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times as surprising and swiftly various as that of the brought up these three boys to follow his own tastes and Eocene Mammalia. We presume that the Stormberg

live his own life. A gun was put into their hands as series must then include the whole of the Trias, and soon as they could hold it, they were made familiar not merely the Rhætic, as Feistmantel and Seward with every device for catching birds, and they were also have proposed. The consideration of this and similar taught to draw. In this last respect the eldest attained so questions is made far more interesting by the appear much proficiency that by the time he was fifteen he had ance of Dr. Corstorphine's address on the history executed a great number of drawings of birds, which of stratigraphical investigation in South Africa

the father proceeded to have engraved on copper and (“ Report of the South African Association for the to publish in folio form. The work thus produced Advancement of Science," 1904, p. 145), to which is

proves to be one of the rarest in ornithological literaappended a table showing the classifications of ture, if literature it may be called, seeing that not a various authors, starting with the brilliant and per- | word of letterpress accompanied the plates. Whether ceptive work of Bain in 1856.

a complete set of them exists anywhere is uncertain, · Prof. R. Broom has provided Mr. Rogers with a and Dr. Leverkühn's labours seem to show that not chapter on the Karroo reptiles, in which the early quite a dozen more or less imperfect copies are carnivorous types, Ælurosaurus, Lycosuchus, &c., are known, though there is no room here for bibliographical separated from the Theriodonts as “ Therocephalia." details. The next thing the father did was to bring The pose given to the skeleton of Pareiasaurus in out in small octavo the first volume of what was called Fig. 18 is more erect than that at present adopted

“A Detailed Description of the Forest., Field-, and in the British Museum. The well known work of Water-birds of the Principality of Anhalt and the Prof. H. G. Seeley is mentioned later in the biblio

Neighbouring Districts." This appeared in 1797, and graphical appendix.

was illustrated by coloured figures by the son Johann Mr. Rogers, quoting the view of Mr. Kitchin, who Friedrich. Some of them are reproductions of those compares the fossils with those of similar beds in

in the older series, but the style of drawing was maniIndia, does not allow the presence of Jurassic strata

festly improved, and, moreover, went on improving as in the Uitenhage series, so that the Jurassic system the work itself did, for it quite outgrew the bounds of may be represented merely by the underlying un

its native principality, and the fourth and last volume, conformity (compare p. 408). The perforation of

published in 1803, appeared as “ The Natural History the Stormberg and preceding rocks by the diamant of the Land- and Water-birds of Northern Germany iferous volcanic pipes occurred, in all likelihood, in

and the Adjoining Countries." This was followed by Lower Cretaceous times. The bending up of the a series of eight supplements, the last of which came strata round these vents presents us with a curious

out in 1817. A remarkable feature of this work is its reminder of the old “ crater of elevation " theory.

extreme simplicity and truth, and the absence of all Denudation has attacked the surface of the in scientific pretence. There is not even a Latin name in terior of the colony “uninterruptedly from the close it! Yet there was no attempt by “ writing down to of the Stormberg period (Rhætic) to the present gain popularity, and whether it became popular is day," and the folded belt of the south seems to have

doubtful. All that can be said is that copies are now furnished a fairly complete barrier against inroads

not easily to be had. In England when a man tries to of the Cretaceous sea (p. 414). A useful chapter on

do a thing of this kind we know too well what is generthe geological features to be observed along the main ally the lamentable result. He makes a fool of himself lines of railway concludes this compact and highly on almost every page; but this is just what Johann attractive handbook. GRENVILLE A. I. COLE. | Andreas did not. He wrote with quiet dignity from his

own knowledge, and his knowledge was sound. There

was no need for him to borrow from anybody else. THE NAUMANN FESTIVAL AT CÖTHEN.

The father's work being thus successfully concluded,

the son, Johann Friedrich, lost no time in bringing out NAUMANN is but a name to nine out of ten British a new edition of it, and it is on this edition that the

ornithologists, and the proportion of them who latter's fame rests, and rests securely. The preface is have held in hand a volume with that name on the title- dated 1818, and some copies of the first volume are said page must be smaller still. Yet it was borne by two to bear 1820 on the title-page. Doubtless it was then men who, taking them all round, were the most prac ready for publication, though for some reason it seems tical ornithologists that ever lived, for their personal to have been delayed for a couple of years. Twelve knowledge of the birds of Central Europe was not ex volumes (parts they are called) appeared at long interceeded by that of any of their contemporaries, and it vals, the last in 1844, and it may be truly averred that may be fairly doubted whether any of their successors, for completeness nothing like them exists in any lanvastly improved as are the modern means of acquiring | guage. They continue the same simple and direct style such knowledge, have attained to the like acquaintance. of the father's work; but the son willingly cited other

