Page images

in vain so far as the author and his readers are con- Our lack of generosity and sweetness (douceur) are cerned. The illustrations are taken from well-known

| due (p. 124) to our games and violent exercise--footworkers, but at least the approximate magnifications

ball, of course, and perhaps lawn tennis, or, at an

earlier age, battledore and shuttlecock. Of Signor should be given. Other points, owing to their import

Colajanni's logic we may judge when we read (p. ance, would require to be traversed in detail, but

174 et seq.) of Anglo-Saxon decadence as visible in enough has been said to help those interested to judge | U.S.A., and later (p. 302) that only one-fourth of its whether the book would suit their purpose or not. | citizens are Anglo-Saxons.

A. McWilliam.

Signor Colajanni's book, though inaccurate, is not without its good points, but it leaves little permanent impression. The translator has little knowledge of

English and German to judge by the strange words OUR BOOK SHELF. that often meet the eye.

N. W. T. Lalins et Anglo-Saxons, Races supérieures et Races inférieures. By Prof. N. Colajanni. Translation

Machine Construction and Drawing. By Frank by Julien Dubois. Pp. xx + 432. (Paris : F. Alcan,

Castle, M.I.M.E. Pp. viii + 275. (London: Mac1905.). Price 9 francs.

millan and Co., Ltd.) Price 4s. 6d. SIGNOR COLAJANNI, a Socialist deputy and professor

In the study of machine construction and drawing of statistics, is a convinced opponent of the doctrine

the assistance to be derived from books can never be of Anglo-Saxon superiority. The questions which he

more than of secondary importance. The acquireproposes to himself are, in brief :-(a) the meaning

ment of a thorough knowledge of the subject depends of the terms race and nation ; (b) the existence of dis

principally upon the opportunities which a student tinctive racial qualities; (c) the transmission of

may have of coming into daily contact in the workacquired qualities; (d) the equivalence of decadence

shop with varied examples of good engineering in the nation and senescence in the individual. He

practice, and the use which he makes of these opporconcludes (a) that we have no data by which to deter

tunities. Assuming that a youth is fortunately mine the specific racial attributes of Sergi's European

circumstanced, he will be busy at suitable moments types; (b) that the terms superior and inferior, save

compiling a book of miscellaneous notes, containing, as an expression of their relative positions at a given

amongst other things, many fully-dimensioned moment, have no meaning when applied to nations;

sketches taken from machine details lying around (c) that acquired qualities are transmitted, especially

him. Along with this work, and very appropriately when segregation favours fixation of the type; and

in the drawing class, he will make working drawings (d) that decadence is relative, by comparison with the

to scale of some of the things sketched in his noteprogress of other nations; nations may, phenix-like,

book, and additional examples for sketching and rise from their ashes and attain a second time to

drawing will be provided in the class. greatness.

The student will also consult text-books for further Although Signor Colajanni's main arguments are

information, and the book under review will be found derived from the English and Romance-speaking

very suitable indeed for the purpose. The author peoples of the present day, he does not hesitate to

| first describes the necessary drawing instruments, and invoke the facts of ancient history and the non

explains their use. He then sets out in detail, with European races, and his task is, in fact, one which

proportional dimensions, various forms of common demands the amplest equipment of historical, socio

fastenings, such as rivets, bolts, keys, &c. Then logical, and economic knowledge, combined with an

come chapters containing examples of mill work, impeccable method and an unerring judgment. Let us

followed by others dealing with steam-engine details. illustrate his fitness for his task. A large part of the

The final chapter gives a short account of the physical first half of this work is taken up with the proof of

properties of materials used in construction. Sets of the first and second conclusions cited above; but his

useful exercises occur at intervals, and a few calcumethod consists largely in putting side by side two

lations of strengths are given; but the latter are or more quotations, primâ facie contradictory, and

wisely kept in strict subordination. drawing from them the conclusion that both or all

The drawings which abound throughout the work are erroneous. He overlooks the fact that criteria

represent good practice, are fully dimensioned, very are apt to differ; one author may assert the

clearly printed, and will be appreciated by teachers superiority of a race, another its inferiority; unless

and students alike. the standard is the same, the views are not even

While not free from minor defects, the book can shown to be contradictory. Even were it otherwise,

be cordially recommended for use in drawing classes, it is evident that of two contradictory assertions

and to young engineers who are seeking after knowboth are not necessarily wrong.

