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came the interarticular disc, as can be

in and the association of the cochlear nerve with echidna. By means of a model he demonstrated

the

nerve to the posterior ampulla is merely the manner in which a new joint could be developed fortuitous; Dr. Giuseppe Levi, of Florence, gave without leading to a disturbance of the function of an account of the various forms of cells found in the mastication, thus leaving the quadrate to form one ganglia of the spinal nerves in developing pigeons. of the auditory ossicles (hammer). It must be ad- in another communication this author showed that mitted that Gaupp's theory explains the embryo- ganglion cells vary in size with the size of the logical phenomena, and clearly met with general animal in which they occur; other cells are not acceptance by the members of the congress. Prof. affected by the size of the animal. Dr. E. B. Eugen Fischer, of Freiburg, pointed out that the Jamieson exhibited an excellent series of dissections theory explained the presence of cartilage which he of the brain, showing how various nerve tracts, had found in the developing coronoid and condylar usually seen only in section, can be demonstrated in processes of the jaw in the mole and apes. A model of their complete extent by means of scalpel and forceps. an early developmental stage of the human mandible Several contributions were made to our knowledge was shown by Dr. Alexander Low, of Aberdeen, of blood corpuscles. Dr. T. H. Bryce gave an acwho also demonstrated a special formation of car- count of the development of the thymus gland in tilage, independent of Meckels, in the condylar and Lepidosiren, and showed that leucocytes were precoronoid processes of the human jaw-facts in favour sent before this gland was developed, and that, of Gaupp's hypothesis. In the opinion of the writer therefore, Beard's theory of the thymus being the of this report, this vexed question is not yet settled, primary source of leucocytes could not be entertained. nor is it likely to be so long as anatomists seek to Weidenreich, of Strassburg, traced the origin of all derive the mammalian from the reptilian type of forms of white blood corpuscles from a common mandible.

mononuclear cell, which was similar to, if not idenTen communications dealt with the structure or tical with, connective tissue corpuscles. With this development of nerve cells. One of these was conclusion Dr. Bryce agreed. Prof. Jolly, of Paris, paper by Prof. A. Donaggio, of Naples, “Il reticolo described the formation of the mammalian red blood neurofibrillare della cellule nervosa dei Vertebrata corpuscle by the gradual absorption and disappear(con demostrazione di preparati microscopici),” which ance of the nucleus, not by an extrusion as is usually revealed the energy and fire which Continental supposed. A research into the changes in the anatomists can throw into their work. Prof. Ramon thymus gland which take place with age led Prof. y Cajal, of Madrid, also brought to the congress Hammar, of Upsala, to conclude that the lymphoid specimens to demonstrate the direct continuity of the tissue of that gland reached its maximum development neuro-fibrillar network of the nerve cell with the den- in the years of puberty. Analogous results were obdrites on the one hand and the axon on the other. tained by Dr. R. J. A. Berry and Dr. Lack, of EdinHe had placed his microscopes and specimens on a burgh, regarding the development of the lymphoid window-ledge of a passage leading to the laboratory tissue of the vermiform appendix. Using the average where Donaggio gave an enthusiastic demonstration number of lymphoid follicles seen in sections of the to an intent circle of listeners. Cajal suddenly joined appendix as an index of the development of the the circle and gave a direct contradiction to some lymphoid tissue, they concluded that the maximum statement of Donaggio. A lively scene followed; number (7) was found about the twentieth year, every Cajal fetched his microscopes and specimens one by subsequent decade leading to a decrease in the numone from the passage and placed them impetuously ber of follicles. before Donaggio. It was hard to ascertain the exact Very few of the papers dealt with the naked-eve point in dispute, but it was subsequently discovered structure of the human body, or had a direct bearing that it was a matter of thickness of section, Cajal on the problems which interest the surgeon or maintaining that Donaggio's sections were too thin clinician-a very remarkable fact when one conto demonstrate the relations of the neuro-fibrillar net- siders that the vast majority of the members of the work of the nerve cell, while, of course, Donaggio congress are teachers of medical students. To this regarded those of his opponent as too thick. The limited group of communications may be assigned dispute was amicably settled by the discovery that the paper by Prof. Symington on the relations of the both meant the same thing, namely, that the neuro- deeper parts of the brain to the surface and Prof. fibrillar network of the nerve cell was directly con- Cunningham's further observations on the form of tinuous with dendrites and axon.

