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of the question is shown by the pithy remarks on the subject in an article published by Mr. Godman and
himself in The Ibis for 1889 (p. 242)-several years, THE BIRDS OF CENTRAL AMERICA
be it observed, after the appearance of Mr. Alston's Biologia Centrali-Americana. Aves. By Osbert tables. The labour, no doubt, would have been
Salvin, J.A, F.R.S., and Frederick Ducane | immense, and only to be performed by one possessed Godman, D.C.L.. F.R.S. 4 vols. (London : of such knowledge, alike minute and wide, as Mr. 1879-1904.)
Salvin had; but assuredly he was convinced that it CONGRATULATIONS to the surviving author of can never be too strongly impressed upon all students
these volumes must be mingled with deep con- of topographical distribution that the key to the subdolence that his long-tried coadjutor and comrade | ject lies in the physical features of the country, should not have been spared to complete this portion especially of a tropical country of such varied character of the great work in which they were jointly engaged, / as Central America. Even an indication of the rough and to supply that summary of its contents which division into the three well known zones-the tierra he, perhaps, alone could have written. But acutely caliente, the tierra templada, and the tierra fria would as the loss of Mr. Salvin is to be lamented, if on no be better than nothing, though in a country extending other account than this, no less real is the gratifi-| over so many degrees of latitude and of such diverse cation with which the bringing to an end of a task heights, what is the tierra templada of one district that has lasted for a quarter of century is to be becomes the tierra fria of another. ngarded, and the relief to Mr. Godman's mind at the At the same time, it must be admitted that more accomplishment of another portion of his gigantic than this is required. Comparative altitudes and the design must be enormous. It is getting on for twenty extent of forest-growths may explain some things, but years since the volume treating of the mammals of they will not account in all cases for the limits of the Central America was reviewed in these pages by the area to which a certain form, say Pharomacrus or late Sir William Flower (NATURE, xxxiv., p. 615, Oreophasis, may be confined. But if boundaries are October 28, 1886), and that portion also suffered by not to be accounted for by physical characters, the untimely death of its author, Mr. Edward R. assuredly they can be still less rationally explained Ilston, so that instead of the comprehensive view of on political or geographical grounds. Considerations the mamalian fauna of the country which he had of this kind seem to point to the futility of attempting intended to appear in the introduction to the volume, to lay down any boundaries at all, unless those that we had inerely a series of tables of distribution which are physical can be traced, and of course the difficulty he had prepared to found that view upon, and these of tracing them is sometimes very great. To take a tables Mr. Sclater, who prefixed a few prefatory familiar instance here at home. Who can define on sentences, left to speak for themselves. Speak for physical grounds, or correlate with them, the distrithemselves they did, but they needed an interpreter, bution of the nightingale in England and Wales? Since they were drawn up for the most part on Hence it may be fairly urged that it would be far geographical lines or, to be more accurate, from a better for zoologists generally to leave off speaking of politico-geographical base, the geographical element | areas, regions, subregions, provinces, and the like, and preponderating,
to regard the animal population of a country solely The tables given in the first of the volumes treating from the faunal point of view. of birds, and now before us (being almost identical in Central America would seem especially to lead to form with those contained in the “ Introduction” i to some such conclusion as this. It can hardly be the first volume on Lepidoptera), do not differ very doubted that the existing fauna of America--North greatly in character, though herein the political and South-is the result of at least three perfectly divisions of the country are given in greater distinct faunas, which have originated in, or been detail, so as to be more important than the geo- derived from, as many different tracts, and probably graphical Now each of these methods unquestion- at as many different epochs. In Central America ably has its advantages--mostly of a practical kind. all three meet, though one is overwhelmingly out of Il we want to see or obtain examples of any particular proportion to the other two. This is practically kind of animal, it is convenient to know where it may identical with the fauna of by far the greater part he found. But it can hardly be doubted that, had of South America as distinguished from that of Mr. Salvin lived, he, with his experience of the Patagonia, which seems to have had a very different country and its ornithology, would scarcely have been origin and history, while the former is equally dissontent without trying if it were not possible to treat tinct from that which prevails now over the greater the distribution of the species, genera, and families part of North America---this last being, as Prof. As Well from a physical point of view. That he was Huxley long ago intimated (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1868, Tully aware of the importance of taking that aspect p. 314), much more closely allied to the Palæarctic Tbat "* Introduction " also contains a succinct description, excellent so far
fauna, if, indeed, he might have added, it be not as it goes, by Mr. Godman, of the natural features of each political district of Central America, which is taken to include the whole of Mexico from
substantially of Palæarctic extraction. Then again, the Rio Grande and the Rio Gila, but excluding Lower California, and while comparatively few of the members of the fauna thence to the Isthmus of Darien in the now independent State of Panama. The wabject has been much more elaborately treated, though of course with
now dominant in Central and the greater part of perial reference to the flora of the country, by Mr. Hemsley in his admir. South America have penetrated to the area at present able " Appendix" to the fourtb volume of the " Botany" of the whole work (pp. 133-170).