ledge on which to base subsequent work in machine The statistical methods of the work are not above

design. criticism; on p. 354 we have 110/3= 22 ; on the following page there is a comparison of the material pro

Graplis for Beginners. By W. Jamieson, A.M.I.E.E. gress of France and England since 1840; for France

Pp. 64. (London : Blackie and Son, 1905.) Price the savings banks are included; the deposits show an

Is. 6d. increase of 2200 per cent. Signor Colajanni has no In order to teach and illustrate the subject, the author hesitation in taking this as an index number, but he in this small volume makes use of a number of does not add to the English table any corresponding interesting graphs relating mainly to technical and figure for our savings banks; even, therefore, were commercial subjects, many of them discontinuous, it legitimate to take the mean of ten index numbers, algebraical curves being given only a secondary regardless of their relative importance, as a fair state place, though the logarithmic or compound interest ment of the changes. his method is ludicrously law is dealt with. The significance of the slope at fallacious.

any point of a graph is enforced by simple and Signor Colajanni's knowledge of England is prob- effective examples. The treatment is suggestive and ably limited; we learn (p. 279) that our distinguishing interesting, and the author is justified in hoping that traits are rudeness, lack of sociability, and pitiless the book will tend to cultivate the observation and ness, and that these are due to fagging at school. I stimulate the reasoning powers of the young readers.


or perhaps it may appear that we Americans are in too (The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions

big a hurry-that we are too much impressed with the

motto “ time is dollars." But we are not spending all expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake

our time chasing the dollar ; there are many other nimble lo return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected

things that we are trying to keep up with, and one of manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE.

them is the progress of science in Europe, along the lines No notice is taken of anonymous communications.)

in which we are especially interested. The Preservation of Native Plants and Animals,

If a member of so young and giddy a nation might

| venture to make a suggestion to older and wiser people, it From London papers recently to hand, I see that at the ornithological congress, on the motion of the Hon. W.

| would be in favour of requesting or requiring the presi

dents of the various scientific organisations and sections Rothschild, a resolution was forwarded to the Premier of

of the British Association to provide headings for their New Zealand in regard to the importance of taking steps

addresses so that those of us who have not the time to to preserve and protect the birds on the Auckland and Campbell Islands.

read all these good things may be able at a glance to

pick out what we want especially to see. As matters now It may be of interest to ornithologists in Great Britain

stand we are compelled, as a rule, to do one of two to hear that our local scientific societies had already, in

things—either to let them all go unread-to our great May, memorialised the Government to the same effect; indeed, we asked that protection should be afforded, not

regret and loss--or to wade through pages upon pages of

matter which, however valuable it may be, is out of our only to the birds, but also to the flora. We have likewise forwarded a similar resolution to the

line and of no especial interest to us. Such titles, head. State Government of Tasmania in respect of the penguins

ings or subheads as are here suggested would avoid these on the Macquarie Islands.

difficulties. It would not cost much ; it would not take

much time, and it would save much of ours and some of The resolution, therefore, of the ornithological congress should strengthen the hands of our local institutes, which

your own. We appeal to you for sympathy and help.

JOHN C. BRAXXER. bodies are keenly alive to the importance of preserving, as

Stanford University, California, September 7. far as possible, the fauna and flora of New Zealand. The Government, too, has hitherto met our requests

Protective Coloration of the Inside of the Mouth in in a prompt and generous manner. A couple of years ago, for example, the Otago Institute pointed out to the

Nestling Birds. Minister for Lands that sheep were destroving the alpine The habit shown by many helpless nestlings, of gaping flora of the Southern Alps, especially in the region widely when the nest is approached, is usually explained around Mount Cook; the Government at once proclaimed by supposing that the birds are appealing for food. This the area as a “reserve," and the sheep were banished. explanation has always seemed to me inadequate, for

In fact, the Government is remarkably ready to afford nestlings that gape usually have the inside of the mouth any protection that is possible ; and the recent proclamation brightly coloured, and in some cases marked with conof the whole of the S.W. portion of the South Island - spicuous spots. Moreover, newly hatched nestlings among including the Great Lakes, a vast mountainous, forest the Passeres gape if the fingers are snapped just above clad area, and the famous fjords-as a “national park," them, or if the branch bearing the nest is shaken. It and the prohibition of the use of guns and dogs herein, seems a fair inference, therefore, that the act of gaping has already had its effect in the increase in number of

is often, if not usually, an expression of alarm. some of our rare birds.