The elder Naumann, Johann Andreas, seems hardly authors and showed that he had read them. He also ever to have quitted the little village of Ziebigk, near extended his area of observation, journeying to Jutland Cöthen, in the duchy of Anhalt, where he was born in in the north and to Hungary in the south, beside voyag. 1744, the son of a small landed proprietor, to whose ing to Heligoland--the ornithological peculiarities of estate he succeeded. He has left a curious autobio- which he was the first to detect. Moreover, he disgraphical sketch, which was prefixed to the first volume covered that anatomy was not to be neglected, and acof the edition of the joint work of himself and his son, cordingly each genus as he treated of it had prefixed to Johann Friedrich, published in 1822. If ever a man it a brief account of its internal structure, and to this devoted himself to the observation and study of birds end he had the good fortune to obtain the services of it was this Johann Andreas, who from his boyhood Christian Ludwig Nitzsch, who carried on this portion passed days and nights in this sole pursuit. How he of the work until his death in 1837, when his place was found time to take a wife-for he tells us that he often taken by Rudolf Wagner. Two years after the work forgot his dinner-is marvellous; but marry he did, was ended the author began a supplement, which had and had three sons, the eldest, Johann Friedrich, not proceeded far when he died, in 1857, and this was already named, born in 1780, and two others; one of left to be completed by two of his friends, the late Prof. them, Carl Andreas, born in 1786, became a fair ! J. H. Blasius and Dr. Eduard Baldamus. assistant to his father and brother, without, however, I Carefully elaborated as this great work had been, its publishing anything on his own account. The father information had, of course, fallen behind the times, and a natural desire was expressed for a new edition. The investigation and mapping the distribution of sleeping first part of this appeared in 1897, under the general sickness and tick fever, they travelled several thousand editorship of Dr. Carl R. Hennicke, of Gera, who has miles by river and road, and reached a station beyond been assisted by a company of thirty-six coadjutors, Stanley Falls. comprising the chief ornithologists of Central Europe, In the death of Dr. Dutton, not only have the and to celebrate the recent completion of this grand | Tropical School and the University of Liverpool lost a undertaking in ten folio volumes a Naumann-Feier is brilliant graduate, but medicine has lost one of its to be held at Cöthen on Sunday, May 14, under most promising men, a man who, although only the direction of Dr. Jacobi von Wangelin, of Merse twenty-nine years of age, had already won a recognised burg, and Prof. Rudolf Blasius, of Brunswick, the pre position throughout the scientific world. Educated at sidents respectively of the German Bird Protection the King's School, Chester, Dr. Dutton proceeded to Inion and the German Ornithological Society. The the University of Liverpool, where he rapidly made his business of the day is announced as of the simplest way to the front. In 1897 he was appointed to the character, just as one may suppose would be consonant George Holt fellowship in pathology, a post which has with the wishes of the men to be honoured-an inspec- had a marked effect in stimulating men to devote tion of the Naumann collections, now housed in the time to research and in supplying able investigators in ducal palace, a pilgrimage to the graves of the tropical medicine. In 1900 he commenced the study Naumanns at Ziebigk, their old abode, on which of tropical medicine under the leadership of Dr. Annett, a laurel wreath will be laid, and a visit of and together with Dr. Elliott, of Toronto University, respect to the daughter-in-law of Johann Friedrich, he proceeded to Nigeria in order to study the habits of a return to Cöthen for a festival dinner—that is the Anopheles and the most effective measures of preall. Who will attend I know not, but assuredly vention of malaria. In 1901 he proceeded alone to the every German ornithologist will be present in the Gambia, and drew a comprehensive and useful antispirit, and my chief object in writing these lines malarial report which has proved of the greatest seris that British ornithologists should sympathise with vice to the colony. It was during this expedition that their German brethren on the occasion. Making every he identified in the blood of the patient shown to him allowance for the ordinary Englishman's linguistic de- by Dr. Forde, of Bathurst, the trypanosome which he ficiencies, it is not to the credit of our predecessors in described and named as Trypanosoma gambiense. this country, though there are many of whom we may | Having established the presence of the trypanosome be justly proud, that until the year 1850 not one of them in man, Dr. Dutton immediately set off on another seems ever to have heard of the Naumanns and their expedition to ascertain how far it was distributed in incomparable works. It was Mr. G. R. Gray who, in the native population. This expedition formed the a British Museum catalogue, first cited that of Johann basis of his first trypanosomiasis report (Senegambia, Friedrich, and then merely on nomenclatural grounds. | 1902). It was there that I first met with its title, and I lost no I The first progress report of the Congo expedition time in seeking the work in the library of Cambridge was published in 1904; this has been followed by others, l'niversity. Words fail me to express the delight with including the description of the “ Congo Floor Magwhich I looked into one volume after another of this ! got,” by Drs. Dutton, Todd, and Christy, and the huge store of information, or the admiration with “Cerebro-spinal Fluid in Trypanosomiasis," by Dr. which I regarded its unpretentious but exquisitely exe- Christy; “A Comparison of the Animal Reactions of rutrd plates. That was nearly five-and-fifty years ago. | the Trypanosomes of Uganda and Congo Free State hut much as the study has since advanced, the opinion I Sleeping Sickness with that of Trypanosoma gamthen formed I hold now, that for fulness of treatment, biense,” by Drs. Thomas and Linton ; “ Two Cases of perspicuity, and general accuracy, the work of Johann Trypanosomiasis in Europeans," by Drs. Dutton, Friedrich Naumann has not been surpassed.