the stomach, with special reference to hour-glass The question of the development and regeneration stomach. Papers belonging to this section were of nerve cells again came up for discussion. Dr. given by Chaine, Ledouble, Broman, Delmas, Gilis, John Cameron showed excellent photomicrographs Steida, and Poirier. of the developing optic and spinal nerve fibres in Contributions to physical anthropology were also amphibians and birds which he believed to be both few in number. Dr. Wright, of Birmingham, dealt of central and peripheral origin. Optic fibres he with the characters of the men buried in the round regarded as direct prolongations from the nuclei of barrows of Yorkshire, and found that they were the retinal ganglion cells. Specimens were shown identical with the men obtained from prehistoric by Dr. Alfred Kohn, of Prague, demonstrating that graves in the neighbourhood of Fribourg. Lussane, the cells which go to the formation of a nerve, both and Berne. Englishmen of to-day are rather longerfibre and sheath, are derived from the central nervous headed than the men who were buried in the round system--a histological confirmation of Harrison's barrows of Yorkshire, a fact which Dr. Wright ex. clever experiment. Prof. Barfurth, of Rostock, pro- plained by the invasion and intermixture of the longduced the results of experiments on regeneration of headed Scandinavians with the men of the round bar. nerve fibres made by C. F. Walter, and concluded

roulage.

Prof. Eugen Fischer dealt with the de that the axis cylinders could be produced by the posit of pigment beneath the conjunctiva. It occur cells of the nerve sheath.

in mammals generally, and in all primates and Dr. George Streeter exhibited a series of models races of men save Europeans, in whom the subshowing the development of the acoustic ganglion in conjunctival tissue is free from pigment except under human embryos. The cochlear ganglion is separated certain pathological conditions. from the vestibular ganglion during development, Some very remarkable specimens-showing exqui

site technique-of the maturation stages in the ovum ing for iron-ore deposits. Born at Köping on of the bat were placed before the congress by Prof. December 28, 1827, he matriculated at the University van der Stricht. Equally fine specimens, showing of Upsala in 1849, where he graduated as Doctor of the manner in which the zona radiata is formed Philosophy in 1854. In 1856 he became lecturer on round the ripening egg of the rabbit, were shown by astronomy, and from 1856 to 1859 travelling scholarRegaud and Petitjean, of Lyons University. Their ships enabled him to study in England, France, and specimens showed that the zona radiata of the ovum Germany. In 1861 he was appointed assistant prois fibrillar in structure, and that the fibrils are ar- fessor of physics at Upsala, and 'from 1869 to_1870 ranged in an inner and outer zone. The fibrils are he was professor of physics at the Stockholm Techformed in the intercellular protoplasm in which nical School. In 1873 he was appointed professor of the cells of the Graafian follicle are embedded. It mechanics at Upsala, and in the following year was will be thus seen that the zona radiata is not formed transferred to the chair of physics. This professorfrom, but deposited on, the ovum. Prof. Êternod, ship he held until 1896. of Geneva, dealt with the manner in which the The principal memoirs written by him dealt with human ovum becomes implanted in the uterus, and the determination of lines in the solar spectrum the subdivision of the archenteron into the cavity of (1860), researches on the magnetic properties of iron the amnion, the neurenteric canal and alimentary (1861), on the Fraunhofer lines (1866), spectrum tract.

analysis (1866), determination of the wave-lengths of If one may judge from the nature of several contri- metallic lines (1868), terrestrial magnetic observations butions to this congress, there is a decided tendency in Sweden in 1869-71 and 1872-1882, researches on to break down the barriers that separate the methods the spectra of metalloids (1875), the search for magof the anatomist from those of the physiologist. netic iron ore deposits (1877), and on the arc spectrum Three communications dealt with results obtained by of iron (1885) experiment on living animals. Prof. Sano, of Ant- Prof. Thalén's researches on the spectra of metals werp, by removing groups of muscles from the and metalloids won for him wide renown, and are limbs and studying the subsequent changes in the recognised as classical contributions to spectrum motor cells of the spinal cord, sought to determine analysis. Partly in conjunction with Angström and the position of the various motor centres in the cord. partly by himself he produced accurate and elaborate Prof. Tricomi, of Messina, used a somewhat similar maps showing the wave-lengths of the lines in the method in investigating the paths of auditory im- spectra of many elements.

