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Bechuanaland, and Natal receive scant notice. The The sixth International Congress of Criminal Anthrocoastal system, including the l'itenhage and pology is to take place in Turin on April 26 next under Umtavuna Cretaceous rocks, profusely illustrated

the presidency of Signor Bianchi, Minister of Public with typical fossils, occupies part iii.

Instruction. The superficial deposits, somewhat summarily dismissed, form a separate chapter. Many of the Prof. Ronald Ross and Prof. Boyce, of the Liverinteresting problems connected with them are not pool School of Tropical Medicine, will sail for New Orleans even hinted at. A classification by chemical compo on Saturday to assist in dealing with the epidemic of sition is adopted.

yellow fever in that city. The igneous and volcanic rocks, which take so large a share in South African stratigraphy, are de

We regret to see the announcement that Mr. Alexander scribed in connection with the systems with which Bell, father of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, and an active they are more intimately associated.

worker in educational science, especially in relation to the Part iv. briefly discusses the igneous rocks of study of deaf-mutes, died at Washington on August 6. doubtful position. Too much space has here been allotted to the diamond-bearing deposits.

Mr. Christopher HEATH, Emeritus professor of clinical Part v. discusses the correlation of the South African surgery in University College, London, and a former presistrata. It contains much information guardedly ex dent of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, died pressed. This portion possesses the almost unique suddenly on Tuesday, August 8. Mr. Heath was the virtue of stating the arguments in favour of the corre- author of several standard works on surgical subjects. lation adopted by the authors. Few geologists will now dissent from the view that the Witwatersrand

THE Amherst College expedition for the observation of series is older than the Table Mountain Sandstone | the eclipse of the sun on August 30 has departed for and newer than the complex of rocks termed Archæan. | Tripoli, where the instruments will be mounted on the

Latter-day geologists will miss a chapter on struc edge of the desert. The members of the expedition are tural and dynamical geology. The authors, and Prof. David Todd, Mrs. and Miss Todd, and Mr. E. A. many will no doubt agree with them, have eschewed

Thompson, and their attention will be chiefly devoted to the problems entailing the use of modern physio

the photography of the corona and of intra-Mercurial graphical and dynamical terminology. In dealing

planet regions. with rocks and fossils they have, however, occasionally been compelled to drop into technical

| The Treasury has renewed for a further period of five language. Thus we met with Cardium bullen- years the annual grant of 500l, to the British School at newtoni, Eriphyla rupert-jonesi among fossils; while Athens. The promoters of the movement hope that an among minerals and rocks several of those mentioned influentially signed petition for a similar grant to the wordily lengthen out what, to the general reader, British School at Rome may be also favourably considered. would otherwise be a welcome page. The authors have certainly succeeded in their

Prof. Guido Cora informs us that the earthquake disself-imposed task “to correlate and systematise the

turbances registered at the Pola Hydrographic Station on valuable results of both official and private work." | July 23 (see p. 298) were also recorded at the Osservatorio They are right in considering that what we know of Ximeniano of Florence at 3.50 a.m. on the same date. South African geology lacks coherence. The best Father Guido Alfani, from an examination of the seismoefforts, such as that of the authors, must for a long grams, expressed the opinion that a severe and protracted time be regarded as tentative and by no means final.

carthquake must have taken place at an estimated distance The volume is profusely and admirably illustrated

of about 6800 kilometres (4225 miles). with photographs of scenery and rock sections. Two coloured geological maps accompany the text, one

We notice with regret the death on July 26 of Prof. of South Africă between Bechuanaland and the east Bichat, dean of the faculty of sciences at the University coast and the Transvaal and the south coast, and one of Nancy. Prof. Bichat was also director of the Electroof the Transvaal. It is to be hoped that the half- technical Institute of Nancy, and took a very active part mourning adopted for the Karroo system will not be in all efforts for the improvement of secondary and higher perpetuated. Economically it is false; artistically it education. is ruinous.