Todd, and Christy; and “ Supplementary Notes on the Willingly would I dwell longer on the subject, but I Tsetse-flies," by Mr. E. E, Austen. More recently Dr. think I may have said enough, though I must add that Dutton wrote an interesting paper on the “ Intermefor many of the details above given I am indebted to diary Host of the Filaria cypseli(the filaria of the two articles by Dr. Lindner published in “ Die | African swift), in which he described the intermediate Schwalbe " of Vienna for 1894 (Nos. 7 and 8), and still host as a louse (subfamily Leiothinæ) in the snore to Dr. Paul Leverkühn's excellent biographical abdominal cavity of which he observed the various preface to the first volume of the recent edition already stages of the development of the filaria. He showed mentioned, which has been separately printed, “ Biod that the infection was probably spread by the birds eatgraphisches über die Drei Naumanns (Gera-Unterm | ing the infected lice. haus: 1904). Later still that gentleman has come into Toward the end of 1904 the investigators had posession of much of Johann Friedrich's correspon- reached Stanley Falls, and quite independently Drs. dince, which it is sincerely to be hoped he will find | Dutton and Todd verified the discovery of the cause of the means of publishing, as it can hardly fail to be tick spirillum fever in man made a few weeks preof great interest.

ALFRED NEWTON viously by Milne and Ross in the Uganda Protectorate;

but, furthermore, they were able to transmit the disease

to monkeys and rabbits by means of the bite of the inDR. J. E. DUTTON.

fected tick. They were able to make post mortem examiIT is with deep regret that we announce the sudden nations on cases of the fever, in the course of which | death of Dr. Dutton (Walter Myers Fellow) at Dr. Dutton contracted the disease by a post mortem kosongo, in the Congo, on February 27, while actively wound and Dr. Todd an abortive attack apparently engaged in the investigation of trypanosomiasis and directly through a tick bite. From this fever they retik fever.

covered, in Dr. Dutton's case after four typical relapses. The expedition which Dr. Dutton was leading was Their researches into the relationship between the ina very completely equipped one, and commenced workfection in man and the tick were so far advanced that in the ('ongo in September, 1903. It consisted origin- they were able to prepare a report which is due by the ally of Drs. Dutton, Todd, and Christy, and was sub next mail. In the meantime, they have given an srquently joined by Dr. Inge Heiberg. The Belgian account of an experiment in which tick spirillum fever 1 omtrnment erected a special hospital for them, and has been conveyed to a monkey by the bites of young blured every possible facility at their disposal both for ticks during the first feed after hatching from the ova investigation and travelling. Whilst conducting the l of naturally infected adults.