He also made a careful pulses.

examination of the absorption bands of iodine vapour, The members of the congress took part in the dedi- and engaged himself on the difficult problem of decation of a monument to the memory of Prof. Her- termining and properly assigning the lines in the mann Fol, who set sail from Havre in his yacht, spectra of bodies of the yttrium and cerium groups. l'Aster, in the spring of 1892 to investigate the fauna At the period when these papers appeared, precise of the Mediterranean. From the day he sailed until measurements were needed to settle several fundanow not a single trace has been discovered of ship mental questions in spectrum analysis, and the reor crew. The members of the congress were lavishly searches in which Prof. Thalén took part were of entertained by Madame Fol. The congress placed a great assistance in this connection. The revised list wreath the bust of the Swiss physiologist of the lines in the arc spectrum of iron, published in Servetus, who discovered the pulmonary circulation a memoir presented to the Royal Society of Upsala in the sixteenth century, and was burned at the in 1885, is still a standard work of reference wherever stake by Calvin because, so it is said, he denied investigations in spectrum analysis are carried on. the existence of the Trinity. A wreath was placed The magnetometer invented by Prof. Thalen for by the British section of the congress on the spot searching for magnetic iron ore deposits greatly where he was burned, this gracious act being facilitated the work of prospecting, and there is not prompted by Prof. Dixon, of Trinity College, Dublin. a single iron mine of any consequence in Sweden

The congress was a social as well as a scientific where this instrument has not been used. It was success. An invitation from American anatomists to described in a paper read by Mr. B. H. Brough meet at Boston in 1907 was declined, as it was felt before the Iron and Steel Institute in 1887. In apprethat at least a space of five years should intervene be

ciation of the value of this instrument, in 1874 the tween each congress. A permanent committee for

Swedish Association of Ironmasters awarded Thalén the organisation of the next congress was formed by a gold medal; and in 1884 he received the Rumford the nomination of five men, one from each of the five medal of the Royal Society for his spectroscopic reaffiliated societies. It is intended to bring out a bul- searches. He was a member of the Swedish Academy letin containing the proceedings and transactions of of Sciences, and an honorary member of numerous the congress, to which purpose part of the sum

scientific societies, both in Sweden and other (11,000 francs) raised by subscription in Geneva to countries. meet the expenses of the congress will be devoted. When it becomes the turn of London to entertain this congress, it will not be found an easy matter to attain THE SOUTH AFRICAN MEETING OF THE the standard of hospitality which has been set by

BRITISH ASSOCIATION.
Geneva.

THI
HE various sections of the British Association

met at Cape Town for three days last week, PROF. T. R. TUALÉN.

when presidential addresses were delivered and reports and papers were read and discussed.

We print BY Y the death on July 27 at Upsala of Prof. Tobias two more of the presidential addresses this week, and,

Robert Thalén, Sweden has lost one of her most following our usual custom, shall give in subsequent eminent physicists and teachers. He conducted in- numbers other addresses, as well as reports of the vestigations of great delicacy and value in the field proceedings of the sections written by members of spectrum analysis, and was the assistant of A. J. attending the meeting in South Africa. It is only Angström in much of his work. He also furnished necessary now, therefore, to refer to matters of valuable contributions to the knowledge of terrestrial | general interest connected with the meeting. magnetism, and devised ingenious methods of search- On August 17 a special graduation ceremony in

on

an

honour of the association was held at the City Hall. ment and the conditions which affect various industries. The degree of Doctor of Science was conferred At present it is possible to obtain a certain amount of upon :-Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.; Sir William information for individual colony by reference to Crookes, F.R.S.; Sir David Gill, K.C.B., F.R.S.; colonial Blue-books, but the data are of very different Prof. Porter, of Montreal; Prof. Davis, of Harvard orders of completeness; and to ascertain in which colonies University; Dr. Backlund, director of the Imperial specified climatic conditions are to be found would be a Observatory, Pulkowa, Russia; Prof. Bohr, Copen- The Board of Trade publish a certain number of tables of hagen; Prof. Engler, Berlin; Prof. Kapteyn, Groningen University; Prof. Penck, Vienna ; and Dr. something of a more comprehensive character is required.

meteorological results among their colonial statistics, but Sjögren, Stockholm. At the conclusion of the ceremony, the Vice- From the scientific point of view the regular issue of the

meteorological data for the British colonies in a published Chancellor, Sir John Buchanan, read the following and easily accessible form is urgently desired by meteortelegram from the Prince of Wales, Chancellor of the ologists of all countries. university :-“1 desire to offer my hearty welcome But there is another aspect from which the scientific to the members of the British Association who to-day treatment of meteorological data must be regarded as receive our honorary degrees.-George, Chancellor." having an important bearing upon the economic interests