occupied by the apparently much more ancient Pata
gonian fauna in the extreme south, a considerable It has been pointed out before now that the so-called portion have invaded North America--possibly re- Nearctic “ Region " has not more than one peculiar occupying the home whence they had been driven family of birds (Chamæidæ), and that a very doubtful during some glacial period, but certainly to an extent All the other families of land-birds are either that sensibly affects the existing fa In the same Neotropical or Palæarctic, so that in one sense it may way certain characteristic forms of the Patagonian | be said that no distinct, or peculiar, Nearctic fauni fauna, diminishing in number as the distance from exists, the bird-population of North America having their modern focus increases, occur throughout the (with that one doubtful exception) wholly Palæarctic whole length of South America, generally clinging or Neotropical affinities, and those often of the ver to the slopes of the Andes, and a few reach the closest nature. No stronger corroboration of the highlands of Central America-Scytalopus, for in- views of Prof. Huxley, Prof. Heilprin, and others stance, the sole example of that most characteristic who have advocated the abolition of the Searctic Patagonian family, Pteroptochidæ, which has made “Region can be adduced than is furnished by Mr. its way into Costa Rica.
Godman's tables, and when we speak of a Searctii Further into detail it would be impossible here to fauna, such as exists now, we mean a mixed multigo, for it would need the exhibition of long lists and tude of either Neotropical or Palæarctic extraction, or tables showing the distribution of various groups or having a common origin with one or the other of forms to make clear the truth of the statements just those faunas. enunciated, to which, no doubt, some
me will demur; But it will not do here to follow further this inbut it may be mentioned that their truth does not teresting theme, important as it is in the light that it rest alone on the evidence afforded by birds, for a sheds on the history of the modern inhabitants of the close examination of the other classes of vertebrates earth. Something must be said before we leave the op will be found to corroborate the same position, and it volumes of the way in which they are presented to the may be left for time to show whether the opinions public. Considering that upwards of 1400 species of here expressed are not generally accepted as true. birds had to be included, the amount of space availBriefly recapitulated, they are that the whole of able for the treatment of each must necessarily br America is now occupied by three faunas. The very small. But here a most rigid and commendable ancient and, it may be added, morphologically low economy has been practised. No space is needlessly Patagonian in the south; that of a somewhat higher taken up by considerations of taxonomy, nomenmorphological rank which peoples the greater part ' clature, or such like ancillary subjects on which so of South America, all of Central America, and per- many faunal writers deem it expedient to dilate. meates almost to the middle of North America, until though the first is only wanted in a general treative it is outnumbered by still higher forms derived from a and the second is regarded by the wise as a snare to Palæarctic stock; but to lay down any boundaries, be avoided by all who have no time to waste over even physical boundaries, for these distinct faunas is frivolities. By many of the younger zoologists of the impossible, and though we may call the first and last present day the principle of nomenclature followed by
Patagonian " and Nearctic” respectively, it is the authors will be set down as old-fashioned, but not easy to find a good title for the second, unless considering the weight of the authorities cited, and we were to apply to it Mr. Sclater's original name, their number, the application of the principle is abun