W. G.

The research fellowship in chemistry offered by the Worshipful Company of Salters, and tenable in the re

search laboratory of the Pharmaceutical Society, has this NOTES.

year been awarded to Miss Nora Renouf, who has been The meeting of the French Association for the Advance

engaged in research work for the past two years in the

society's laboratories. The Salters' fellowship is of the ment of Science was opened on August 3 at Cherbourg

annual value of 100l., and was founded with the view of under the presidency of Prof. Giard.

encouraging the application of the newest methods of WE regret to learn that Prof. L. Errera, professor of scientific chemistry to the elucidation of pharmacological botany in the University of Brussels, and member of problems. the Royal Academy of Belgium, died on August i at

The International ('ongress of Anatomy was opened in l'ccle.

the morning of August 7 at Geneva. Three hundred reWe understand that the editorship of the “Fauna of

| presentatives of the principal universities of Europe and British India," rendered vacant by the death of Dr.

America were present, including office-bearers of the five W. T. Blanford, has been offered by the Secretary of

great anatomical associations of Great Britain, France, State for India to Lieut.-Colonel C. T. Bingham.

| Germany, Italy, and the l'nited States. One hundred

and fifteen papers on various scientific subjects were put A Reuter telegram from Rio de Janeiro says that the down for reading. The congress will conclude to-day with Latin American Scientific Congress was opened on a banquet given by the city of Geneva to the delegates. August 7, delegates from all the South American Republics The congress has accepted an invitation to assemble at being present.

Boston in 1907.

The Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society for June | ago) Chenogaster holmbergi. This fish, of which an excelcontains two papers by Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S., one | lent coloured plate accompanies the memoir, is a member dealing with micro-metallography in general, and the of the same group as the New Zealand Lepidothynnus and other with the special processes for detecting phosphorised | Gasterochisma, which inhabit the same latitude as Chubat. portions in iron and steel.

From the New Zealand forms Chenogaster differs by the

united dorsal fins, while it is distinguished from GasteroThe two articles in the July issue of the Irish Naturalist

chisma by the siħall ventral fins and from Lepidothynnus are devoted to local subjects, the Rev. Canon Norman com

by the presence of vomerine teeth. The three genera pleting his list of Irish ostracod crustaceans, while Mr.

indicate a circumpolar Antarctic group. R. LI. Præger discusses the distribution of fumitories in Ireland.

On a previous occasion a special notice was given in

this Journal of Dr. Waite's account of the nesting habits We have to acknowledge the receipt of a complete copy, 1 of the fighting fish (Betta pugnax), as observed in an with the plates, of the first part of vol. lvii. of the aquarium. In the Records of the Australian Museum Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy. Many of the (vol. vi., part i.) Dr. Waite publishes a preliminary note papers contained in this part have been already noticed of these habits in the allied paradise, or rainbow, fish in our columns, as they appeared in the monthly issues. (Polyacanthus opercularis), of which specimens have like

wise been successfully kept in captivity. After mentionWe have received a fasciculus of “ Illustrations of the

ing that at the commencement of the breeding season the Zoology of the Investigator," containing plates of

male assumes a gorgeous nuptial coloration, the author crustaceans (part xi.) and fishes (part viii.). Special goes on to say that the nest of this species is simpler interest attaches to the plate of the crab Lithodes agassizi and flatter than that of the fighting fish, a difference on account of the large size and peculiar form of this probably due to the habit of the former of nesting beneath species, and also to the plates of deep-sea fishes, a few shelter. The first eggs are often laid in a small mass of which have only recently been described.

of bubbles, others being added later; in consequence of

this the eggs are raised quite out of the water, and thus MR. J. E. Robson continues his catalogue of the Lepi.

hatched. It may be added that, according to older views doptera of Northumberland and Durham in vol. XV.,

of nomenclature, the name Polyacanthus renders void that part i., of the Natural Transactions of the aforesaid

of Polacanthus, applied many years later to a British counties, dealing in this instance with the groups Pyra

dinosaur. lidina and Tortricina. Both these sections of the Microlepidoptera are but little studied by collectors, and the

The migrations and growth of plaice form the subject author confesses to considerable difficulty in dealing with

of a communication by Mr. A. Meek to vol. i., part ii., the second of the two.