The members of the association arrived at Durban of remote parts of the Empire. Sir John Eliot, in his on Tuesday, and were publicly welcomed in the City address to the British Association meeting at Cambridge, Hall, the Mayor of Durban, who was in the chair, pointed out how the study of the meteorological conditions expressing his confidence that the meetings would

of the Indian Ocean and the bordering countries had been prove beneficial to mankind by widening the bound- already applied to problems affecting the economic conaries of scientific knowledge and by inculcating a

ditions of India as depending upon the variation of the deeper interest in scientific research.

monsoon rainfall, and he gave reasons for believing that

the further prosecution of the inquiry promises valuable In returning thanks on behalf of the association,

results for India, Australia, South and East Africa, and Prof. Darwin is reported by Reuter to have said :- other countries bordering on the Indian Ocean if provision

It was exactly seventy years since His Majesty's ship were made for dealing with the meteorological problem in Beagle, engaged in an historical expedition, sighted the a comprehensive manner with reference to the Indian coast somewhere about the latitude of Natal. At that Ocean as a whole. time Durban was only a small village in the interior, Similar reasoning may be held to apply also to other entirely in the hands of the Zulus. It was a fact not oceanic areas, in or on the border of which British colonies hitherto recorded anywhere that his father, who was on are situated. In this connection it should, perhaps, be board the Beagle, was anxious that Captain Fitzroy should mentioned that the control of the meteorological organisaput him ashore order that he might make his way

tion of the British West Indies is already passing into on foot or on horseback, or as best he could, to Cape the hands of the United States. As a result of Sir John Town. But it came on to blow, and the Beagle was Eliot's representation, the attention of the council of the unable to send a boat ashore. He felt that the chances British Association has been directed to the advantages which his father had of reaching Cape Town alive were likely to accrue from the organised study of the meteorso slight that he might say his presence on the platformological problems affecting various groups of British that day was the result of a puff of wind.

dominions. The annual report of the council for the year study can be most effectively secured by the establishment

It has been further pointed out that such organised 1904-5 was presented to the general committee at Cape Town on August 15. It is devoted chiefly

of a central institution devoted to these objects. Such

an institution ought to be in close connection with the to a statement of what action has been taken in Meteorological Office, which is itself in regular correconnection with a resolution from the committee of spondence with the meteorological organisations of foreign the section of mathematics and physics expressing countries as well as those of the self-governing colonies. the opinion that the organisation of a Central Meteor- | The meteorology of the ocean has been an essential part ological Department for the British Empire would be of the work of the office from its establishment in 1854, of the highest benefit to the progress of meteorological and oceanic data must necessarily be appealed to for the science and its application to the economic problems effective study of the meteorology of the neighbouring of the various colonies and dependencies. The re

land areas. solution was referred to a committee consisting of

By way of summary, the objects of the suggested instiDr. A. Buchan, Dr. H. R. Mill, Dr. Shaw, and the

tution may be briefly stated to be :general officers, to consider and report thereon to

(1) To give any information that may be required to

the Governments or other authorities of the British the council; and the memorandum drawn up by the

dominions as to instruments and methods to be adopted committee and approved by the council on March 3 for an effective system of meteorological observations. is abridged below :

(2) To compile and publish periodical reports upon the There is at present no provision for the systematic treat

climatic conditions of the various parts of the Empire upon ment of the meteorology of the British dominions. Observ

a comparable plan. To form an accessible depository of ations of various kinds are made in nearly all the British

information upon matters concerning the climates of the colonies and dependencies, and summaries of these observ

whole Empire, and to afford information upon those subations are generally included in the respective official jects to inquirers. publications. India, Ceylon, Canada, the several States of

(3) To provide a scientific staff for the study of the Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, the Cape of Good | general meteorological conditions which affect the weather Hope, and the Transvaal have organised meteorological in the various British dominions, and in particular to establishments and issue regularometeorological publi- promote the formulation of meteorological laws, and to cations. Information with regard to the meteorology of apply them to explain and ultimately to anticipate the the Crown colonies and protectorates is to be found in

ccurrences of abnormal seasons. the Blue-books of the several dominions. There is no provision for the coordination of the methods Colonial Office, with a covering letter suggesting that