NOTES

Prof. E. B. Frost has been appointed director of the

Yerkes Observatory by the trustees of the University of The gentlemen's soirée of the Royal Society will take

Chicago, in succession to Prof. G. E. Hale, who now gives place at Burlington House on Wednesday next, May 17.

his whole time to the establishment of the new Solar

Observatory of the Carnegie Institution at Mt. Wilson, In a murder trial concluded last week, a finger mark

California. left by one of the prisoners upon a cash-box tray at the shop where the crime was committed was used for pur A PARTY of zoological students from the Birkbeck College poses of identification. An inspector gave evidence that spent part of the Easter vacation trawling, dredging, and there were 80,000 or 90,000 sets of finger prints in the shore collecting at West Mersea, on the Essex coast. finger print department of Scotland Yard, and that he had | Although the temperature was very low for the time of never found two such impressions to correspond. The right year, many specimens were collected, and much experience thumb print of one of the prisoners agreed in twelve was gained. characteristics with an impression made with perspiration

A REUTER correspondent at Bombay reports that a severe upon the cash-box tray, and therefore gave corroborative

earthquake occurred at Bandar Abbas on April 25. Five evidence of identity. It is probable, as Mr. Galton pointed

shocks were experienced during the afternoon, and shocks out some years ago, that no two finger-prints in the whole

have been occurring daily since. Sarn, a town west of world are so alike that an expert would fail to distinguish

Bandar Abbas, is reported to have suffered severely. between them. The system was largely used in India by Sir William Herschel nearly fifty years ago, and was found The death is announced, in his eighty-eighth year, of by him to be most successful in preventing personation,

Colonel N. Pike, known for his contributions to the natural and in putting an end to disputes about the authenticity history of birds, reptiles, and amphibia. For several years of deeds. He described his methods in these pages in 1880 Colonel Pike held the post of American consul in the (vol. xxiii. p. 76); and in the previous volume (vol. xxii.

Island of Mauritius, and during this time he collected p. 605) Mr. Henry Faulds referred to the use of finger extensively the local fauna and prepared from the living marks for the identification of criminals. There is no specimens many coloured drawings. His most extended doubt as to the value of this system of identification, which | work was his “Sub-Tropical Rambles in the Land of the was described in the pages of Nature long before its | Aphanopteryx.” practical applications had been realised, and we regret that

A REUTER telegram from Christiania reports that the anything should have occurred to throw discredit upon it.

Belgica, with the members of the Duc d'Orléans's Arctic It appears from the reports of the trial referred to that

Expedition on board, left Sandefjord on May 6 for Bergen, a person who professed to be properly qualified wrote

where the duke will embark. From Bergen the Belgica to the Director of Public Prosecutions, and also to

will go to Spitsbergen, Greenland, and Shannon Islands, the solicitors for the defence, offering to give evidence

where the Duc d'Orléans intends to visit the depôts of the as an expert on the finger impressions, although he

Ziegler Expedition. His intention is to bring the members had not seen the impressions. It is not to be

of that expedition back with him on the Belgica, and he wondered at that Mr. Justice Channell should denounce

hopes to return to Ostend in September. such action in strong language, and whether the jury agreed with him or not--that the witness was “abso

The Rome correspondent of the Pall Mall Gazette states lutely untrustworthy ”--they no doubt considered that

that it is again proposed to affix a marble tablet to the evidence which could be given on either side could not be

Villa Medici, which is French property, to remind passers of much importance. From the scientific point of view, we

by and posterity that Galileo was kept prisoner there from regret that a method which is associated with the names

June 24 to July 6, 1633. Italy has already erected a small of men of such scientific eminence as Sir William Herschel

monument to Galileo at the very door of the villa, with the and Mr. Francis Galton should be brought into disrepute.

following inscription :-“ The neighbouring palace, which Finger prints are not only of value for personal identifi

belonged to the Medici, was the prison of Galileo Galilei, cation, but also for hereditary investigations, and any

guilty of having seen the earth revolving round the sun." action which produces comments like those made by Mr. Tue anniversary meeting of the Royal Geographical Justice Channell is to be deplored, because it tends to shake Society will be held on Monday, May 22. The annual the confidence of men in methods which rest on secure conversazione will be held in the Natural History Museum, scientific foundations.

South Kensington, on Tuesday, June 27. "In place of the The council of the Linnean Society of New South Wales

annual dinner of the society this year, a banquet in honour has appointed Mr. Harald L. Jensen to be the first Linnean

of the retiring president, Sir Clements R. Markham, Macleay fellow.