of the new series of the Transactions of the Natural

History Society of Northumberland and Durham. In No. 1410 of the Proceedings of the U.S. National After referring to previous experiments and observations, Museum Mr. E. Linton describes certain cysts of a the author states that during last year 483 plaice (inclusive cestode worm from a bottle-nosed porpoise, which are of a few other flat-fishes) were caught, marked, and reregarded as indicating a new species of Tænia. No. 1404 turned to the sea on the Northumberland coast. Of these of the same publication contains the first part of a de fish 52 were recovered ; and among this number only 2 scription, by Mr. C. B. Wilson, of the North American made conspicuous migrations, and only 7 may be said parasitic copepod crustaceans of the family Caligidæ. An to have left the bays where they were liberated. Apparaccount of the Argulidæ has already appeared in the same ently, the small plaice on the Northumberland coast journal; the members of the present group are regarded

| gradually travel from the sandy pools to the adjacent by the author as of the greatest possible ecological interest, deeper water, where they spend the remainder of their so that the study of their life-history cannot fail to yield

immature condition. When four or five years old they important results.

migrate into the still deeper extra-territorial waters, and

apparently show a constant tendency to reach increasing ARTICLE 7 of vol. xx. of the Journal of the College depths with advancing age. of Science of Tokyo University contains an account by Dr. I. Ijima of the larva of an apparently new cestode

A RESTORATION of one of the huge Miocene American worm which was recently found infesting a Japanese

perissodactyles of the family Titanotheriidæ is attempted woman in extraordinarily large numbers. This larva has

by Prof. R. S. Lull in the July number of the American been provisionally described as a new generic and specific

Naturalist, the species in question being a member of type under the name of Pterocercoides prolifer. It is

the genus or group Megacerops. The creature stands believed to be a member of the Bothriocephalus group

about 7 feet 4 inches at the withers, and measures rather characterised by the absence of “bothria,” a feature

more than 12 feet in length. The general proportions are probably common to Ligula, with which the Japanese

those of a rhinoceros, although the limbs, probably to cestode may prove to be nearly related.

support the enormous weight of the body, are less angu

lated, and primitive features are displayed by the shortIn a paper published in the fourth volume of series iii. ness of the back and in the structure of the fore-foot. of the Anales of the National Museum of Buenos Aires, Indeed, if we are to accept Prof. Lull's description of Dr. F. Ameghino records the presence of a perforation in the latter, the definition of the group Perissodactyla the astragalus of the badger, the other living mammals requires modification, for the fore-foot of this titanothere in which this feature is known to occur being the dasyure, is stated to be four-toed and symmetrical, with the main the giant armadillo, and the mole. The same volume axis lying between the third and fourth digits after the contains a paper by Mr. F. Lahille on a new type of artiodactyle fashion. As regards the nasal horns, which scombroid fish from Argentine waters, which has been are branched at the summit, the author is inclined to named (in a preliminary notice published a couple of years I believe, from the absence of groovings on the bone, that the basal portion (which is all now remaining) was clothed including three new to science, is limited to twenty-seven, with skin during life, and that upon this were growths and these, together with the principal varieties, are fully comparable to the horns of modern rhinoceroses.

described and illustrated. A method of exterminating

Johnson grass by means of a root-digger is explained by PROF. ALBERT M. REESE, of the Syracuse University,

Mr. W. J. Spillman in Bulletin No. 72, and the problem has gone to Florida, under the auspices of the Smithsonian

of range management in the State of Washington is disInstitution, says the Scientific American, to collect eggs

cussed by Mr. J. S. Cotton in Bulletin No. 75. The of the alligator with which to work out its embryology ;

latter pamphlet deals with the protection and seeding of subsequently he will spend some time at the biological

land which had been over-grazed by nomadic stockmen. laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of the Dry Tortugas

Experiments on land situated at an altitude of 5000 feet studying the material he ccllects. Twenty-five years ago

demonstrated that Timothy, brome-grasses, and tall fescue alligators existed in great abundance in the region ranging

would be found suitable for sowing on these mountain from North Carolina to the Rio Grande of Texas, but as alligator leather became fashionable about that time the

pastures. demand thus created has reduced the supply by at least We have received a copy of the year-book of the 98 per cent. It is said that a person may travel now Norwegian Meteorological Institute for 1904, containing from Jacksonville to Miami, Fla., without seeing a single hourly observations of air pressure and temperature for alligator. It is estimated that 2,500,000 alligators were Christiania, in addition to observations made three times killed in Florida from 1880 to 1894.