A copy of this memorandum was forwarded to the of observing, the instruments employed, or the presentation of results. The want of a satisfactory system of coordin

the question might be moved by a deputation to the ating the observations from the several dominions is to Secretary of State. In reply, Mr. Lyttelton said that, be deplored from two points of view—the economic and

whilst sympathising with the object which the council the scientific

had in view, he did not think that there would be From the economic point of view, it is eminently any advantage in receiving a deputation until he was desirable that facilities should be given for the comparison in possession of further information on the subject. of the climatic features of the regions available for settle- In satisfaction of this request, the committee drafted

450 to

GEOLOGY.

another memorandum dealing mainly with the object be 2000l., rising, in five years to 2500l., made up as numbered 3 in the foregoing summary, because the

follows: services indicated under numbers 1 and 2 would be

£ £ included incidentally in the development of number 3.

Salaries : Assistant Director

550 This memorandum is as follows :

Scientific assistant, computers
and clerical staff

1,050 to 1,300 The idea underlying the proposal is to deal with the Publications, printing and stationery

300 to

500 general meteorological conditions of wider areas than those Incidental Expenses, office rent, &c. 200 to

150 with which the various meteorological offices of the world The estimate is based on the supposition that the Meteorhave hitherto been regarded as being primarily concerned. ological Committee would be willing to undertake the The British Meteorological Office does indeed concern itself general control of the department as a branch of the with the meteorology of the oceans from the point of view

Meteorological Office. of shipping. In effect, the proposal is to utilise further the

It may be mentioned that the Government grant to the information already obtained at sea in conjunction with Meteorological Office at present stands at 15,300l. The land observations for the investigation of the meteorology

cost of the marine department, as shown in the report of of large ocean areas in relation to that of the adjacent

the Meteorological Council for 1903-4, is 1366l., exclusive land areas, and from the point of view of the land

of office expenses, publications, &c. population. It is known, for example, that the meteorological con

The council, in approving this memorandum, has ditions of India, Australia, South Africa, East Africa, and caused it to be conveyed under a covering letter to Egypt stand in close relation to those of the Indian Ocean, the Secretary of State for the Colonies. and the study of these relations promises very important results in connection with the prediction of the seasons.

SECTION C. This investigation requires that the information shall be treated in a manner different from that now followed for the more immediate purpose of its application to the

OPENING ADDRESS BY PROF. H. A. MIERS, M.A., D.Sc., interests of shipping.

F.R.S., PRESIDENT OF THE Section. The meteorological phenomena which are regarded as In opening the proceedings of Section C in its first visit demanding careful study, in the first instance, are the to South Africa, and speaking first on behalf of those following :

who are visitors, I think I may justly claim that to no The conditions of favourable and unfavourable seasons Section of the British Association can this visit be more in India.

interesting or even more exciting than to us; we enter for The droughts of Australia and South Africa.

the first time a country the geological features and history The conditions of favourable and unfavourable Vile of which, and the mineral productions of which, have long floods.

aroused the keenest interest among European geologists With those would be associated the relation of the and mineralogists. weather of the Mediterranean to the Indian cold weather We have followed the discoveries and discussions of anomalies, and the relation of the South Indian anti- South African writers; we have read your views and have cyclone to the Antarctic ice.

become familiar with your terminology; we have heard The larger part of the necessary land data for the the reports of those who have visited the country, either investigation of these particular questions can probably be as travellers or with the special object of investigating found in the publications of the meteorological organ- its geological problems or mineral resources; and, indeed,

isations of India, Australia, South and East Africa, Egypt, ever since the Geological Society of London received the • Mauritius, Hong Kong, Singapore, or can be furnished historic papers of Andrew Geddes Bain, the father of

directly by those organisations. They should be supple- South African geology, many of the memoirs of your own mented by observations contributed by certain foreign geologists have been communicated to European societies Governments. The marine data would have to be com- and journals; we have looked from afar with yearning piled from the documents collected from ships by the eyes upon this alluring country; and at length we have meteorological departments of this country and India. The found ourselves upon its shores. further development of the collection of observations--more It has not been given to many of us to see those great especially of marine data--might be necessary, in order to pic neers of South African geology whose work was done complete the investigation.

