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in vain so far as the author and his readers are con- Our lack of generosity and sweetness (douceur) are cerned. The illustrations are taken from well-known due (p. 124) to our games and violent exercise-footworkers, but at least the approximate magnifications ball
, of course, and perhaps lawn tennis, or, at an should be given. Other points, owing to their import- Colajanni's' logic we may judge when we read (p.
earlier age, battledore and shuttlecock. Of Signor ance, would require to be traversed in detail, but
174 et seq.) of Anglo-Saxon decadence as visible in enough has been said to help those interested to judge U.S.A., and later (p. 302) that only one-fourth of its whether the book would suit their purpose or not. citizens are Anglo-Saxons.
Signor Colajanni's book, though inaccurate, is not without its good points, but it leaves little permanent impression. The translator has little knowledge of
English and German to judge by the strange words OUR BOOK SHELF. that often meet the eye.
N. W. T. Latins et Anglo-Saxons, Races supérieures et Races inférieures. By Prof. N. Colajanni. Translation
Machine Construction and Drawing. By Frank by Julien Dubois. Pp. XX+432. (Paris : F. Alcan,
Castle, M.I.M.E. Pp. viii + 275. (London: Mac1905.). Price 9 francs.
millan and Co., Ltd.) Price 4s. 6d. Signor COLAJANNI, a Socialist deputy and professor in the study of machine construction and drawing of statistics, is a convinced opponent of the doctrine
the assistance to be derived from books can never be of Anglo-Saxon superiority. The questions which he
more than of secondary importance. The acquircproposes to himself are, in brief :-(a) the meaning ment of a thorough knowledge of the subject depends of the terms race and nation ; (b) the existence of disa principally upon the opportunities which a student tinctive racial qualities; (c) the transmission of may have of coming into daily contact in the workacquired qualities; (d) the equivalence of decadence shop with varied examples of good engineering in the nation and senescence in the individual. He practice, and the use which he makes of these opporconcludes (a) that we have no data by which to deter- tunities. Assuming that a youth is fortunately mine the specific racial attributes of Sergi's European circumstanced, he will be busy at suitable moments types; (b) that the terms superior and inferior, save
compiling a book of miscellaneous notes, containing, as an expression of their relative positions at a given sketches taken from machine details lying around
other things, many
fully-dimensioned moment, have no meaning when applied to nations; (c) that acquired qualities are transmitted, especially him. Along with this work, and very appropriately when segregation favours fixation of the type; and in the drawing class, he will make working drawings (d) that decadence is relative, by comparison with the
to scale of some of the things sketched in his noteprogress of other nations; nations may, phænix-like, book, and additional examples for sketching and rise from their ashes and attain a second time to drawing will be provided in the class. greatness.
The student will also consult text-books for further Although Signor Colajanni's main arguments are
information, and the book under review will be found derived from the English and Romance-speaking very suitable indeed for the purpose. The author peoples of the present day, he does not hesitate to
first describes the necessary drawing instruments, and invoke the facts of ancient history and the non
explains their use. He then sets out in detail, with European races, and his task is, in fact, one which proportional dimensions, various forms of common demands the amplest equipment of historical, socio fastenings, such as rivets, bolts, keys, &c. Then logical, and economic knowledge, combined with an
come chapters containing examples of mill work, impeccable method and an unerring judgment. Let us
followed by others dealing with steam-engine details. illustrate his fitness for his task. A large part of the The final chapter gives a short account of the physical first half of this work is taken up with the proof of properties of materials used in construction. Sets of the first and second conclusions cited above ; but his useful exercises occur at intervals, and a few calcumethod consists largely in putting side by side two
lations of strengths are given; but the latter are or more quotations, primâ facie contradictory, and wisely kept in strict subordination. drawing from them the conclusion that both or all
The drawings which abound throughout the work He overlooks the fact that criteria represent good practice, are fully dimensioned, very are apt to differ; author may assert the clearly printed, and will be appreciated by teachers superiority of a race, another its inferiority; unless
and students alike. the standard is the same, the views are not even
While not free from minor defects, the book can shown to be contradictory. Even were it otherwise,
be cordially recommended for use in drawing classes, it is evident that of two contradictory assertions
and to young engineers who are seeking after knowboth are not necessarily wrong.
