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to extend to at least twice this distance. The whole statistics, and from the fact that considerable sums corona had an appearance of movement, suggesting are being expended by individuals in Natal on to Mr. Buchanan certain features which occur when American correspondence classes and private tuition, a search-light illuminates the atmosphere.

that there is an urgent necessity for more adequate Observations of the partial eclipse are of no great provision to equip the youth of the colony for the interest as compared with those made during totality, battle of life. but a number of thermometric readings were recorded The resolutions of the conference held at Johannes. at numerous stations. Mr. Spencer Russell, in a burg point out that there is a present and immediate communication to the Standard for September 2, gives need for a full teaching university in South Africa, a table of fifteen-minute observations of a wet and and that the colonies in which the university may dry bulb thermometer, made at Epsom between not be situated should each have one or more colleges 11.45 a.m. and 2 p.m. on the day of the eclipse. or institutes devoted to higher or technical education Whilst the wet bulb readings remained constant at which should be recognised by the university council 53° F., the dry bulb showed a minimum temperature as integral parts of that teaching university, and that of 54° F. between 12.45 and 1.30 p.m. Photographs the university should grant diplomas in professional of the partial eclipse were secured by Messrs. Spencer subjects, and degrees in arts and science, in the and Butler during a balloon journey from Wands- faculties of (1) education; (2) engineering, including worth to Caen in Normandy.

mining; (3) agriculture; (+) law; and (5) medicine. An interesting record of a series of “pin-hole The recommendations of the commission are based images of the crescent sun reaches us from Sir Joseph upon the resolutions of the conference, and suggest Fayrer, F.R.S. Whilst sailing in a ten-ton boat that immediate steps should be taken by the Governhaving a large mainsail, he observed the partial ment to provide for higher education; that a council eclipse under favourable conditions in Falmouth Bay. be appointed by Government to organise and control About i p.m. a slight breeze caused the sail to incline technical education in Natal which shall be indepenfrom the perpendicular, and a number of well defined dent of the education department, although that decrescent images were projected on to the whitened partment should be represented on the council. It deck of the boat, and occasionally on to the water. suggests that specialists be obtained as lecturers in An investigation showed that these images were (1) chemistry and metallurgy; (2) physics and electroformed by a series of eyelet holes, used for the balance technics; (3) natural science (botany, zoology, georeef, high up in the sail. The phenomenon was so logy, physiology); (4) pure and applied mechanics; vivid and the images so sharply defined as to appear (5) modern history and literature; while other subjects worthy of record.

would be taught by local part-time men. A correspondent to the Daily Graphic (September 2). It is suggested that Pietermaritzburg has first the Rev. Frederick Ehlvers, rector of Shaftesbury, claim for this college, but that Durban also has Dorset, records the remarkable phenomenon of an claims, and the commission thinks that the foregoing evening primrose unfolding itself' during the eclipse lecturers should be peripatetic, in the first place teachas if evening had arrived. Observers at the Solar ing at Pietermaritzburg and Durban only, but as Physics, Observatory, South Kensington, were pre- occasion required going farther afield. vented by clouds from seeing the eclipse, except for While appearing to have somewhat wide views as one or two breaks of short duration. About one to the subjects that should be taught-for twenty-six minute before last contact, however, the sky suddenly branches are mentioned in the list of subjects in became clear for a short distance around the sun, and which the commission finds there is a need for classes brilliant sunshine prevailed as the last trace of the —the estimates of cost are strictly moderate, for the moon left the solar disc.

| annual expenditure is taken at 6500l., and the initial expenditure to provide the necessary equipment for engineering, chemical, physical, natural science, and

other laboratories is estimated at about 2000l. It is TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN NATAL.' true that no provision is made in this estimate for

rent or capital expenditure on buildings, but we should THE report of the commission appointed to inquire think even without these the estimate was likely to

be exceeded. received. It is signed by eleven out of twelve of the commissioners, and Mr. C. I. Mudie, superintendent ' and those which start with the highest aspirations