in the days before amateurs and experts could come out The use of the data would be, in the first instance, to for a few weeks or months to take a hurried survey of the obtain a survey of the sequence of the more general weather country; but their enduring labours, which have laid the changes over the whole region under consideration. The foundation of all subsequent work, are well known to us, first step in the operations therefore would be to consider and it is not necessary for me to do more than mention the nature and extent of the data available for the purposes the familiar names of Bain, Wyley, Stow, Atherstone, in view, and the form in which they should be compiled Sutherland, and Dunn. Of these only the last named for study or for publication.

survives; but when one remembers that his maps of North A corresponding inquiry for the Atlantic Ocean and the Cape Colony and of Orange River Colony have served as countries bordering upon it is equally desirable, and should the basis of the maps now in use, one is reminded how be conducted concurrently in the interests of the British recent is the whole history of South African geology, and Isles and the American and West Indian colonies.

how much was achieved in so short a time by these early In order to carry out the proposal, something more than workers. what would be generally understood by "a moderate It is exactly one hundred years since John Barrow wrote addition to the staff of the Meteorological Office is the concluding words of his “ Travels in South Africa required. The proposal involves a scientific investigation which first directed attention to the geology of this of a very important character which could not be regarded country; it is only fifty years since Bain sent home the as merely an incidental addition to the usual operations manuscript of the classic papers to which I have already of the office. A man of suitable scientific attainments

alluded. should be responsible for conducting it in consultation with, Since their days many have been the scientific visitors and under the general supervision of the director of the to the country who have remained here for longer or Meteorological Office. It is desirable to mark the nature shorter periods, whose works have made us familiar with of the qualifications expected in the person to whom the its problems and have contributed to their solution; the work is entrusted by giving him the title of assistant names of Cohen,_Draper, Exton, Gibson, Green, Gries. director, and providing a salary of from 400l. to 6ool. a bach, Passarge, Rubidge, Sawyer, Schenck, and Seeley year. It should be remembered also that the Meteor- recall some of the most substantial scientific work which ological Office could not find accommodation for the pro- has been done either by visitors or residents. Several posed additional staff without some addition to the space others who, without visiting the country, have by their at present available.

researches in Europe helped to unravel the problem of It is estimated that the annual cost of the work would South African stratigraphy enumerated by Dr.

were

Corstorphine in his interesting and exhaustive Presidentialisation the introduction which might lead to a happy Address last year.

union is, perhaps, not brought about for years. None If we must regret that we never had the opportunity can be more fully alive to the importance of such an of seeing the great pioneers and the earlier workers, we alliance than those whose work lies on the borderland may rejoice that we have been able to meet those who are between different sciences; the mineralogist, for example, now actively engaged in continuing their labours; the is in contact on the one side with the experimental sciences period of cursory visits and fragmentary essays is closing of chemistry and physics, and on the other with geology, and the era of deliberate and systematic surveys is which has scarcely yet entered the experimental stage: beginning; we now look for authoritative information to He cannot fail to be impressed by the need of the appeal the Cape Survey inaugurated by Dr. Corstorphine in 1895 to experiment on the geological side of the border, and and so ably continued by his successor Mr. Rogers; to it is perhaps his duty to supply the want so far as lies the Transvaal Survey begun by Dr. Molengraaff in 1897 in his power. and auspiciously revived under Mr. Kynaston; and to the Owing to this very need some of the most difficult Natal Survey which Mr. Anderson has so successfully problems in geology are those concerned with the origin directed since 1901. I hope that it will not be long before of minerals and of the rocks which they compose. One there is no part of South Africa outside the direct super- need but recall the many theories which have been held vision of a systematic and well-ordered survey.

about the origin of mineral deposits, the filling of metalThere is perhaps some danger lest in a developing liferous veins, the local concentration of certain minerals. country, where the commercial possibilities are prominently the distribution of various rock types, the existence of before all eyes, the immense importance of such surveys rock magmas of diverse compositions, and the differentishould be overlooked, and lest it should be thought that ation of their constituents. Could the importance and what appears to be purely scientific research may be left difficulty of such problems be better illustrated than in to take care of itself until the mineral wealth of the South Africa, and by its two most valuable minerals, gold country has been explored. I cannot enter too emphatic and diamond? a protest against such a view ; how closely the two interests Now all these are problems in which direct appeal may are knit together must be apparent to anyone who reflects and indeed must, be made to laboratory experiments; the that the nature and sequence of the more northerly form- well-defined minerals of which the earth's crust consists ations which have yielded coal, diamonds, gold, and

do not, after all, number much more than 800, and of metalliferous deposits can only be studied in the light of

these many have already been manufactured in the labor. the more intelligible geology of Cape Colony and Natal.