ledge on which to base subsequent work in machine The statistical methods of the work are not above design. criticism; on p. 354 we have 110/3=22 ; on the following page there is a comparison of the material pro
Graphs for Beginners. By W. Jamieson, A.M.I.E.E. gress of France and England since 1840; for France
Pp. 64. (London : Blackie and Son, 1903.) Price the savings banks are included; the deposits show an increase of 2200 per cent. Signor Colajanni has no In order to teach and illustrate the subject, the author hesitation in taking this as an index number, but he in this small volume makes use of a number of does not add to the English table any corresponding interesting graphs relating mainly to technical and figure for our savings banks; even, therefore, were commercial subjects, many of them discontinuous, it legitimate to take the mean of ten index numbers, algebraical curves being given only a secondary regardless of their relative importance, as a fair state- place, though the logarithmic or compound interest ment of the changes. his method is ludicrously law is dealt with. The significance of the slope at fallacious.
any point of a graph is enforced by simple and Signor Colajanni's knowledge of England is prob- effective examples. The treatment is suggestive and ably limited; we learn (p. 279) that our distinguishing interesting, and the author is justified in hoping that traits are rudeness, lack of sociability, and pitiless the book will tend to cultivate the observation and ness, and that these are due to fagging at school. stimulate the reasoning powers of the young readers.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR.
or perhaps it may appear that we Americans are in too (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions
big a hurry—that we are too much impressed with the
motto “time is dollars." But we are not spending all expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake
our time chasing the dollar ; there are many other nimble lo return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.
things that we are trying to keep up with, and one of No notice is taken of anonymous communications.)
them is the progress of science in Europe, along the lines
in which we are especially interested. The Preservation of Native Plants and Animals,
If a member of so young and giddy a nation might From London papers recently to hand, I see that at the
venture to make a suggestion to older and wiser people, it
would be in favour of requesting or requiring the presiornithological congress, on the motion of the Hon. W. Rothschild, a resolution was forwarded to the Premier of
dents of the various scientific organisations and sections
of the British Association to provide headings for their New Zealand in regard to the importance of taking steps
addresses so that those of us who have not the time to to preserve and protect the birds on the Auckland and Campbell Islands.
read all these good things may be able at a glance to
pick out what we want especially to see. As matters now It may be of interest to ornithologists in Great Britain
stand to hear that our local scientific societies had already, in
we are compelled, as a rule, to do one of two May, memorialised the Government to the same effect;
things—either to let them all go unread—to our great indeed, we asked that protection should be afforded, not
regret and loss--or to wade through pages upon pages of
matter which, however valuable it may be, is out of our only to the birds, but also to the flora. We have likewise forwarded a similar resolution to the
line and of no especial interest to us. Such titles, head. State Government of Tasmania in respect of the penguins ings or subheads as are here suggested would avoid these
difficulties. It would not cost much ; it would not take on the Macquarie Islands. The resolution, therefore, of the ornithological congress
much time, and it would save much of ours and some of should strengthen the hands of our local institutes, which
your own. We appeal to you for sympathy and help.
JOHN C. BRAXXER. bodies are keenly alive to the importance of preserving, as
Stanford University, California, September 7. far as possible, the fauna and fora of New Zealand. The Government, too, has hitherto met our requests
Protective Coloration of the Inside of the Mouth in in a prompt and generous manner. A couple of years
Nestling Birds. ago, for example, the Otago Institute pointed out to the Minister for Lands that sheep were destroying the alpine The habit shown by many helpless nestlings, of gaping fora of the Southern Alps, especially in the region widely when the nest is approached, is usually explained around Mount Cook; the Government at once proclaimed by supposing that the birds are appealing for food. This the area as a “ reserve," and the sheep were banished. explanation has always seemed to me inadequate, for
In fact, the Government is remarkably ready to afford nestlings that gape usually have the inside of the mouth any protection that is possible; and the recent proclamation brightly coloured, and in some cases marked with conof the whole of the S.W. portion of the South Island- spicuous spots. Moreover, newly hatched nestlings among including the Great Lakes, a vast mountainous, forest- the Passeres gape if the fingers are snapped just above clad area, and the famous fjords-as a “national park,' them, or if the branch bearing the nest is shaken. It and the prohibition of the use of guns and dogs herein, seems a fair inference, therefore, that the act of gaping has already had its effect in the increase in number of is often, if not usually, an expression of alarm. some of our rare birds.