daily, and monthly and yearly summaries at a number of

other stations in Norway. There is also a valuable The list of new garden plants for the vear 1904 has

appendix showing the departures of the monthly and yearly been published as appendix iii. to the Kew Bulletin. This

values from the normal at a number of stations for each list not only affords information respecting new plants, year from 1874 to 1904. Since 1903 the station at Bergen but also gives official authentification to the names, thereby has undertaken the duties of weather prediction and storm providing an accurate guide for horticulturists.

warnings for the western part of Norway. This arrangeA REVISION of the genus Zexmenia, prepared by Mr.

ment allows Prof. Mohn, director of the Norwegian W. W. Jones, has been issued as No. 7 of vol. xli. of the

Meteorological Institute, to devote more attention to Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

general climatology, and is conducive to more rapid disThe genus is one of the helianthoid Compositæ restricted

semination of forecasts of the depressions arriving from to tropical and subtropical America.

the Atlantic. NATURE-STUDY, so far as it is founded on the four

The Annuaire météorologique of the Royal Observatory faculties of observation, deduction

of Belgium for 1905, published under the superintendence

memory, and con- | structive imagination, is closely allied to the methods of

of M. A. Lancaster, director of the Belgian Meteorological Sherlock Holmes; such is the gist of an article by Mr.

Service, contains a large amount of useful information Lamborn in the May number of the Nature-study Review,

relating to that country in particular and to meteorand teachers in search of a novelty in nature-study may

ological science generally. For sixty-eight years the be referred to the example which is quoted. A

Annuaire referred to astronomy and meteorology com

short article on observation bee-hives for the schoolroom, by

bined, but since 1901 each of these sciences is separately

dealt with. Some 240 pages of the work now in question Miss Comstock, suggests another line of work. There is also much truth in the reasons which Mr. L. A. Hatch

contain valuable data relating to the variability of atmoassigns for failure in teaching the subject, the first and

spheric pressure and rainfall for each month since 1833,

and to the frequency of sunshine since 1886. The followforemost being a want of the observational instinct.

ing contributions are worthy of special notice :-(1) A disThe Indian Forester for June contains many interesting

cussion of the late spring and early autumn frosts by Dr. articles relating to forestry and kindred subjects. A new

| Vanderlinden, containing valuable particulars as to the species of Diospyros (D. Kanjilali) is described and figured

conditions under which they generally occur, and the by J. F. Duthie. An article on the prohibition of grass

possibility of foretelling their occurrence. (2) A biblioburning and its effects on the game of the country will

graphy of meteorological treatises by M. L. Vincent from be read with interest by both forester and sportsman.

the earliest times. The author gives most attention to Inother valuable illustrated article, entitled “ Some Facts

general treatises, but anyone wishing to study special about Gutta Percha," by Mr. A. M. Burn Murdoch,

subjects, e.g. marine, agricultural, and medical meteorcontains a great amount of useful information, especially

ology, or weather prediction, will find it an invaluable regarding the rubber trees of the Federated Malay States.

guide. (3) A collection of meteorological and physical The article gives a very clear idea concerning the species

constants and conversion tables which will be found and their distribution, the measures adopted for their exceedingly useful for general reference. protection, together with harvesting, manufacture, and Captain H. G. Lyons contributes to the Geographical properties of the gutta percha. There are many other

Journal for August an instructive summary of the papers and reviews, together with matters of general

dimensions of the Nile and its basin. The length of the interest, which will repay perusal by those interested in

Nile is given usually as 5400 kilometres (3355 stat. miles) forestry and its sister subjects.