Neotropical,” restricting that in the southern direc- dantly justified, though exception to some of the tion and extending it in the northern. It has been results may here and there be reasonably taken, and called “ Columbian " by one writer, and if that epithet sufficient synonymy is given as to preclude any poshad not been used before in a much more limited sible confusion. In like manner there is no attempt sense by another writer the name would not be to inventa new classification, for which, in the inappropriate, for Colombia may be regarded as its present state of flux, all should be thankful. That modern focus, but doubtless it anciently extended which has been in use by taxonomers for some thirty much further to the northwards, and by it in remote years in respect to American, or at least South times the Sandwich Islands were most likely colonised. American, birds is adopted. Be its faults what they
If these remarks be deemed too critical, it must be may, it is well understood by the great majority of understood that they are not intended to be generally those who have been most interested in the subject opposed to the views of Mr. Godman. Writing of during that period. The localities whence each the butterflies in the “ Introduction " before referred species has been recorded are duly noted in the to, he stated expressly that the fauna of Central account of it, and thus the details of its range may America " is mainly a northern extension of that of in most cases be very fairly traced, while reference in tropical South America,” with a considerable number systematically made to the authority responsible for of Nearctic forms “ coming down the central plateau the statement, and this, needless to say, is a very a certain distance into Mexico, and some even into important matter. Furthermore, the distinguishing Guatemala." This is not only equally true of the characters of both genera and species are presented birds, but the southern extension of their northern with the skill that comes only from intimate knowforms reaches even further. The real question is, what ledge of the respective forms and careful comparison value is to be attached to these northern forms? A of them with their allies, a feature that is often absent very slight examination will show that nearly all in modern ornithological works, and in one of this belong to families that are essentially Neotropical. magnitude is especially to be commended. The species
figured, one hundred and fifty in number, seem to reaction; in other words, the ratio of the masses of have been well selected, and the plates in which two particles is defined as the ratio of the accelerations ther are represented by Mr. Keulemans are in the which they induce in each other when moving under style which has won him so much reputation as each other's influence, and the idea of " force" is. in ornithological artist. But all these merits pale altogether abandoned. These ideas are again supplebefore the admiration which the bold conception and mented by astronomical illustrations, even the tides patient execution of this grand undertaking excites. being worked into the scheme; and after this we have There is no English work on natural history com- more vector calculus, with Stokes's theorem in the parable in these respects with the “Biologia Centrali. | vector notation.
Imericana," and the only foreign one which it calls Dr. Jaumann next discusses rigid bodies, rigidity co renirmbrance is the marvellous “ Madagascar " of itself being defined by a vector equation ! He discusses the late M. Grandidier. The debt due by naturalists the constants of inertia, and solves some very of all branches and of all countries to the enterprise, elementary problems, and then passes on to a sketch the zeal, and the perseverance of both Messrs. Salvin of acoustics. and Godman, and to the munificence of the latter, for The last principal division of the book deals with without that all the rest would have availed little or deformable media-elastic solids, liquids, and gases. nothing, is one that can never be repaid. A. N. The treatment here is good so far as it goes, but too
slight to be very satisfying.
Considering the work as a text-book, it must be l’ECTOR VECHIVICS.
said that the difficulty of the vectorial methods so Die Grundlagen der Bewegungslehre von einem freely used is hopelessly out of proportion to the modernen Standpunkte aus. By Dr. G. Jaumann.
results achieved. The student who has mastered the Pp. vi + 422. (Leipzig : J. A. Barth, 1905.)