In order to test the effect of the widely opened and You will see, therefore, that we out here, equally with brightly coloured mouth, I have several times asked young naturalists at home, have at heart the interests of our
children to touch the edge of the nest or place a finger native plants and animals.
W. B. BENHAM.
in the mouth of one of the birds, and from their hesitation Otago University Museum, Dunedin, N.Z., August 21. even refusal to obey I am convinced that the con
spicuous coloration, by centering attention upon the The Omission of Titles of Addresses on Scientific
gaping mouth, tends to protect the nestling from molestSubjects.
ation. Mr. W. P. Pycraft thinks that the bright colours
and spots are guide-marks" to facilitate the proper I VENTURE to ask the attention of “whom it may con
placing of the food in the mouth by the parents. But (ern" to the practice in vogue in Great Britain of publish
persons who rear nestlings find no difficulty in feeding ing presidential addresses of scientific societies and of
them so long as they gape freely, without troubling themsections of the British Association without any mention selves about placing the food in any particular region of of the titles of those addresses. Take, for example, a the mouth.
W. RUSKIN BUTTERFIELD. case quite at random, but just at hand. NATURE of
4 Stanhope Place, St. Leonard's-on-Sea. August 17, beginning on p. 368, contains the inaugural address of the president of the British Association with
Helmert's Formula for Gravity. the heading Part I." On p. 372 of the same number is
ON p. 79 of Everett's valuable Illustrations of the another presidential address without a title. On p. 378 a third address has no general head, but it has the distinct
C.G.S. System of Units with Tables of Physical Coo
(London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1902) the advantage of four subheads that enable the reader to select at a glance what he wants, and to pass over other
following lines occur :matters if he so chooses.
“ In a Report now printing, which will contain a very Unfortunately these are not exceptional cases.
full list of results, Helmert adopts, as the most accurate
I have in my library scores of these addresses in the form of
general formula for g reduced to sea level, separates without a word on the title-page to indicate how g=980.617 (1-0.002644 cos 20 +0.000007 cos 20). they are to be classified in a library. The presidential This may be accepted as the best general formula addresses published in the reports of the British Associ
yet put forward." ation are conspicuous examples of this kind of publication. The formula alluded to was given first by Helmert in I have taken the trouble to look through these reports
“ Der normale Theil der Schwerkraft in from the beginning of the association in 1831 down to Meeresniveau (Sitzungsberichte der Preussische 1892, and out of all the addresses of the presidents of the Akademie der Il'issenschaften su Berlin, 1901, xiv., pp. association published in these sixty-one years there are 332-336), but with a different coefticient, namely, only five that have titles or subtitles. These are the addresses given in 1831, 1839, 1854, 1880, and 1885.
g=980.632 (1 – 0.002644 cos 20 +0.000007 cos* 2o), It is easy to see how this absence of title came about and it is not reproduced in the report mentioned in the originally, but, as seen from this respectful distance, the above quotation from Everett, but in a subsequent one history of it is nothing to the point. What this busy (Comptes rendus des Séances de l'Association Géodésiqa. world wants is help to get at what we are interested in Internationale, Copenhagen, 1903, ii., p. 42, Berlin, 19.151. with the least possible waste of time.
OTTAVIO ZANOTTI Banco. This hot haste may seem unbecoming to men of science,
Turin, l'ia della Rocca 28, September 8.
covered bones of the extinct cetacean Zeuglodon, and
this seems to have been the first indication of the THI HE palæontological treasures yielded by the existence of vertebrate fossils in the district. Soon
Fayum have made that Egyptian province no | after the commencement of the survey by. Mr. less famous among geologists and zoologists than are Beadnell, under the direction of Captain Lyons, the the “bad lands ” of the United States territories, the remains of fish and crocodiles were found to occur Sevalik Hills, or Pikermi. The discoveries by Messrs. in the beds of the Middle Eocene, which had yielded Beadnell and Andrews of extinct mammals, the study the fossils found by Schweinfurth. A few fragments of which serves to clear up the whole question of the of bone were also found in the Upper Eocene strata, ancestry of that strangely specialised group the but it was not until 1901, when Dr. Andrews, of the Proboscidea, are not of less significance than those British Museum, had joined Mr. Beadnell for the which enabled Marsh and Huxley to demonstrate how purpose of collecting recent North African mammals, the equally aberrant type of Equidæ originated. that the outcrop of strata was crossed upon which a
We are glad to learn from the introduction to the considerable number of mammalian and reptilian present volume that the whole mass of palæontological remains lay exposed, many in an excellent state of material which has been obtained by the Egyptian preservation. Energetic efforts on the part of the Government has now been handed over to the authori- authorities of the British Museum and the Egyptian ties of the British Museum for the purposes of study Government ave resulted in the rich harvest of and description. While the type specimens will, we palæontological treasures now awaiting description, understand, be eventually deposited in the museum some of which are familiar to all visitors of the at Cairo, a good representative series of duplicates Natural History Museum at South Kensington. The will be retained in this country.