All institutions, however, must have a beginning, of education, has forwarded a minority report. The commission, under the presidency of Sir David

have a good chance of attaining some, if not all, of Hunter, K.C.M.G., held eleven meetings and ex

their objects. There can be no doubt that technical amined fifty witnesses; some of the members were

education should be conducted everywhere quite apart also sent to Johannesburg to confer with the council possible under the guidance of men who are

from the education department, and as much as and board of studies of the Transvaal Technical acquainted with some at least of the subjects that Institute. Delegates from the Orange River Colony are being taught. Technical education, especially in also attended the conference. The commission finds that Natal, with its Euro- and should more especially offer inducements to those

the colonies, should be made accessible to everyone, pean population of 97,109, has as yet but meagre who are working for their living to improve their provision for technical and higher education, and, knowledge of the sciences which underlie their indeed, states that boys who had received primary handicrafts. If this be the first object in view, it will and secondary education in the colony were frequently be evident that evening classes and evening labor. found to be so deficient in general knowledge that

atory work must be undertaken before any attempt they were not well qualified to enter upon technical is made to form day classes. It appears to be chiefix education. The result of inquiries as to the probability of report of the commission, for he thinks the college at

on this subject that Mr. Mudie dissented from the youths availing themselves of instruction should it be Pietersburg, which, as he says, covers a preparatory placed within their grasp was decidedly encouraging, and the commission concludes, from the evidence and nucleus of a university college in Natal. It would

a high school, and a college proper, should form the Colony of Natal. Report of the Technical Education Commission

not seem to be a desirable thing to commence oper. May, 1905. (Maritzburg : P. Davis and Sons, 1905.)

rations in this way for many reasons, the principal of

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which is that artisans, clerks and others, for whom that the association had made to him-namely, to find technical education is primarily provided, while wish- funds for the establishment of a proper observatory in ing to learn, have in many cases left school so Johannesburg. He was obliged to say that all the revenue recently that they do not wish to return, and those they at present possessed was required for the developof maturer age are not always quite certain whether

ment of their material resources and means of communitheir dignity will allow them to go to school again.

cation ; but where the Government was powerless, what

a magnificent opportunity there was for a patriotic TransTHE WOBURN EXPERIMENTAL FRUIT vaal. For a site in the purest atmosphere, 2000 feet FARM.

above the highest observatory now existing, only 10,000l.

was required. There they might establish a telescope THE fifth report on the Woburn Fruit Farm, by

which would help observers in the southern hemisphere Pickering, F.R.S., contains a very useful summary

to compete with the astronomers of the northern hemiof the results of ten years' experiments and observa sphere. The site was there, and it was already occupied ations on apple-trees. The conclusions arrived at are by a perfectly equipped meteorological observatory.” All based on measurements of leaves, trees, and fruits, the papers on South African matters read during the meetand also on weighings of the fruit. The average size ing are to be published in a separate volume by the South of the leaf of the tree seems gradually to diminish | African Association for the Advancement of Science. At with age, and there is a similar but less marked ten

the closing meeting, held on September 1, Prof. Ray dency in the fruit. The experiments indicate no ad- Lankester was elected president of the association for vantage from heavy thinning of the fruit, for the size

1906. was not increased; hard pruning proved unprofitable, unpruned trees were three times more productive than MR. J. W. Douglas, one of the editors of the Entomthose heavily pruned; summer pruning was found not ologist's Monthly Magazine, died Harlesden to be desirable, and even moderate root pruning was August 28 in his ninety-first year. found to injure the trees. Apple-trees transplanted at 2-3 years old were found to grow better than either

THREE distinct earthquake shocks, the severest younger or older plants.

experienced in the district, were felt at Portsmouth, New A very curious result which for some time puzzled

Hampshire, on August 30, beginning at 5.40 p.m. the experimenters was that carelessly planted trees,

REUTER's correspondent at Stockholm reports that Prof. though weak at first, ultimately made more growth