In order to test the effect of the widely opened and You will see. therefore, that we out here. equally with brightly coloured mouth, I have several times asked young naturalists at home, have at heart the interests of our children to touch the edge of the nest or place a finger native plants and animals.


in the mouth of one of the birds, and from their hesitation Otago University Museum, Dunedin, N.Z., August 21. or even refusal to obey I am convinced that the con.

spicuous coloration, by centering attention upon the

gaping mouth, tends to protect the nestling from molestThe Omission of Titles of Addresses on Scientific

ation. Mr. W. P. Pycraft thinks that the bright colours Subjects.

and spots are “guide-marks” to facilitate the proper I VENTURE to ask the attention of “whom it may con

placing of the food in the mouth by the parents. But (ern" to the practice in vogue in Great Britain of publish

persons who rear nestlings find no difficulty in feeding ing presidential addresses of scientific societies and of

them so long as they gape freely, without troubling themsections of the British Association without any mention

selves about placing the food in any particular region of of the titles of those addresses. Take, for example, a

the mouth.

W. Ruskix BUTTERFIELD. case quite at random, but just at hand. NATURE of

4 Stanhope Place, St. Leonard's-on-Sea. August 17, beginning on p. 368, contains the inaugural address of the president of the British Association with

Helmert's Formula for Gravity. the heading “ Part I." On p. 372 of the same number is

Ox p. 79 of Everett's valuable “ Illustrations of the another presidential address without a title. On p. 378

| C.G.S. System of Units with Tables of Physical Cooa third address has no general head, but it has the distinct

stants” (London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1902) the advantage of four subheads that enable the reader to

following lines occur :select at a glance what he wants, and to pass over other

“ In a Report now printing, which will contain a very matters if he so chooses.

full list of results, Helmert adopts, as the most accurate Unfortunately these are not exceptional cases. I have in my library scores of these addresses in the form of

general formula for g reduced to sea level, separates without a word on the title-page to indicate how g=980.617 (1 -0.002644 cos 2 +0.000007 cos 20). they are to be classified in a library. The presidential .... This may be accepted as the best general formula addresses published in the reports of the British Associ | yet put forward." ation are conspicuous examples of this kind of publication. The formula alluded to was given first by Helmert in I have taken the trouble to look through these reports his paper “ Der normale Theil der Schwerkraft in from the beginning of the association in 1831 down to Meeresniveau" (Sitsungsberichte der k. Preussisch 1892, and out of all the addresses of the presidents of the Akademie der Wissenschaften su Berlin, 1901, xiv., pp. association published in these sixty-one years there are 332-336), but with a different coefficient, namely, only five that have titles or subtitles. These are the addresses given in 1831, 1839, 1854, 1880, and 1885.

g=980.632 (1 -0.002644 cos 20 +0.000007 cos* 20), It is easy to see how this absence of title came about and it is not reproduced in the report mentioned in the originally, but, as seen from this respectful distance, the above quotation from Everett, but in a subsequent one history of it is nothing to the point. What this bus (Comptes rendus des Séances de l'Issociation Géodésiqa world wants is help to get at what we are interested in Internationale, Copenhagen, 1903, ii., p. 42, Berlin, 1o.$1. with the least possible waste of time.

OTTAVIO ZANOTTI BIanco. This hot haste may seem unbecoming to men of science, Turin, l'ia della Rocca 28, September 8.


covered bones of the extinct cetacean Zeuglodon, and

this seems to have been the first indication of the THE palæontological treasures yielded by the existence of vertebrate fossils in the district. Soon

1 Fayum have made that Egyptian province no after the commencement of the survey by Mr. less famous among geologists and zoologists than are Beadnell, under the direction of Captain Lyons, the the “bad lands” of the United States territories, the remains of fish and crocodiles were found to occur Sevalik Hills, or Pikermi. The discoveries by Messrs. in the beds of the Middle Eocene, which had yielded Beadnell and Andrews of extinct mammals, the study the fossils found by Schweinfurth. A few fragments of which serves to clear up the whole question of the of bone were also found in the Upper Eocene strata, ancestry of that strangely specialised group the but it was not until 1901, when Dr. Andrews, of the Proboscidea, are not of less significance than those British Museum, had joined Mr. Beadnell for the which enabled Marsh and Huxley to demonstrate how purpose of collecting recent North African mammals, the equally aberrant type of Equidæ originated.