to the centre of Lake Victoria, or 6000 kilometres (3728 The broad-minded view which the U.S. Department of stat. miles) for the continuous water-way from the source Agriculture takes of its function for instituting inquiries of the Kagera to the sea; the area of its basin is given is well exemplified in three bulletins which have been as about 2,900,000 square kilometres (1,119,737 square received from the Bureau of Plant Industry. In Bulletin i miles). It is now possible to measure the length of the No. 68 Mr. A. S. Hitchcock presents a carefully prepared river with sufficient accuracy to furnish a value which classification of North American species of Agrostis. The later surveys probably will not materially alter. The author, in the preparation of this memoir, has consulted length of the Nile from Ripon Falls to Rosetta mouth is all the large herbaria in Europe; the number of species, | 5589 kilometres, or 3473 miles. The area of the catch

ment basin has been calculated from a map on the scale | H. Judd, a large part of which is devoted to a series of 1:4,000,000 for the Sudan and Uganda, and from one of studies of eye movements in connection with optical 1:2,000,000 for Egypt. The area of catchment of the illusions. The contributors are Messrs. C. H. Judd, Nile basin is 2,867,600 square kilometres (1,107,227 square Cloyd N. Macalister, W. M. Steele, E. H. Cameron, and miles). The area of the basin will vary according to the Henry C. Courten. Some idea of the researches on eye distance to which its limits are considered to extend on movements may be obtained from the following necessarily the west of the Nile northwards of Khartum. Captain fragmentary summary. In order to trace the movements Lyons has taken it as far as the cliff of the desert plateau, of the eye during the fixation of different points in the or the first marked rise of the desert where the cliff is visual field, a tiny speck of Chinese white was attached absent, probably, on the average, about 3 to 4 kilo to the cornea, and kinematographs were taken showing metres (2 to 2 miles) from the edge of the cultivation. | its movements as the subject followed the various details The whole of the Vile basin below Khartum, and prac of a diagram. This was applied in the case of several tically all the White Nile basin, are non-effective in well known optical illusions in which the lines of figures increasing the river supply, since the occasional local appear distorted or equal lengths appear unequal. In cloud-bursts may be neglected. The Bahr el Ghazal, as another series of experiments the subject was made to has been shown by recent measurements of the volume record his impressions by a series of pin pricks. discharged, is also practically non-effective.

IN the Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Belgique, Mr. S. TETSU TAMURA has contributed to the Monthly | No. 5, p. 201, Prof. W. Spring describes experiments which Weather Review (February and April) two papers dealing he has made on the limit of visibility of fluorescence. A with applications of the Fourier methods of analysis, one conical beam of light of great intensity was brought to a to ice formation and the other to the nocturnal cooling focus in solutions of Auorescein of gradually increasing of the atmosphere.

dilution. Fluorescence was perceptible on an arca equal

to one square millimetre at the apex of the conical beam, A VERY compact form of direct-reading cymometer for

when the solution contained ix 10-15 gram of Rucrescein, the measurement of wave-lengths and frequencies in con

but imperceptible when the solution was ten times more nection with electric-wave telegraphy is described by Prof.

dilute. On the assumption that in the limiting fluorescens J. A. Fleming in vol. xix. of the Proceedings of the

condition at least one molecule of fluorescein is present Physical Society of London. In the described form the

in each cubic centimetre of solution, the value ix 10-15 cymometer can be used to measure not only the length of

gram is calculated as the superior limit of the weight of a the outgoing wave from a sending aërial, but also the

molecule of fluorescein, and 2-5 X 10-21 gram as that of length of the wave being received. The instrument can

the weight of an atom of hydrogen. further be used for measuring the capacity of a Leyden jar or the inductance of a circuit for high-frequency Some interesting observations on the decomposition of currents.

silver oxide at high temperatures are recorded by Mr. In the Journal de Physique for May, M. Adrien Guéb

G. N. Lewis in the current number of the Zeitschrift für hard contributes a paper on photographic action, illustrated

Ahysikalische Chemie (vol. lii. p. 310). The velocity of

decomposition of the oxide, when heated at 330° C. to by curves showing the darkening due to development as a function of the time, and the superficial changes as a