Nathorst has received a letter in which Lieut. Bergendahl, than those carefully planted. A satisfactory explana- who is a member of the Duc d'Orléans's Greenland Expedition has, however, been found. The roots of carelessly planted trees are so much injured that they

tion, states that on July 27, as the expedition passed Cape make scarcely any growth; the result of this is that

Bismarck, unknown land was discovered. It appears that numerous new roots grow from dormant buds higher Cape Bismarck lies on a large island, and not on the up the stem, and these new roots, not having suf- mainland. The new land has been mapped as well as fered from transplantation, ultimately surpass in size possible, and has received the name Terre de France. The the original roots of carefully planted trees.

expedition was unable to penetrate further north than The results obtained at the Woburn Fruit Farm 78° 16' N. lat. are to some extent due to the particular soil-a

Ar the annual meeting of the Academy of the Lincei, moderately stiff clay—but it is probable that the conclusions arrived at would be found to hold good in

which was held on June 4 in the presence of the King and many English orchards. It is, however,

Queen of Italy, the president, Prof. Blaserna, announced

very difficult thing to judge how far conclusions of the the result of the competition for the three Royal prizes foregoing kind, based on a particular set of con- founded by the late King Humbert. In the section of ditions, apply under different conditions, and the normal and pathological physiology, the prize is awarded practical value of the long series of experiments and to Prof. Aristide Stefani, of Padua, for his published observations made at Woburn would be very greatly work dealing with the physiology of the heart and circuincreased if similar experiments were conducted on | lation, the non-acoustic functions of the labyrinth of the a soil, or soils, of different character. In any action

ear, and the serotherapeutic treatment of pneumonia. In which the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries may take upon the report of the “ Fruit" Committee, it

the sections of archæology and of economic and social is to be hoped that the important work of the Duke science, the judges reported that the competitors were not of Bedford and Mr. Pickering may be followed up

of sufficient merit to justify the award of the prizes. This and extended.

T. H. MIDDLETON.

is the first occasion on which so small a proportion of the prizes have been conferred, and it is proposed that in

future the section of archæology shall embrace not only NOTES.

classical, but also Christian and mediaeval archæology. To commemorate the meeting of the British Association Ministerial premiums intended to aid original work among in South Africa, a scheme has been formulated to found teachers in secondary schools were awarded in the departa British Association medal for South African students. ment of mathematical sciences to Prof. Ciani (501.), Prof. This announcement was made by Prof. Darwin at the Pirondini (381.), and Prof. Chini (201.). Out of the funds close of his presidential address at Johannesburg. A visit available from the Carpi prize, a sum of 321. was awarded was paid to the Johannesburg Observatory on August 30, to Dr. P. Enriques for a thesis on the changes brought and the opportunity was taken of pointing out to Lord about in absorbed chlorophyll by the action of the liver, Selborne the suitability of the site for a fully-equipped and the relation existing between the derivatives of chloroobservatory and the necessity for more astronomical work phyll produced in the organism and the genesis of the in the southern hemisphere. Referring to this suggestion hæmatic pigments. In his address the vice-president, in the course of his speech introducing Prof. Darwin as F. d'Ovidio, discussed in general terms the question president of the association, Lord Selborne is reported by “ Art for Irt's Sake,” dealing more particularly with the the Times correspondent to have said that he greatly

influence exerted on national life and character by art regretted he had been obliged to refuse the only request and literature.

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The Popular Science Monthly (vol. lvii., No. 4) contains a The adulteration of milk has very much decreased owing suggestive article by Prof. John M. Coulter on the methods to the system adopted of suspending the licenses of sellers available for arousing public interest in scientific research. convicted of adulteration during the past year. Previously The results of scientific work usually reach the public the Board of Health did not refuse the renewal of licenses, through the medium of reporters to the newspapers and either temporarily permanently, but only issued writers for the magazines; the material dealing with warnings. original research is, generally speaking, scant in amount, sensational in form, and wide of the mark. It is urged

The fishes of Puget Sound form the subject of a paper that men of science should, so far as possible, be their by Messrs. Gilbert and Thompson in the Proceedings of own interpreters, so that the misleading statements of

the U.S. Nat. Museum (No. 1414). The paper is based the “ middle man

on a collection made in 1903, which included two species may be avoided.