that the outcrop of strata was crossed upon which a We are glad to learn from the introduction to the considerable number of mammalian and reptilian present volume that the whole mass of palæontological remains lay exposed, many in an excellent state of material which has been obtained by the Egyptian preservation. Energetic efforts on the part of the Government has now been handed over to the authori authorities of the British Museum and the Egyptian ties of the British Museum for the purposes of study Government have resulted in the rich harvest of and description. While the type-specimens will, we palæontological treasures now awaiting description, understand, be eventually deposited in the museum some of which are familiar to all visitors of the at Cairo, a good representative series of duplicates Natural History Museum at South Kensington. The will be retained in this country.

study of these extinct types of mammals and reptiles, Preliminary notices by Dr. Andrews and Mr. in addition to affording much new light on the evoluBeadnell himself concerning the osteology of some of these curious extinct forms of mammalian life have already appeared, but for the full details we must await the promised publications to be issued by the trustees of the British Museum. In the meanwhile, we welcome the volume before us, which gives a very clear and suggestive account of the general features of the district in which these splendid discoveries have been made.

The Fayum is a circular depression in the Libyan Desert, having an area of more than 3000 square miles, and is situated to the west of the Nile, some distance south of the latitude of Cairo. The lowest part of the district is occupied by the lake known as the Birket el Qurun, which has an area of between 8o and 90 square miles; but this area appears to be continually diminishing owing to evaporation. On the south-east side of the lake lies a tract of Fig. 1.–North side of the Birket el Qurun, looking West. From "The Topography and Geology cultivated land, covered with

of the Fayum Province of Egypt," by H. J. L. Beadnell. alluvium similar to that of the Nile Valley, and having an area of about 700 square ' tion of living forms, cannot fail to increase greatly miles. The cultivated area is directly connected with our knowledge of the successive stages by which the the Nile Valley by a depression through which runs present distribution of these forms of life has been a natural canal—the Bahr Yusef-which conveys reached. water to the Fayum and irrigates the whole of the The series of strata which have yielded the district.

interesting vertebrate faunas is clearly described by The remaining area of the Favum is practically Mr. Beadnell in the work before us. The beds are desert, the most interesting part of this desert area admirably exhibited in a number of fine escarpments. being two deep dry depressions in the south-west At the base are found Middle Eocene (Parisian) strata known as the Wadi Rayan and the Wadi Muêla. with an aggregate thickness of about 1300 feet. These depressions have attracted a considerable Nummulites and mollusca abound in these beds, amount of attention from engineers in recent years, as which in their lower part contain Zeuglodon and fish being possibly capable of conversion into reservoirs remains, and in their higher portion the older of the for the purposes of irrigation.

two vertebrate faunas. The Upper Eocene (Bartonian) Until the year 1898, when the examination was which overlie these have a thickness of 830 feet, commenced by the Geological Survey of Egypt, little i and, with some remains of mollusca, yield the was known concerning the geology of this district. abundant remains of the second vertebrate fauna. It was crossed in 1879 by Dr. Schweinfurth, who dis

No Miocene strata have been found in the Fayum, Oligocene (Tongrian). The youngest beds in the among the latter there are many exam area are gravel terraces, lacustrine clays, deposited on been shown in the society's previous e. the bed of the ever-diminishing lake, sands blown Of the new work, the natural history from the desert, and alluvial deposits.

but about 100 feet of fluvio-marine beds, intercalated 1 "The Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt." with contemporaneous (interbedded) sheets of basalt. By H. J. L. "Beadneli, F.G.S., F.R.G.S. Quarto. Pp. 101. Plates 24. (Cairo : National Printing Department, 1905.)

and containing silicified trees, are referred to the


far the best represented. Miss Turner's SE Mr. Beadnell adduces evidence in favour of the view graphs of the “ great crested grebe," and that the bodies of the animals the skeletons of which twenty-two lantern slides of butterflies by are found entombed in the strata of the Fayum were Hutchinson, have been awarded medals. TL brought down from the African interior by a great slides are by the Sanger-Shepherd stream which flowed in a north-westerly direction, process, and illustrate the usefulness of this passing through the ancient lake occupying the site for recording rare varieties. In some of of the Baharia Oasis. At that period the shore-line the colours are notably excellent, perhaps a would be near the Favum, and the Nile would flow as any mechanical colour process will ever into the sea near the same point.

