accompanied indicated above. by the chief's recommendation as to further action. These If the final result of the investigation of a new process Teports are passed upon by the chemical council at its be favourable, an experimental plant may be recommended regular meetings.
and an appropriation asked for. This may be advisable All the analyses required are made by the analytical not only to assist in reaching a decision regarding the laboratory, which is specially equipped for turning out wisdom of adopting the process, but also for furnishing quick and accurate estimations. Each works has its own data for the designing of a manufacturing plant, if one be analytical laboratory, but there is a central laboratory for ultimately decided upon. the work of the head office. This laboratory critically ex In the case of the adoption of a process and the designing amines and selects all analytical methods, which are of a plant, the work of the investigation and construction adopted as standards and furnished to all works labora departments is very intimately connected. An investigation tories.
covers the inquiry regarding the proper design of the apThe work of the investigation department originates from paratus or plant, as well as the process per se sources which may, in a general way, be divided into three Investigations in connection with construction naturally classes :
differ, to a certain extent, and include consideration of (a) The probability of reducing manufacturing costs. methods for handling the raw material, the solids, liquids
(b) A decision to produce well established products not and gases involved in the process; furnacing, dissolving, previously manufactured by the company.
filtering, evaporating, crystallising, distilling, subliming, (c) New applications of science to industry.
drying, &c., and the packing and handling of the finished (ci The largest field is perhaps that of improving the product. processes at present in use at the different works, and is The materials to be used in different parts of the conone which usually yields very profitable results. Aside struction are determined if an investigation into that imfrom the chronic aim of the operating department to secure portant side be necessary, whether wood, cast iron, steel, uniformly low costs, a decision to investigate a process lead, tin, aluminium, alloy, earthenware, porcelain, rubber, in use may result from a drop in the market price of a cement, &c. Any special data requested by the construction product on account of trade conditions, or because the department in carrying out its work are furnished by the process is technically unsatisfactory. There may be de investigation department, such as the selection of fuel for veloped, therefore, new methods or important modifications special work, boiler and engine tests, consumption of steam, involving reconstruction or even new plants.
&c., and all chemical work. (b) Consideration of the manufacture of products not The benefits resulting from organisation in the conpreviously produced by the company is usually given as sideration of improvements and new processes are very a result of market conditions or special wants of customers. | evident. The results of experiments in one instance are Where a large consumption of a product of interest is de- applicable to others of distinctly different character. The veloping, and the raw materials prove to be available, an full use of them demands a central bureau and clearing investigation may be undertaken with a view to the house of information. selection of a process and the construction of a plant.
The conferences held so frequently are not permitted to (c) The third source of investigation originates in the drag. Records are kept of all decisions, and even the local distinctly new processes so frequently offered to the world. heads of departments present are notified in writing. Such processes, whether for a product manufactured by the The routine work of the department consists in the company or of prospective interest, are always given the collection and filing for easy access of technical and comattention which their merits seem to warrant. No one who mercial data of all kinds connected with chemical manuhas a sensible process to offer is refused a hearing, and the facturing, for immediate and prospective use. Circulars treatment accorded the inventor soon becomes public containing useful information applicable to the works, and opinion. As a rule, the inventor is retained to direct the copies of research reports that may help operations, are development of his process under the management of the transmitted to superintendents. Records of failure are just department.
as important as those of success. Every encouragement is As an investigation of a new manufacture includes a given superintendents to confer freely on any modificathorough examination of both the commercial and technical tions, developments, or conceptions which may occur to sides of the proposition, the commercial side, in which the them. The esprit de corps resulting naturally reaches the assistance of the manager of the sales department and junior men and foremen, so that a keen sense of reother commercial branches is invoked, calls for considera sponsibility and importance is felt throughout. tion of the following :
The frequent visits of managers and superintendents to (1) Its relation to the interests of the company ; (2) the the head office, and the periodic meetings of superinmarket; (3) manufacturing costs ; (4) investment necessary; tendents which are called for conference and discussion (g) source of raw materials; (6) transportation.
| enable the responsible men to continue in perfect familiarity On the technical side a study must be made of :
with the technical resources of the company. (1) The process; (other processes ; (3) raw materials; The research department would not be complete without (4) quality of product required.
a laboratory plant, large enough to work out processes on These topics indicate the method of working out or a small manufacturing scale. Such a plant should have testing the practicability of the process. This phase of the all the standard appliances, and be so arranged that the proposition is entirely a chemical and engineering one, and results obtained in it are sufficient to form the basis for calls for most of the work of the investigation staff. the engineering work resulting in the experimental plant In the usual order of procedure, a proposal reaching to follow the successful investigation.
After all the organisation has been perfected and the ambitions must not be smothered, they must be directed machinery lubricated and put in motion, it would be apt From an experience of many years, I believe the plan to run wild if some trustworthy and absolute method of | outlined above provides fully for this most important fact control should not be at hand. This I have found com- | and I can point with the greatest pleasure to many men pletely accomplished by a department which has to do with as proof of my statement, and every one more enthusiasti the compilation of facts and the deductions from them. It than at the beginning. The places of the leaders will someis absolutely essential, in a company operating a number of day be vacant. Who, then, shall fill them? Those whose plants, that those in control should not only know what
lives have been spent in preparation for the work, and each one of its manufactured products costs, but what who will enter into it without shock or derangement of enters into making up that cost, so that if for any reason existing conditions, but as naturally as the stream flow there is a drain going on it will be quickly known, located
into the river. Thus will the natural ambition of the young and stopped ; or if, on the other hand, something ad
man reach its fulfilment in due time, and thus will our vantageous shall have been accomplished, that will also beloved industry progress to points of attainment which be noted and imitated at other points. This may seem some of us may dream of, but will never see. like an exceedingly difficult undertaking in an industry of
A vote of thanks to the president for his address was such infinite variety, but a brief consideration will show
then proposed by Prof. Divers and seconded by Sir Henry that it is not so. The statistical department, to which I
Roscoe, the first president of the society, in the course allude, is not only able to advise the officers within a
of which allusion was made both to the valuable character reasonable time after the end of each month of the cost
of the address to which the members had just listened, to of every product and step, but also of the profit or loss on
the origin of the society some twenty-five years ago, and each article and the total profit or loss of the company.