K.C.B., will be held on the evening of the anniversary

meeting, May 22, at the Hotel Metropole. The Athenaeum announces the death of Prof. Otto Struve, who succeeded his father as director of the Nicholas

The Paris correspondent of the Times remarks that Central Observatory at Pulkowa in 1861.

about 150 physicians and surgeons have arrived there from

England, many of them with their wives and families, to Science announces that Prof. L. Warren, for twenty-seven return the visit which the French doctors paid to London years professor of mathematics at Colby College, died on | last year. The formal reception took place last night at April 21, at the age of sixty-nine years.

the Sorbonne. During the stay of the English medical The Times understands that the trustees of the British

men, besides the many attractive excursions and social Museum have expressed their willingness to receive care

entertainments arranged in their honour, every facility is fully selected phonographic records of the voices of dis

to be given them for inspecting the hospitals. tinguished living men. The records will be for posterity In proposing the toast of " The Japan Society" at its only, and will in no circumstances be available for con | annual dinner on May 3, Sir Frederick Treves referred to temporary use.

the medical and surgical ability of the Japanese. Nothing astounded him more, he said, in his recent visit to Japan is incomplete and one-sided, and the greatest classical than the way in which the Japanese have inquired into the scholar, if he know nothing of the world we live in, is but medicine and surgery of the western world and the mar a half-educated man after all. Sir James Crichton Browne rellous thing they are making out of it. It is difficult to spoke of the value of the society's work from the point of credit the astonishing advance made by the Japanese in view of mental health, while Sir John Cockburn urged the medical equipment in time of war. Many of the problems usefulness of that study of nature which is not rigidly which have been the terror of war in European countries scientific. Among the many exhibits of natural history the Japanese are solving or have solved. British troops and antiquarian interest was some honey gathered by bees enter a war with many determinations-one of which is to in the “East End." This was shown by the Stepney have to per cent of sick, and they get it. The Japanese Borough Museum, and it is practically certain that it was are quite content with i per cent. of sick, and they get it. derived from sugar on the ships in the London Docks, a The Japanese have all the qualities of a surgeon. They mile from the hive. have infinite patience and infinite tenderness. Sir F. Treves

THE Belgian Royal Academy has issued the following is confident that not many years hence there will be seen in Japan one of the most progressive schools of medicine

lists of prize subjects for 1905 and 1906 :—for 1905, in

mathematical and physical sciences, on the combinations the world has ever known.

formed by halogens; on physical, particularly thermal, The annual congress of the South-eastern Union of phenomena accompanying dissolution; on linear complexes Scientific Societies will be held at Reigate on June 7-10 of the third order; and on the deviation of the vertical treated inclusive, under the presidency of Prof. Flinders Petrie, from the hypothesis of the non-coincidence of the centres F.R.S. Among the papers to be contributed are the of mass of the earth's crust and nucleus. In natural following :-"* Mendel's Law," Miss Saunders ; " Botany of sciences, on the function of albuminoids in nutrition; on Reigate District,” Messrs. R. H. Welchman and C. E. | the reproduction and sexuality of Dicyemidæ; on the Salmon; “ Local Orchids," Dr. Hodgson ; “ Eggs of Lepi silicates of Belgium ; on the formations of Brabant doptera," Mr. Tonge; "The Law of Treasure Trove in between the Bruxellian and the Tongrian ; on certain Relation to Archæological Research," Dr. William Martin; Belgian deposits of sand, clay, and pebbles ; on the sexuality * The Land and Fresh-water Shells of S.E. England,” | of the individuals resulting from a single ovum in certain Mr. A. Santer Kennard. There will be excursions to diæcious plants; and on the development of AmphiWorth Church; Gatton ; Mr. Maw's observatory, Outwood ; oxus. For 1906 the subjects in mathematical and physical Reigate Castle ; Mr. Brown's Atherfield clay pit, &c. The sciences are :-on critical phenomena in physics; on Mayor of Reigate will give a reception on Friday, June 9. n-linear forms (n>3); on thermal conductivity of liquids The congress secretaries are Mr. G. E. Frisby, Redhill, and solutions; and on the unipolar induction of Weber. and Mrs. Taylor, Clear's Corner, Reigate, from whom all In natural sciences, on the Cambrian series of Stavelot ; information can be obtained.