350° C., is at first so small that no appreciable evolution function of the sum of the causes producing them-as he

of oxygen is observed during several hours. The rate of calls it, the “photographic function." It is well known

change increases rapidly, however, as decomposition prothat the effect of greatly over-exposing a negative is to

ceeds, passes through a maximum, and then gradually reverse the photographic action, sometimes producing a

falls to zero. Experiments carried out to elucidate the positive instead of negative impression. M. Guébhard

peculiar phenomenon indicate that the reaction is autodiscusses the theory that the photographic function, after

catalytic, the silver produced by the decomposition being reaching its maximum and descending to a minimum,

the catalytic agent. Other substances, such as platinum attains a second maximum, followed by a second mini

black and manganese dioxide, are found to exert a similar mum, and he describes experiments in support of this

influence on the rate of decomposition of silver oxide. view.

A CONTINUOUS series of articles on the radio-activity of Prof. O. ZANOTTI BIANCO, of Turin, has published the soil and of the atmosphere is being written for Le (Florence : L. S. Olschki, 1905) a short discussion on Radium by Prof. Geitel. These articles connect together Dante's “ Quaestio de Aqua et Terra" considered in the the several original papers published by Prof. Geitel in light of modern geodesy. The question as proposed by conjunction with J. Elster, many of which have already Dante was essentially whether the water of the terrestrial received notice in these columns. The number of Le globe is anywhere higher than the land which emerges Radium for July 15 contains in addition an article on the from it. This question resolves itself largely into what results obtained by the use of radium in the treatment is the definition of height adopted. According to Dante's of cutaneous cancer. It is illustrated by some striking belief that the earth was a sphere, points would be at photographs. the same height if they were equally distant from the

In a brief note in the current number of the Atti der centre, and the fact that the earth is not spherical, but

Lincei Prof. A. Righi states that, using an experimental ellipsoidal, would thus afford, in effect, an answer to

method essentially different from that employed by Prof. Dante's question according to which the sea-level is

McClelland, he has obtained results which fully confirm considerably higher at the equator than at the poles. This

the connection maintained by the latter to exist between particular interpretation appears to be the one favoured

the atomic weight of a substance and the amount al by Prof. Bianco.

secondary radiation which it emits when subjected to the No. 29 of the monograph supplements of the Psycho B and rays of radium (compare NATURE, vol. lxxi., p. logical Review contains the first part of a new series 543, and lxxii., p. 158). The method used was to measure of “Yale Psychological Studies," edited by Prof. Charles the change of potential of a disc of the material suspended in a vacuum when subjected to the radiation of radium. The inventor claims a useful life of 500 hours at a power The disc being under two influences, namely, an increase consumption of 2.5 watts per candle, which is an extremely in the negative charge owing to the impact of the B good result for a carbon lamp. electrons and a loss of negative charge owing to the emission of a secondary radiation, the actual rate of

The De La More Press will publish in the autumn “A accumulation of the negative potential measured inversely

First German Course for Science Students," by Prof. the rate of production of the secondary radiation.

H. G. Fiedier and Dr. F. E. Sandbach. THE Engineering Standards Committee has issued a We have received a copy of the first volume of the report on the effect of temperature on insulating materials.

“ Collected Researches" of the National Physical LaborA series of measurements showing the influence of atory. The volume contains five contributions, viz. :temperatures ranging from 75° C. to 150°C. on the dis

An analysis of the results of the Kew magnetographs on ruptive voltage, the resistance and the mechanical proper

" quiet ” days during the eleven years 1890-1900, by Dr. ties of the insulating materials used in industry, were

Charles Chree, F.R.S.; the high-temperature standards made by Mr. E. H. Rayner at the National Physical

of the National Physical Laboratory, by Dr. J. A. Harker ; Laboratory, by Messrs. Crompton and Co. at Chelmsford,

the construction of some mercury standards of resistance, and by Messrs. Siemens Bros. and Co. at Woolwich. The

with a determination of the temperature coefficient of electrical properties of the materials do not seem to be

resistance of mercury, by Mr. F. E. Smith; the range of greatly influenced by exposure at the temperatures given,

solidification and the critical ranges of iron-carbon alloys, but the material itself perishes on long-continued heating.