to the considerable growth in its membership which the These results have been so exact that for several years
council's report indicated. In responding. Dr. Nichols the profits determined by public accountants at the end
spoke of the advantage which ensued to the society as a of the year have not varied 1 per cent from those which whole as a consequence of the visit last year to America. had been worked up in this statistical department month
followed, as it happily had been, by the present visit to by month. The importance of this information to those
| England of a considerable number of members from the in control will be readily understood. For my own part,
other side of the Atlantic. He said how much he and his I do not see how it would be possible intelligently to run
fellow-countrymen appreciated the hospitality that had been a large enterprise involving a number of plants without
| already shown them, and the efforts that had been made some such arrangement.
in connection with the interesting and lengthy programme The exact plan which I would recommend is as
that had been arranged largely for their benefit. He said follows:
that in New York they had been anxious to provide some Each factory furnishes monthly the following reports :
souvenir of their visit that they might leave behind them, raw materials received ; raw materials used ; shipments of
and, on informing the meeting of the report of the finished products; stocks of raw materials; stocks of
scrutineers, which declared that Prof. Divers, F.R.S., had finished products. Productions and statement of statistical
been elected president for the ensuing year, he desired to charges (including manufacturing labour, labour on repairs,
place in his hands the little thing that they had ventured material taken from the storehouse for repairs, all material
to have prepared. This was a presidential badge formed taken from the storehouse for manufacturing except fuel
of a medallion of Sir Humphry Davy surrounded by an and raw materials), packages, dry barrels, &c., included in
emblematical device representing the union of England and the selling price and not returnable, manufacturing cartage
America in the pursuit of chemical science. He trusted (i.e. teams used around the works), steam and water.
that the council of the society would authorise the wearing The first shows the number of pounds of raw material
of the badge by all his successors in the office of president, received, together with cost of placing in the pile, and by
and hoped it would help still further to cement the good adding the amount of bills, freight, &c., we get the actual
feeling and cordiality which existed between members of cost per hundred pounds of each. These figures are used
this great society on both sides of the Atlantic. He conin obtaining the material cost of each hundred pounds of
cluded by announcing the names of the vice-presidents and production, which, with sundries, labour, fuel, and repairs,
ordinary members of the council who had been found to makes up the total manufacturing cost, and in connection
be duly elected to office. with that shows what each department has accomplished
Prof. Divers expressed, on behalf of the society, appreduring the month.
ciation of the kindness which had dictated the offer of this As each of the factory sheets is checked and every pound
valuable presidential badge. of raw material and finished product accounted for, nothing
On the motion of Dr. Bailey, seconded by Mr. Hübner, escapes which should be considered in costs.
who on behalf of Manchester promised a very hearty In addition to the manufacturing cost are shown the cost
reception, it was resolved that the next annual general per 100lb. of special factory charges (including such ac
meeting should be held in that city. counts as docks, dredging, fire equipment, laboratory,
On the motion of Prof. Chandler, of Colombia l'nilighting, roads, maintenance of yards, watchmen, gate
versity, seconded by Sir Boverton Redwood, the hearty men, &c.), and cost per 100lb. of goods produced due to
thanks of the society were accorded to the senate and salaries of superintendents and chemists, based on pro
council of University College for granting permission to the portion of labour of each department and the total manu
society to meet in that building. This was responded to facturing labour.
by Sir William Ramsay, who incidentally referred to the The factory shipment sheets are checked with the ac
fact that l'niversity College as a separate corporation had counting department as well as repairs and net selling
just ceased to exist, having become absorbed in and an prices obtained, lighterage, cartage, allowances, estimated
essential part of the University of London. The meeting freights, &c., being deducted.
then adjourned. By using the manufacturing costs and the net selling - prices, we arrive each month at the gross manufacturing profits, and deducting taxes, insurance, office, and other
THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD. general expenses, the net results are obtained.
AS has already been noted in these columns, the new All organisation, whether in the chemical industry or buildings of the l'niversity of Sheffield were on any other, would fail to attain the best and most per: Wednesday of last week opened by the King and Queen, manent results if the personal equation be forgotten. We ! and by the act a new centre for research was created in are not dealing with a collection of apparatus, but with this country. an organisation of men, everyone an individual, with his | Nothing seems to have been lacking to make the own peculiarities and ambitions. The day has not come, ceremony a success; all taking part, from the King down. if it ever will, when from purely altruistic motives a man wards, entered into the proceedings with enthusiasm. la will give his most efficient services. He must realise that I replving to the address of welcome presented by the city, while his best work must be done, it will not go unnoticed the King said that he and the Queen were glad to be and unrewarded. He must be sure that he will receivel present to open the university buildings and to inaugurate just and proportionately liberal treatment. His proper a work which he was assured would tend to promote the