on the effect of mineral substances on the assimilation of

carbon by organisms; on the effects of osmotic pressure in DURING the forthcoming eclipse of the sun, on August 30,

animal life; on the tectonic of Brabant ; on the soluble séronautical ascents will be made at Paris, Burgos, Prague,

ferments of milk; and on the physiological action of and very likely in Algeria. It is intended to study the

histones. The essays for 1905 and 1906 are to be sent in variations, not only of the temperature of the air in the

by August 1 of the respective years, and the prizes range shade and in the sun, but also the solar radiation at several

from 241. to 401. in value. In addition, prizes bequeathed altitudes. If it is possible to take aërial photographs of

by Edward Mailly and in memory of Louis Melsens are the corona from the balloons it will be done at Burgos, and

offered under the usual conditions for astronomy and possibly at Wargia. M. Trépied, director of the Algiers

applied chemistry or physics respectively. Observatory, has left for Guelma, on a railway 36 miles south-west of Bona, and really a desert oasis. The sky

The codling-moth forms the subject of Bulletin No. 222 is anticipated to be quite clear at that place, as at the

issued by the entomological division of the Michigan Agriend of August northerly breezes, which are very frequent

cultural College Experiment Station. This insect is a on the coast, are hardly to be felt in the Sahara. The serious enemy to fruit-growers in the district, and the Algerian eclipse observatory will be housed in the French

author, Mr. R. H. Pettit, has carefully worked out its public school. For the last twenty years a weather bureau life-history and devised effective means for its destruction. has been established in Algeria, and is situated on the

Ar the first congress of the Association of Economic terrace of the City Hall. The establishment is connected

Biologists, held in Birmingham University on April 19-20, by telegraph with forty stations, which are sending

Mr. A. E. Shipley directed attention to the circumstance regularly each morning observations used in the reduction

that bacteriological and parasitical science is unrepresented of the warnings and forecasts.

on the committee appointed by Parliament to inquire into LORD AVEBURY delivered his presidential address at the

the nature of grouse-disease. The president, Mr. F. V. soirée of the Selborne Society on May 3. In the course of

Theobald, emphasised the importance of closer study of his remarks he referred to the animated discussion which

the aphids affecting cultivated plants in this country, while

the aph took place recently in the newspapers as to whether Greek | parasites in the liver of swine, the porosity of wood, the should be a compulsory subject in university examinations injuries inflicted on plants by spring-tails, and ticks and -which is euphemistically termed “ maintaining the Greek feas as conveyers of disease formed the subjects of other basis of education against the material tendencies of the communications. present day.” It is not we, he continued, who wish to pit ARTICLE No. 4 of vol. xx. of the Journal of the College Greek grammar against nature-study. Greek-even a little of Science of Tokyo University is devoted to the descripGreek-is very useful. But nothing was said, Lord Ave- tion of the spoon-worms (Gephyrea) of Japan, and is illusbury contended, about science being a compulsory subject- trated by one coloured and three black and white plates. which alike from a practical and an educational point of | The author, Mr. I. Ikeda, states that hitherto only four view is men more important. Education without science species of these worms appear to have been recorded from

Japanese waters, and of one of these no specimens have i the printing is confined to one side of the paper only, in come under his notice. From a study extending over | order that, if desired, the separate titles may be cut out. several years, he has been enabled to add 34 additional

The collection of phenological records by teachers and species to the fauna, thus bringing the number up to 38.

pupils of schools in Nova Scotia has been proceeding for Of the 34, no less than 24 appear to be new forms, all

some years, and the number of schools sending in lists has of which are provisionally referred to previously known

been increasing. The data supplied by about 300 selected generic types, although there are grounds for considering

schedules in 1903 have been utilised for the compilation that some of those included in Thalassema might advan

of phenochrons or average dates for different regions of the tageously be assigned to a new genus.

province, and these have been tabulated in vol. X., Some excellent photographs of Australian bird-life are part xvi., of the Transactions of the Royal Sociсty of reproduced in the March number of the Victorian Canada. Naturalist, among which may be specially menioned a

Since the year 1900, a gooseberry mildew, Sphaerothera group of young diamond-birds (Pardalotes) and a nestling

mors-uvae, which appears to have been introduced from bronze-cuckoo in the act of ejecting the rightful occupant the United States, has been observed in Ireland and Russia. of the nest in which it was hatched. “When discovered,

When discovered, Mr. E. S. Salmon, who reported the first appearance in the nest contained two young birds. The cuckoo, blind,

Ireland, and has since notified the spread of the disease, featherless, and apparently not more than a day old,

announces in the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society struggling till it got beneath its victim, gradually listed it

(vol. xxix.) its continued increase in these countries. The to the edge of the nest, resting at intervals, all the while yellow varieties seem to suffer most. Spraying checks the balancing the resisting nestling in the hollow between the fungus, but the only effectual remedy is to burn all the wings immediately at the back of the neck. Slowly and diseased bushes. Mr. Salmon contributes also to Annales relentlessly it pushed the unfortunate wren over the side. Mycologici an account of a disease observed on plants of ... The young wren was replaced in the nest half a Euonymus japonicus in the south of England and elsedozen times, but always with a like result until the where caused by an oidium or conidial stage of one of the cuckoo was thoroughly exhausted."