Particularly, not only the facts of the investigation, but its general bear regarded as new and six not previously recorded from the ing should be made clear; it is this feature that the

area in question. reporter always misses, and a strategic movement is re- The opening article in the first part of the third volume presented to the public as a dress parade.” As a justifi- of the quarterly issue of Smithsonian Miscellaneous Concation, it is contended that research will be shown to be tributions is a translation of Dr. E. Mascha's valuable practical, and a more amp endowment be secured for it.

paper on the minute structure of the flight-feathers of The question of adequate support for research is the birds, originally published in the Zeitschrift für wissenmost serious one that confronts American science to-day.' schaftliche Zoologie, and already noticed in our columns. The appeal to American interest is utility, and it is Among the original communications, special reference may necessary to show that practical results are reached most be made to one by Mr. F. W. True on the skull of an surely and most quickly from the vantage ground of pure extinct sea-lion (Pontoleon) from the Miocene of Oregon, science.

apparently the earliest known representative of this group

of seals; to a second, by Mr. A. Mann, describing the The report of the commission appointed for the investi

extreme beauty of the surface sculpture in diatoms gation of Mediterranean, or Malta, fever (part iii.), recently (“ Diatoms, the Jewels of the Plant-World," it is called); issued by the Royal Society, contains the important and to a third, by Mr. C. A. White, on the ancestry of announcement that goats seem to be capable of transmitting the North American pond-mussels of the family Unionidæ, the disease. The evidence supporting this conclusion is in which it is concluded that all the living forms in this as follows :-On June 14 Dr. Zammit examined six goats, particular area are descended from fossil local types. It and found that the blood of five of them gave the may be added that if we accept the views on nomenclature agglutination reaction for Mediterranean fever. This was expressed in yet another article, the well known name confirmed by Major Horrocks, R.A.M.C. Major Horrocks Dromæus (for the emeu) has to give place to Dromiceius. and Dr. Zammit then undertook the examination of eight different herds of goats, and in every herd examined an

The Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. average of half the animals (from 7.6–75 per cent.) gave

Philadelphia (xlix., No. 179), contains papers on the the agglutination reaction for Mediterranean fever. It was

Filipino, on the Aborigines of Western Australia, on the also found that one or more apparently healthy goats in

osteology of sinopa, and on the marsupial fauna of the

Santa Cruz beds. every herd were excreting the specific organism of the

In an article on the oligodynamical disease—the M. melitensis-in their milk and urine, the

action of copper foil on certain intestinal organisms, Mr. number of the organism in the milk being very large.

Kraemer concludes that intestinal bacteria such as the It would seem probable, therefore, that infected goat's placing clean copper foil in water containing them, and

colon and typhoid bacilli are completely destroyed by milk may be the source of infection of man, particularly as monkeys may be artificially infected by feeding with

that certain of the lower animal and vegetable organisms material containing the specific organism, as has been

possess a special sensitiveness to minute quantities of detailed in a previous report. It is of interest that in

copper. The copper is probably in the form of a crystalGibraltar, where the disease is also very prevalent, goats

loid rather than that of a colloid. It will be remembered are almost the only source of the milk-supply.

that Dr. Moore, of the United States Department of Agri

culture, has suggested the use of copper salts and of bright The report of the Government analyst of Trinidad for

copper for the purification of water supplies. In another the year 1904-5 contains several points of general interest.