| study of these extinct types of mammals and reptiles, Preliminary notices by Þr. Andrews and Mr. in addition to affording much new light on the evoluBeadnell himself concerning the osteology of some of these curious extinct forms of mammalian life have already appeared, but for the full details we must await the promised publications to be issued by the trustees of the British Museum. In the meanwhile, we welcome the volume before us, which gives a very clear and suggestive account of the general features of the district in which these splendid discoveries have been made.
The Fayum is a circular de-
of the Fayum Province of Egypt," by H. J. L. Beadnell. alluvium similar to that of the Nile Valley, and having an area of about 700 square tion of living forms, cannot fail to increase greatly miles. The cultivated area is directly connected with our knowledge of the successive stages by which the the Nile Valley by a depression through which runs present distribution of these forms of life has been a natural canal—the Bahr Yusef-which convey's reached. water to the Fayum and irrigates the whole of the The series of strata which have yielded the district.
interesting vertebrate faunas is clearly described by The remaining area of the Fayum is practically Mr. Beadnell in the work before us. The beds are desert, the most interesting part of this desert area admirably exhibited in a number of fine escarpments. being two deep, dry depressions in the south-west At the base are found Middle Eocene (Parisian) strata known as the Wadi Rayan and the Wadi Muêla. with an aggregate thickness of about 1300 feet. These depressions have attracted considerable Nummulites and mollusca abound in these beds, amount of attention from engineers in recent years, as ! which in their lower part contain Zeuglodon and fish being possibly capable of conversion into reservoirs remains, and in their higher portion the older of the for the purposes of irrigation.
two vertebrate faunas. The l'pper Eocene (Bartonian) Until the year 1898, when the examination was which overlie these have a thickness of 830 feet, commenced by the Geological Survey of Egypt, little and, with some remains of mollusca, yield the was known concerning the geology of this district. abundant remains of the second vertebrate fauna. It was crossed in 1879 by Dr. Schweinfurth, who dis- No Miocene strata have been found in the Fayum,
but about 100 feet of fluvio-marine beds, intercalated 1 " The Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt." By H. J. L. Beadneli, F.G.S., F.R.G.S. Quarto. Pp. 101.
with contemporaneous (interbedded) sheets of basalt, (Cairo : National Printing Department, 1905.)
and containing silicified trees, are referred to the
Oligocene (Tongrian). The youngest beds in the among the latter there are many examples that have area are gravel terraces, lacustrine clays, deposited on been shown in the society's previous exhibitions. the bed of the ever-diminishing lake, sands blown Of the new work, the natural history section is bv from the desert, and alluvial deposits.
far the best represented. Miss Turner's set of photoMr. Beadnell adduces evidence in favour of the view graphs of the “great crested grebe," and a series of that the bodies of the animals the skeletons of which twenty-two lantern slides of butterflies by Dr. D. H. are found entombed in the strata of the Fayum were Hutchinson, have been awarded medals. The lantern brought down from the African interior by a great slides by the Sanger-Shepherd three-colour stream which flowed in a north-westerly direction, process, and illustrate the usefulness of this method passing through the ancient lake occupying the site for recording rare varieties. In some of the slides of the Baharia Oasis. At that period the shore-line the colours are notably excellent, perhaps as perfect would be near the Fayum, and the Nile would flow as any mechanical colour process will ever produce into the sea near the same point.