whole machinery of the treatise will still be unable to THIS work is intended as a systematic general in
solve for himself any but the most rudimentary of the 1 Troduction to mechanics; as in the recent
actual problems of dynamics. The author seems to
overlook the cardinal fact that the solution of every English exposition of Webster, the whole field of solid and deformable bodies is considered, so that the
moving material system depends ultimately on the
integration of the associated differential equation, or book has a wide range--a feature which must necessarily be purchased to some extent at the expense
some equivalent process, and that this is the really
difficult part of the subject, the rest being child's play of depth.
in comparison. A book which devotes scores of pages Dr. Jaumann, following a method which now
to symbols and formulæ, and yet never brings the enjoys some popularity on the Continent, treats
reader into close grip with this essential kernel of the the subject by vectorial methods throughout. The first chapter introduces the ideas of velocity and
subject, is open to the charge of beating about the
bush. acceleration, and with them the ideas of the vector and the scalar and vector products of two vectors. This is very natural and well written; it is, however,
GREATER AUSTRIA. followed by the introduction of dyads, which was scarcely to be expected at this early stage of the work ; | Geologie der Umgebung von Sarajevo. By Ernst and when the author, as is the habit of those writers
Kittl. Part iv. of the Jahrbuch der k.k. geolowho apply vectors, takes the liberty of making some gischen Reichsanstalt for 1903. (Vienna: R. additions to the vector calculus itself, and plunges Lechner, 1904.) us forth with into an able but somewhat difficult dis- THIS general essay, with its plates of fossils and cussion of “ rotary” dyads, we are thrown into doubt numerous geological sections in the text, correas to the class of readers for whom the book is sponds to one of the memoirs on special districts issued designed.
by our own Geological Survey. It includes, moreover, After this we come back to the ideas of partial and a folded geological map on the scale of 1:75,000, absolute acceleration, illustrated by astronomical con- and is thus a complete guide for future scientific siderations, and to the conception of gravitation, with visitors. The map itself reminds us of the charm of an account of Kepler's laws. This closes the first the Bosnian capital, set in its semicircle of craggy section of the book, which, though interesting, leaves hills, where the gorge of the Miljačka broadens out an unsatisfied and helpless feeling behind it, for the towards the alluvial basin of Ilidže. We trace the student (if the book is written for students) has not mountain-road from the Ivan Pass coming out learn how to find for himself the path of a point in a suddenly on this cultivated plain, and see again the given field of acceleration, which is surely the main minarets of Sarajevo shining like white masts under problem of this part of the subject. Thus, although the background of Triassic precipices. Foucault's pendulum is described, the theory of it. The author's introduction shows how the geowhich would make no greater demand on the mathe- | logical survey by Austrian observers followed hard matical capacity of the reader than the rotary dyads upon the capture of the city, which had risen fanaticrequire is not worked out.
ally to arms. The famous ammonite-locality of Han The author now introduces the idea of mass, which | Bulog, on the way to Mokro, was thus discovered is defined (as in most good modern works) by means as early as 1880; and the important part played by of what used to be called the principle of action and Triassic rocks east of Sarajevo was made known by
Bittner and Kellner, and in 1892 by the author, who ing of political economy was not his first choice, or at was sent by von Hauer to collect for the museum any rate not his first calling. It was not until Prof. in Vienna. The whole Alpine Trias seems well Dunbar had attained the ripe age of forty-one that represented near the city, some of the massive lime- he was appointed to his professorship at Harvard. stones, rich in Diplopora, being spoken of as Previously he had engaged in newspaper work, and “ Riffkalke." The red limestone with Ptychites, had edited between 1859 and 1869 the Boston Daily the rock best known in our collections, is on an Advertiser. To the work of the editorship of this Upper Muschelkalk horizon. While the Eocene paper Prof. Dunbar returned for a brief space to fill period is probably represented by a Flysch-facies, the a breach at a time of crisis in 1884. Oligocene and Miocene lagoons and freshwater Having taken to the profession of teaching after lakes show that the mountain-land of Bosnia was engaging in practical affairs and feeling the exciterising above the sea in Middle Cainozoic times. ments of politics, it is somewhat remarkable that
The author's detailed descriptions of the region, Prof. Dunbar's interests after his appointment at district by district, are illustrated by sections drawn Harvard should have been “ academic ” to so exon a correct vertical and horizontal scale, and by clusive an extent. He studiously avoided making conoccasional sketches and photographic views. As a tributions to magazines upon the economic aspects of type of the sketches, we may mention the effective current events, and appears to have held that it was Fig. 16 (p. 61), showing the rounded forms of the the main duty of the economist to trace the leading Flysch deposits banked and sometimes faulted against trends of social forces rather · than to spend his the scarped Triassic masses to the east. Another energies in directing minor circumstances. Prof. section (p. 639) shows well how the Flysch strata, Dunbar's best known work was done upon the subextending north towards Doboj and the great ject of banking, and we are told by Prof. Taussig in Hungarian plain, have been tilted and overfolded his introduction this collection of his late during the orogenic movements of the Dinaric Alps, colleague's economic essays that he had meditated a which continued, as we now know, far into Pliocene comprehensive treatise relating to America upon the times. The steep forms of the lowland landscape, wider subject of which banking is a part, namely, cut into by frequent streams, are readily appreciated financial history. Prof. Dunbar's little“ History of from the section.