article Dr. Wiley discusses the effects of preservatives in Samples of water from the Carrera Convict Depôt have

food on metabolism, and expresses the opinion that boric been examined to ascertain if a connection could be traced

acid and borates in any quantity upset digestion, and even

in small doses, if given over between the water supply and the prevalence of diarrhæa

a long period, have an

unfavourable effect on health and digestion. and dysentery among the prisoners. Very small proportions of lead, copper, and zinc were found to be present, A PAPER by Dr. W. T. Calman, of the British Museum, and, in view of the fact that all attempts made during on the Crustacea of the group Cumacea from the west several years past to trace the epidemic to other causes coast of Ireland, published as No. 1, part iv., of Scientific have been unsuccessful, it appears possible that the Investigations, 1904. by the Irish Department of Agrimetallic impurities named are responsible for the trouble. culture and Technical Instruction, illustrates the importBefore the question can be definitely decided, further in- ance of collecting on a thoroughly practical and effective vestigation will be necessary. The aërated waters which system. During the entire cruise of H.M.S. Challenger, are largely consumed in the colony were found to be for instance, the whole collection of Cumacea was repre usually contaminated with lead, owing to the use of an sented by no more than fifteen species, whereas Mr. E. impure sulphuric acid in their manufacture, to an extent Holt, the collector of the specimens submitted to Dr. likely to prove dangerous. It is suggested that the use (alman, obtained within a small area representatives of of liquefied carbon dioxide, such as is now imported into no less than forty-eight species, of which nine are regarded the colony in cylinders, would be a remedy for the difficulty. as new, one being so aberrant, as to be assigned by its

mens

describer to a separate family group. Most of the speci- summit of Ben Nevis and at the base station at Fort

were collected by means of tow-nets attached to William, for the years 1885-19034 for more complete the back of a trawl in such a position as to capture any details reference is made to an exhaustive discussion pubcreatures disturbed by the ground-rope.

lished by Mr. A. Watt in the Journal of the Scottish

Meteorological Society. Another article deals with October In the report on the sea and inland fisheries of Ireland

rainfalls; this is generally the wettest month of the year for 1902 and 1903, part iii., scientific investigations, Mr.

over the greater part of England. In the present case, E. W. L. Holt, the scientific adviser of the fisheries

special reference is made to the comparatively dry Octobers branch of the Board of Agriculture and Technical Instruc- of 1879, 1888, 1897, and 1904; with one exception, tion for Ireland, takes a broad view of the services which

October, 1904, was the driest on record since the foundscientific investigations can render to practical fishery ation of the British rainfall organisation. Another problems. Not only are such subjects as oyster culture, important article discusses the duration and average rate the artificial propagation of the Salmonidæ, and the of rainfall in London since 1881. It shows inter alia mackerel fisheries dealt with, but the various appendices that the rate of fall per hour is twice as great in July as to the report constitute a most valuable addition to our

in January knowledge of the invertebrate marine fauna of Ireland, more especially of the very interesting and little-known We are glad to be able to reproduce from the Annuario fauna occurring in the deeper water off the west coast. of the Messina Observatory for the year 1904 an illusThe most important paper, from a scientific point of tration of that important Sicilian station, which, under view, is that contributed by Mr. Holt himself, in collabor- the able superintendence of Prof. Rizzo, undertakes, in ation with Mr. W. M. Tattersall, on the schizopodous addition to the usual meteorological observations, valuable crustacea of the north-east Atlantic slope, in which a great number of new or little known species are fully described and figured. Other papers deserving special notice are Mr. G. P. Farran's account of the copepoda of the Atlantic slope, and the interesting contributions of the Misses Delap on the rearing of Cyanea lamarcki and on the plankton of Valencia Harbour from 1899 to 1901. The whole report, which treats of both sea- and fresh-water fisheries, is well illustrated with a large number of plates and diagrams excellently reproduced, and reflects great credit upon the department responsible for the scientific study of the Irish fisheries.