atory. Speculation upon the origin of rocks and minerals It is, moreover, immensely to the advantage of South

should surely be controlled by the results of experiments Africa that you have intimately connected with the

mining and equally should experiment which is to be of service industry geologists of such training as Doctors Corstor

to geology be guided by a knowledge of the problems to phine, Molengraaff, and Hatch, who have all gained which it is to be applied. It will be my object in the valuable experience upon geological surveys.

present Address to illustrate these principles by examples I may now, perhaps, cease to speak merely as a re

drawn from recent experimental work which can be applied presentative of the visitors and identify myself more closely with the Section as a whole ; for the most gratifying such research is likely to pursue in the immediate future.

to geological problems, and to indicate the course which feature of this meeting is that it is not merely a visit of It seems to be sometimes expected of a Presidential strangers who are enjoying your hospitality, but that with Address that it should contain a summary of the progress Section C of the British Association is fused Section B

of a science during past years, and this is no doubt very of the South African Association, so that for the tine

useful and instructive; but if we are to go forward in our being we are all colleagues ; and even such vexed questions scientific work we must not be satisfied with the patient as the correlation of the rocks of the Transvaal or of

accumulation of details, or content to congratulate ourRhodesia with those of the Cape, or the origin of Ban'set,

selves upon the number of them which have been amassed. or of Blue Ground, or the extension of the Main Reef

I venture to think that it is more profitable to take our Series (perhaps it is no longer necessary to include the

stand upon the actual work of to-day, and from that problem of the Dwyka conglomerate) can be discussed ty

tower of observation to look forward to the future rather us on the spot as members of the same body inspired by

than backwards to the past ; to exclaim with the poetthe same earnest desire for truth.

“No, at noonday in the bustle of man's work-time I began these preliminary remarks by asking that I

Greet the unseen with a cheer! might be regarded as the spokesman of the visitors, and

Bid him forward." therefore represented myself as a geologist visiting the It would be interesting enough to trace the histor country for the first time. I must, however, make a frank of the artificial reproduction of minerals, beginning with confession. Not only is this my second visit to the country, the famous experiment of James Hall; to follow the line but I have not even any claim to be called a geologist. that led to the development of the French School during My training and experience have been such that upon the last half of the nineteenth century; to dwell on the many of the questions which must be most interesting researches of Senarmont, Ebelmen, Daubrée, and Sainteto this Section I am not competent to form an opinion or Claire Deville; to show how the increasing study of petro to appreciate properly the evidence. I must, therefore, graphy and the invention of the electric furnace have led crave your indulgence if in this Address I refrain from to renewed activity in the attempts to reproduce igneous discussing any of the problems of surpassing interest which rocks and the rock-forming minerals ; to discuss the more naturally engage the attention of those who are occupied modern experiments of Fouqué and Lévy. Lagorio. with the study of South African geology. It would inde.:d Loevinson-Lessing, and Moroze wicz; or to describe the be an impertinence for me to do so.

manufacture of many an interesting mineral by de Schulten I venture, however, to hope that the frontier between and others who are actively prosecuting research of this geology and mineralogy is so ill-defined-if indeed a scien- ' nature, including such sensational achievements as the tific frontier can be said to exist--that the thoughts and production of the ruby by Frémy and of the diamond bu occupations of one who has confined himself to the sturlyMoissan. of minerals, and that rather in the laboratory than in Instead, however, of attempting a survey of all that the field, are not alien to the interests of Section c.

has been done, or even of all that is being done in the Experimental Geology.

artificial reproduction of minerals, let me adhere to the A somewhat lamentable aspect of modern science is the of those researches, now being carried on, which promise

principle that I have laid down, and discuss only a few vast array of unorganised facts which are awaiting co

to be most fruitful because their methods and aims are ordination; this is too often because they have teen inspired by the discoveries and views of modern chemistr amassed without any definite idea of the purpose which they may serve : consequently it may happen that laborious

and modern physics. observations belonging to one science may fail to attract

l'an 't Hoff's Work on the Salt Deposits. the regard of a neighbouring science merely for want of Among such researches the most remarkable are those the mutual acquaintance which would make them services conducted by Prof. van 't Hoff and his pupils during the able to each other; and in these days of exclusive special- , last eight years upon the Stassfurt salt deposits. These

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