Erysiphaceæ. Two interesting Antarctic organisms obtained during

Herr Paul Grosser has recently visited and described the Scotia Expedition are described in the Proceedings of

the site of the Tarawera eruption of 1886, in the north the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, vol. xvi., No. 2.

island of New Zealand (“* Vulkanologische Streifzüge im In the first article, by Dr. J. Rennie, are discussed a

Maoriland," Verhandlungen des naturhistorischen Vereins number of isolated tentacles of a zoophyte belonging to

der preuss. Rheinlande, 1904, pp. 37-58). He lays stress the group Siphonophora. The specimens are barely

on the linear grouping of the eruptive centres, the ashsufficient for definite identification, but appear to indicate

cones of which are almost as contiguous as pearls on a a type allied to the Mediterranean Apolemia, which attains string. A fine photograph is given of a crater exploded a length of two or three yards. Mr. T. V. Hodgson, in through rhyolite on Ruawahia, with basaltic ashes coverthe second communication, describes a five-limbed sea

ing the country above. Incidentally, Herr Grosser exspider (Pycnogonida) distinct from Pentanymphon antarc

amined the ground affected by the Port Nicholson earthticum recently described on the evidence of a Discovery

quake of 1855, which is described in the later editions of specimen. With the assistance of Dr. Calman, of the Lyell's “ Principles of Geology"; and he adds the interestBritish Museum, the author has been enabled to identify ing detail that the elevation of the floor of a lagoon by the Scotia pycnogonid with Decalo poda australis, an almost two metres enabled it to be successfully drained into the forgotten generic type described so long ago as 1837. The sea, a work previously attempted, but abandoned. occurrence of two five-limbed pycnogonids in the Antarctic is, in view of the absence of this type from all other seas,

THE shoal-water deposits of the Bermuda banks are very remarkable.

described by Mr. H. B. Bigelow (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts

and Sciences, xl., No. 15). The oceanic character .of MR. F. FLETCHER, Deputy Director of Agriculture, Bom- Bermuda, due to its great distance from the neighbourbay Presidency, is the author of a small volume, published ing continent, prevents its receiving much foreign detritus, at Bombay, entitled “Notes on some Egyptian Insect and its submarine deposits are almost wholly local. The Pests.” In the autumn of 1901 the author, it appears. I great bulk of these is calcareous, with some spicules of was engaged to teach agricultural entomology to the siliceous organisms. True coral sand is absent ; indeed, students at the Khedivial Agricultural School, Giza, and there is a great rarity of coral fragments, for although found himself seriously hampered in his task by the fact corals flourish on the reefs, they do so in a subordinate that practically nothing was known with regard to the manner. The Bermuda plateau is of interest in illustrating insects which are harmful to the Egyptian agriculturist. the growth of a limestone island where reef-building corals Accordingly, during a two years' sojourn in the country, are of slight importance. The organisms chiefly active in Mr. Fletcher set himself to study such insects whenever the formation of the shell-sands are corallines, molluscs. opportunity occurred, and the present “ booklet " is the tube-building worms, millepores, and foraminifera. Algæ result. It contains an introduction showing the position of probably form the greatest mass of the sand. White insects in the animal kingdom, followed by a short sum | marls are described as due to the slow trituration of windmary of the life-history and structure of insects in general,

borne material. There are also limited areas of blue mud, after whici comes an account of the species forming the This seems to be of terrigenous origin, being the fine proper subject of the “ notes." The publication seems detritus washed down by rain from the calcareous hills, admirably adapted to the needs of those for whom it is with vegetable matter. intended.

To the March number of the American Naturalist Dr. The catalogue forming appendix ii. to the Kew Bulletin A. Hollick contributes a paper on the occurrence and of books and pamphlets added to the library of the Botanic origin of amber in the eastern United States. Although Garder..; during the past year has been received ; as usual, amber has for many years been known to occur in several

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