The Pioneer Mail of July 28 published an account of the phenomenal storm of wind and rain which devastated a large portion of the province of Gujarat between July 22 and 24, owing to which it was estimated that about 10,000 people were rendered homeless. The storm seems to have been most severe at Ahmedabad, 310 miles north of Bombay. The average annual rainfall of that place is only about 33 inches ; during the storm in question it was stated that fully 37 inches were measured in two days. We find from the Official Indian Daily Weather Report

Fig. 1.– The Messina Observatory. that the fall was over-stated, but that nevertheless it was quite abnormal ; 14 inches fell in twenty-four hours ending 8h. a.m. July 23, and 12} inches on the following

researches connected with solar and terrestrial physics. day. The Government meteorological reporter states that

The institution has risen from modest beginnings in 1876, the fall was due to a severe cyclonic storm passing over

when, at the instigation of Prof. Manzi, it was attached the head of the peninsula, and to the fact that when it

to the Technical and Nautical Institute of that city. The entered Gujarat it was fed by strong winds from the

importance of its work was soon recognised by the Central Arabian Sea.

Meteorological Office at Rome, which supplied it with

several instruments. The present edifice on the hill of We have received “British Rainfall, 1904,” being the

Andria was completed in 1902, under the auspices of the forty-fourth annual volume of this very useful publication, Royal University of Studies at Messina, and occupies containing the carefully prepared results of observations

a position much better suited to its useful work; it is taken at nearly 4000 stations. Dr. Mill states that every

now removed from all disturbing influences, and we look return undergoes critical examination before the results

forward with confidence to important results connected are published, a task that must strain the energies of

with the relation of magnetism to solar activity and to himself and his small available staff to the utmost. While

the movements of the ground, to which subjects Prof. every page of this now somewhat voluminous work con

Rizzo devotes special attention. tains information of the highest value in connection with the distribution of rain over the British Isles, it is difficult: The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea to fix upon any particular portion calling for especial re- continues to issue its publications in rapid succession. mark. One new feature is the publication of complete daily Of the Bulletins, which embody the records of the work records for ten selected stations, and, as last year, atten- more especially entrusted to it, we have received those for tion has been given to a discussion of some of the wettest the terminal expeditions in November, 1904, and February, days, illustrated by special charts. There are also several 1905 (Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration interesting articles dealing with various branches of rain- de la Mer, Bulletin, 1904-5, Nos. 2 and 3). We note, as fall work, e.g. an analysis of the observations on the additions to the routine observations of the council, an

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extension of the surface observations made by merchant Adriatic, brachycephalic, tall and dark. There are also steamers on various routes, and a series of observations in four secondary races :--Sub-Nordic, brachycephalic, short February, 1905, made and communicated by the fishery and fair; Vistulan, brachycephalic, very short, fair or branch of the Department of Agriculture and Technical In- medium ; North-Western, mesocephalic or brachycephalic, struction for Ireland. It can serve no useful purpose to tall, medium or dark; and Sub-Adriatic, brachycephalic, attempt the general discussion of the observations contained and medium in stature and pigmentation. The maps of in these Bulletins as they appear ; the general results can the average stature and pigmentation for Europe which best be summarised at a later stage by the central authority, accompany

the

paper scarcely satisfactory. The by whom the work will no doubt be undertaken. For the cardinal principle laid down by Prof. Ripley, that the two dates concerned, a very marked feature of the observ- visual impression must, so far as possible, conform to the ations in the English area is worth pointing out—the high represented facts, has not been successfully followed, with salinity of the water at the entrance to the channel and to the result that in the bewildering mass of detail no general the west of Ireland. The origin of this salt water demands impression can be gained by the eye without the assistclose investigation; it would seem to have come almost ance of the convention in the legend. directly from the south, and in that event it is to be hoped

The Journal of the Franklin Institute for August (clx., that means of ascertaining whether Mediterranean water

No. 2) contains papers of more or less interest, and coverwas present or not are available.

ing most of the branches of science. Mr. Fuller discusses THE Psychological Review (article section) contains in in a very complete manner the subject of sewage disposal its July number the following articles :—The synthetic and the pollution of shell-fish. A very full bibliography factor in tactual space perception, T. H. Haines ; | is appended to his paper. consciousness and its object, F. Arnold; and a motor

We have received from the Sytam Fittings Co., of theory of rhythm and discrete succession (i.), R. H.