Some of the photographs of " nesting swans by Mr. In historical times, as is well known, a large part Douglas English must have been taken at considerof the Fayum was occupied by the ancient Lake able risk, for in two or three of them the bird is Moeris. By successive reclamations of the alluvial shown flying at the photographer in anger. Another lands, this lake has probably been reduced to less example (No. 237) will be found in the west room than one-eighth of its original area, and now con- among the pictorial photographs, and close by (No. stitutes the comparatively insignificant Birket el 216) is a very fine photograph of sea-gulls, the foreQurun.
most of which are in the act of alighting on the The work before us appears in the same excellent water. Of other photographs that record slower form as the other memoirs of the Geological Survey movements, the chief are a series of seven by Mr. of Egypt, issued under the direction of Captain W. Farren of the “ skin moult of the caterpillar of
the privet hawk-moth," a series of eight photomicrographs ( x 30) by Mrs. Kate J. Pigg showing the germination of a grass seed, and two photographs of the same oak. the one taken more than fifts years before the other, by Mr. J. B. Hilditch. The earlier photograph of the oak was exhibited at the first exhibition of the Roval Photographic Society (then the Photographic Society of London), and is at least as good a piece of work as the later, the main difference from a technical point of view being that the exposure necessary for the first was three thousand times as long as that given for the second. There are many other photographs of living things, but the bee photographs of Mr. Oliver G. Pike deserve special notice. The difficulty was to get light enough without causing the bees to stop their work, and Mr. Pike has suc
ceeded. Fig. 2.- Bahr Yusuf at Lahun before entering the Fayum. From “The Topography and Geology Of other work in the technical of the Fayum Province of Egypt," by H. J. L. Beadnell.
section there are photomicrographs
showing the structure of various Lyons. There are sixteen plates reproduced from metals and alloys by Mr. E. F. Law, some interest. photographs, which give a good idea of the scenery ing wave photographs by Dr. Vaughan Cornish, and of this wonderful district. We give reductions of a number of radiographs by Dr. Thurstan Holland two of the plates. In addition to these, there are which well illustrate the possibilities of modern two geological maps and six sheets of longitudinal methods. The only “natural colour " photograph sections. There are also woodcuts in the letterpress. that we discovered, other than the transparencies by The printing of the text of the work and the execu- the Sanger-Shepherd method, is a three-carbon print tion of the illustrations are highly creditable to the ! by Mr. Brewerton. We think he has sent as good Survey Department at Cairo.
J. W. J. examples in previous years, but whether or not, wha!
we want to show the capabilities of three-colour work THE ROYAL PHOTOGRIPHIC SOCIETI''S
i are the finished print, produced without handwork, by EXHIBITION.
the side of the object or painting that it represents
Some commercial work is excellent, but its measure THE HE fiftieth annual exhibition of the Royal Photo- of perfection is due to retouching.
graphic Society is now open. There is a dis- The loan collection from the St. Louis Exhibition tinct and regrettable falling off in the number of will doubtless prove more interesting to many than exhibits in the section devoted to scientific and the new work, because of its greater variety.. Som technical photography, but this is in a measure com- 1 of these exhibits are of historic interest, such as Sir pensated for by the presence of the loan collection William Abney's photograph of the spectrum in the of British photographs of a similar kind that was infra-red, and General Waterhouse's examples of sent to the St. Louis Exhibition last year, though photomechanical work. There are a very great many photomicrographs of etched metals and alloys, some discovery immediately set to work to study with his astronomical and spectrum photographs, and Mr. keen experimental insight the genera Penstemon and Edgar Senior's photomicrographs of sections of photo- Primula, and Geranium phaeum. graphic films, including those of colour photographs Later, while he was working in De Bary's laborby Lippmann's process which demonstrate that the atory at Strasbourg, he discovered in certain fungal silver deposit is in layers.
cells a substance then unknown which gave all the In the trade section there are many interesting reactions of glycogen. This is a body allied to exhibits. Doubtless the greatest novelty is the demon- starch that was conclusively shown by the great stration of the three-colour process called “ pinatype, Claude Bernard to be of great importance in animal which is claimed to be the amateur's method of colour physiology. By degrees Errera recognised glycogen printing on paper. Three prints in chromated gelatin in all the groups of fungi, and was able to assign to are made from the ordinary three transparencies, and it the same function, i.e. that of reserve carbohydrate, these are each caused to absorb its proper colour by as it has in animals. His first researches on this soaking it in the proper dye solution. The prepared subject were published in 1884, and constituted his paper that is to bear the print is squeegeed on to thesis for admission into the University of Brussels. each of these coloured " print plates in turn, and Prof. Errera initiated a series of papers on the rôle duly absorbs the colour. Thus the three colours are of alkaloids in plants. The origin and rôle of these : bsorbed into a single film. The examples we saw poisons in plant economy formed, and still forms, the were of various degrees of merit.
subject of discussion. The papers of Errera and his pupils tend to prove that alkaloids are decomposition
products of nutrition, but that they may be utilised PROF. LEO ERRERA.
by plants as a defence against herbivorous animals.