Banking” is read to-day by all students of economics The palæontological portion of the memoir records of this country and the United States at least. fossils from the “ Kulmschiefer," including, curiously The collection of essays before us contains a good enough, Modiola lata, described by Wheelton Hind deal of material that was not easily accessible as recently as 1896. The author supports (p. 671) previously, and some matter that is now published E. Haug and J. P. Smith in restoring Goniatites as for the first time, upon the range of subjects which a restricted generic term, so that we again have Dunbar made peculiarly his own. Eight out of the Goniatites crenistria and truncatus, well twenty essays included deal specifically with banking, sphaericus and striatus. Osmanoceras and Tetra- and some of them are valuable contributions to our gonites are described as new genera of goniatites. knowledge of the history of banking—for instance, the The Bellerophon-beds of the Upper Permian yield, two dealing with early banking schemes in England amid a fairly rich fauna, Promyalina, a new member and the Bank of Venice. Eight more essays are conof the Aviculidæ. These forms, and a number of cerned more particularly with finance, for example, new species, are suitably figured, either in the text analyses of certain crises, the examination of the or in the plates. It is pleasant to recall the book direct tax of 1861, and the discussion of the preshops in Sarajevo on the way to the bazaar and the cedents followed by Alexander Hamilton. river-side, where this last product of Austrian investi- maining four essays arose out of the author's other gation will appear for sale under the shadow of the chief interest, namely, the literature of classical Sultan's mosque.
G. A. J. C. economics; they are entitled “ Economic Science in
America, 1776-1876,” “The Reaction in Political
Economy (written in 1886), “ The Academic Study ECONOMIC SCIENCE.
of Political Economy,” and “Ricardo's Use of
Facts." Certain of these essays were executed so Economic Essays by Charles Franklin Dunbar. | long ago as almost to have become themselves a part
Edited by O. M. W. Sprague, with an introduc-of the old literature of classical economics; but, taken tion by F. W. Taussig. Pp. xvii + 372. (New as a whole, they will prove enlightening even to York : The Macmillan Co., London : Macmillan economists who have benefited from the analysis and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 1os. 6d. net.
effected and researches carried out since Prof. Dun. O American economist has been held in higher bar's discussions appeared, for without exception the
repute for judiciousness, breadth of view, and essays collected in this volume are thorough, scholarly, " soundness" than Charles Franklin Dunbar, pro- well pondered, and finely proportioned. Prof. fessor of political economy at Harvard from 1891 until Sprague's work of editorship appears to have been his death in 1900, sometime Dean of the college done admirably. All students of economies will be (between 1876 and 1882), and later Dean of the grateful to him for having made a collection of Prof. faculty of arts and sciences. But his output was
Dunbar's scattered writings and brought to the press never extensive, perhaps because the university teach the work which he left behind in manuscript.