by Dr. H. C. H. Carpenter and Mr. B. F. E. Keeling; An interesting point established is the extraordinary in

and the resistance of plane surfaces in a uniform current crease in resistance of the insulating substances which,

of air, by Dr. T. E. Stanton. All the papers have been owing to the removal of water, accompanies drying at

published previouslythree of them in the Transactions 100° C. The price of the report is 5s. net.

of the Royal Society and two in journals of other scientific

bodies. As Lord Rayleigh says in a preface to the An interesting Parliamentary return just issued gives

volume :-"A multitude of other problems of scientific some particulars of the first three months' working of the and technical importance press for solution. Some of Wireless Telegraph Act. Part of the return relates to

these are already in hand, but the rate at which progress licences, seventy-eight applications for which have been can be made will depend in great measure upon the received ; the majority of these are for experimental pur

amount of support which may be forthcoming from those poses, but a fair number are for commercial purposes.

more immediately concerned in the development of inNo less than four companies have applied for licences to

dustry. It is hoped that the publication of the present establish stations to communicate with America; two of

volume may serve as a stimulus, by showing the character these have been granted, one is under consideration, and

of the work of which the Laboratory and the Staff are the fourth is offered with an alteration in locality. The

capable.” paper also contains particulars of the working of the

Prof. N. ZARUDNOI publishes in vol. xxxvi. of the arrangement between the Post Office and the Marconi

Memoirs of the Russian Geographical Society the Co. It seems that ur messages have been received by the Post Office for transmission to outward bound ships,

herpetological and ichthyological results of his journeys

in eastern Persia. The Reptilia are represented by 72 of which 21 could not be delivered (in six cases at least through the senders' fault in transmitting after the latest

species, the Amphibia by 6 species, and the fishes by 17 guaranteed time). The number of messages received from

species, many of which, especially among the first

division, are new species described by Prof. A. M. ships at sea is 1655. which, if it does not represent a very

Nikolsky. great volume of business, still serves to show that the system is beginning to develop in practical utility.

The last volume of the Memoirs of the Russian Geo

graphical Society, for ethnography (vol. xxv., 1), contains A most interesting paper on a new carbon filament, read

| a very valuable bibliography, by M. Baltramaitis, of everyrecently by Mr. Howell before the American Institute of

thing that has been printed about Lithuania (8514 titles), Electrical Engineers, is published in the Electrician for

its geography, history, law, statistics, and ethnography, July 28. The author claims to have produced a new

including folklore. This volume, which covers 614 pages, allotropic modification of carbon, so different are the

is followed by an appendix, which contains a list of physical and mechanical properties of his filament, which

Lithuanian and old Prussian books printed from the year is prepared in the following way :-An ordinary carbon

1553 to 1903 (2665 titles). The whole is admirably indexed. filament made from a solution of cellulose is baked to as high a temperature as possible in an electric resistance Notice is given by the Clarendon Press of the first part furnace; it is then “flashed " in the usual manner, and of a new book on “ Elementary Chemistry," by Mr. afterwards again electrically baked. Although the first F. R. L. Wilson and Mr. G. W. Hedley. According to electrical baking considerably affects the final result, it | the preliminary announcement which has reached us, the seems that the graphite coating deposited during flashing ultimate object of the authors is “the cultivation of a undergoes a very marked change during the subsequent scientific habit of mind in the pupils, through the medium baking, which is especially remarkable considering the of chemistry, rather than the mere acquisition of the facts high temperature at which the deposit is formed. The of science." filament possesses a very much lower specific resistance than ordinary filaments, and this is a disadvantage from

MR. JOHN Heywood has published a fourth edition of the point of view of practical lamp making; but, on the Mr. R. L. Taylor's “Student's Chemistry." The book other hand, the resistance-temperature curve rises instead has been enlarged and revised by Mr. J. H. Wolfenden, of falls, which is a distinct gain, and will undoubtedly and an appendix on the radio-active elements and an

and an appendix on the radio-a confer on the lamp an indifference to fluctuations of line

introduction to the study of organic chemistry has been voltage, and so enable it to be run at a high efficiency. added. The volume contains more than six hundred

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