He was one of those who realised the importance L EO ERRERA, professor of botany in the Uni- which attaches to molecular forces in the structure
versity of Brussels and member of the Royal of living beings and in all the obscure phenomena Academy of Belgium, whose death on August 1 has of nutrition. Basing his investigations primarily on already been announced, was born in 1858. He the important works of the physician Joseph Plateau, merited preeminently the title of professor, for not the illustrious professor of the University of Ghent, only was he gifted as few men are gifted with the
Errera showed that cellular membranes behave in the faculty of giving a clear and precise explanation of complicated problems, and of impressing upon the
same way as if they obeyed the laws which regulate minds of his hearers his conclusions, which were well blowing soap-bubbles.
the reaction of liquid films such as are produced in
His first communication on reasoned and supported by facts and conceptions, but this subject dates from 1886. he was also one of those teachers who recognised that
But not content to lead the way in the domains it is not possible to improvise a lecture, however
of science which we have outlined and to direct the simple or commonplace, without bestowing upon it work of his students therein, he also pursued many lengthy and conscientious preparation. In addition investigations in very diverse subjects. He did much to the critical judgment which characterised his
to improve the methods of microscopical technique; teaching, he always kept it abreast of scientific know
he simplified greatly the microchemical examination ledge; each year, even in the case of his elementary
of certain substances; he published ingenious theories courses, his lectures were looked through, revised,
on the mechanism of sleep, and contributed lectures and brought up to date so as to include the latest results in the subject.
on widely different subjects varying from pedagogy
to natural philosophy; and all his publications were Prof. Errera was one of the first teachers in
marked by a clearness and purity of style that are not Belgium who had the courage to declare that practical surpassed in the writings of any other man of science. work should take precedence of theoretical studies,
JEAN MASSART. which alone had formed the ordinary courses up to that time. He was convinced that a student should only accept as true what he had verified for himself, and that it is not sufficient to know scientific results
NOTES. without becoming acquainted with the methods employed. With this object he established in 1884,
MR. G. B. BUCKTON, F.R.S., author of several morowhen he was appointed professor in the university', graphs on
entomological and other subjects, died the laboratory for vegetable anatomy and physiology September 26, at eighty-eight years of age. which became later the Botanical Institute.
He was wonderfully assisted by the remarkable We regret to see the report that Sir William Wharton, facility with which he assimilated all current litera- who was prevented by illness from leaving Cape Town ture. He read Danish and Swedish without any with other members of the British Association last week, difficulty, and at the congresses in which he took is suffering from enteric fever complicated by pneumonia. part, whether English, German or Dutch, he in- His condition on Monday showed a slight improvement. variably excited admiration by his correct and expressive rendering of foreign languages. It was not As earthquake shock was felt in Stirling, Dollar, and surprising, that at the International Botanical Con. Alloa shortly before midnight on Thursday, September 21. gress held at Vienna last June he was nominated The shock travelled in a similar direction to that of president for the next congress, to be held at Brussels July 23, namely, to the south-east, but it was of slightly in 1910. The worries of teaching did not cause Errera to
longer duration and more violent in character. In Stirling forget that it is the duty of every scientific man to
pictures and crockery were shaken and articles of furniture contribute to the increase of that knowledge which
moved, and a sound like thunder was heard. At Corton has been handed down to him. His energy was
railway signal-cabin all the bells were set ringing. At especially productive along four lines of research.
Bridge of Allan the shock was felt very decidedly. In When Darwin had attracted attention to the import- Bannockburn and in the neighbouring villages the imance of cross-fertilisation among plants and to the pression was of a serious explosion. Comrie was only part played by insects in the transfer of pollen, Errera slightly affected: a low vumbling sound was heard, but as early as 1878, recognising the full import of this no damage was done.