Basinghall Buildings, Leeds, the catalogue of the company's Stetson. The first of these tabulates the results of certain preliminary experiments made by the writer in order to

system of filing, classifying, and indexing bottles, boxes, discover the exact relation between the two

specimens, tubes, apparatus, &c. The company has applied sorts of

the characteristics of the well known elastic or expansion synthetic factor for local signs, viz. inner tactual sensa

series of bookcases to the purposes named, the specimen tions and the visual image. The main positions of the

cabinets being built up of a number of interchangeable second article are these :-(1) Neither by introspection nor

elements. by any hypothesis of a consciousness aware of its own stream can we have any mental state in which conscious

Tue Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin for August (xvi., ness does not have an object, and that object in the

No. 173)

contains interesting account, by Dr. present; (2) the same holds for feeling and emotion ; MacCallum, of the life and work of Marcello Malpighi, (3) the relation of thing to consciousness cannot be re- with full-plate portrait of this distinguished Italian presented by any simple formulation like aRx, but is in anatomist of the seventeenth century. The concluding reality much more complex.

sentence of this article may be quoted :-“ After all is

considered the most enduring things in Malpighi's books The July number of Mind contains an excellent article

are his perfect honesty, his extraordinary keenness and by Mr. R. F. Alfred Hoernlé on Pragmatism v. Absolutism,

good sense in the interpretation of what he saw, and his which is mainly occupied with a discussion of Mr. Bradley's views. The writer finds fault with Mr. Bradley's ingenious objective methods of observation. What he saw

could not have failed of being seen very soon by others, use of the criterion of non-contradiction, his neglect of

but we are filled with wonder that quite alone, with his epistemology in favour of metaphysics, his doctrine of

' quiet, eager mind,' he could have encompassed all, steadily “ degrees of truth and reality,” and his theory that self-consistent reality must include the appearances, and

searching out one thing after another throughout his forty

years of restless activity." yet cannot be its appearances.” Dr. Norman Smith, in a second article on the naturalism of Hume, deals We have received the report of the second meeting of sympathetically with Hume's treatment of ethics. He the South African Association for the Advancement of claims that Hume may, indeed, be regarded, even more

Science. It forms handsome cloth-bound volume of truly than Kant, as the father of all those subsequent 598 pages with 44 plates, and contains the forty-four philosophies that are based an opposition between papers

read before the association printed in fuil thought and feeling, truth and validity, actuality and

Summaries of the papers were published in NATURE (vol. worth.” Other articles deal with Empiricism and the lxx. p. 41) shortly after the meeting, and also the greater Absolute, Plato's view of the soul, and Symbolic Reasoning.

part of Mr. E. B. Sargant's address on the education of

examiners (vol. Ixx. p. 63). The presidential address by THE Journal of the Anthropological Institute (July- | Sir Charles Metcalfe, and the sectional addresses by Mr. December, 1904) contains the Huxley lecture for 1904, J. R. Williams on the metallurgy of the Rand, by Dr. presented by Dr. Deniker, the subject being “ Les Six G. S. Corstorphine on the history of stratigraphical Races composant la Population actuelle de l'Europe." investigation in South Africa, and by Sir Percy Girouard This is virtually a re-statement and a vindication of the on improvements in rolling stock, are of permanent value, racial division which was propounded by Dr. Deniker and the subjects and names of the authors of the papers eight years ago in " Les Races européennes ” (Bull. Soc. make the volume an important addition to scientific d'Anthr., Paris, iv., 3), which the researches of later years literature, and show what a large amount of valuable have served to illustrate and confirm. To the Nordic, scientific work is being done in South Africa. The illusIbero-Insular, and Western or Cevenole races (correspond-trations are excellent. The coloured plates accompanying ing to the Northern, Mediterranean, and Central or Alpine Dr. L. G. Irving's paper on miners' phthisis are admis. races of other authors) are added three main races :- ably reproduced, as also are the photomicrographs of blue Eastern, brachycephalic, short and fair; Littoral ground illustrating the paper by Mr. H. Kynaston and Atlanto-Mediterranean, mesocephalic, tall and dark; and Mr. A. L. Hall on the geological features of the diamood

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