Some of the photographs of " nesting swans In historical times, as is well known, a large part Douglas English must have been taken at de of the Fayum was occupied by the ancient Lake able risk, for in two or three of them the Moeris. By successive reclamations of the alluvial shown flying at the photographer in anger. lands, this lake has probably been reduced to less example (No. 237) will be found in the wes than one-eighth of its original area, and now con among the pictorial photographs, and close b stitutes the comparatively insignificant Birket el 216) is a very fine photograph of sea-gulls, th Qurun.

most of which are in the act of alighting The work before us appears in the same excellent water. Of other photographs that record form as the other memoirs of the Geological Survey movements, the chief are a series of seven by of Egypt, issued under the direction of Captain W. Farren of the “ skin moult of the caterpillar of

the privet hawk-moth," a
of eight photomicrographs
by Mrs. Kate J. Pigg showing the
germination of a grass seed,
two photographs of the same olk
the one taken more than
years before the other, by
J. B. Hilditch. The earlier phon
graph of the oak was exhibited
at the first exhibition of the Ro al
Photographic Society (then he
Photographic Society of London
and is at least as good a piece of
work as the later, the main dider
ence from a technical point of
view being that the exposure
necessary for the first was three
thousand times as long as that
given for the second. There are
many other photographs of living
things, but the bee photograph
of Mr. Oliver G. Pike deserve
special notice. The difficulty was
to get light enough without
causing the bees to stop their
work, and Mr. Pike has suc-

ceeded. FIG. 2.- Bahr Yusuf at Lahun before entering the Fayum. From “The Topography and Geology Of other work in the technical of the Fayum Province of Egypt," by H. J. L. Beadnell.

section there are photomicrographs

showing the structure of various Lyons. There are sixteen plates reproduced from metals and alloys by Mr. E. F. Law, some interesi. photographs, which give a good idea of the scenery ing wave photographs by Dr. Vaughan Cornish, and of this wonderful district. We give reductions of a number of radiographs by Dr. Thurstan Holland two of the plates. In addition to these, there are which well illustrate the possibilities of modern two geological maps and six sheets of longitudinal methods. The only “natural colour" photograph sections. There are also woodcuts in the letterpress. that we discovered, other than the transparencies by The printing of the text of the work and the execu the Sanger-Shepherd method, is a three-carbon print tion of the illustrations are highly creditable to the by Mr. Brewerton. We think he has sent as good Survey Department at Cairo.

J. W. J. examples in previous years, but whether or not, what

we want to show the capabilities of three-colour work THE ROYAL PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY'S

are the finished print, produced without handwork, by EXHIBITION.

the side of the object or painting that it represents.

Some commercial work is excellent, but its measure THE fiftieth annual exhibition of the Royal Photo of perfection is due to retouching.

graphic Society is now open. There is a dis The loan collection from the St. Louis Exhibition tinct and regrettable falling off in the number of will doubtless prove more interesting to many than exhibits in the section devoted to scientific and the new work, because of its greater variety. Some technical photography, but this is in a measure com- of these exhibits are of historic interest, such as Sir pensated for by the presence of the loan collection i William Abney's photograph of the spectrum in the of British photographs of a similar kind that was infra-red, and General Waterhouse's examples of sent to the St. Louis Exhibition last year, though photomechanical work. There are a very great many photomicrographs of etched metals and alloys, some | discovery immediately set to work to study with his astronomical and spectrum photographs, and Mr. keen experimental insight the genera Penstemon and Edgar Senior's photomicrographs of sections of photo Primula, and Geranium phaeum. graphic films, including those of colour photographs Later, while he was working in De Bary's laborby Lippmann's process which demonstrate that the atory at Strasbourg, he discovered in certain fungal silver deposit is in layers.


cells a substance then unknown which gave all the In the trade section there are many interesting | reactions of glycogen. This is a body allied to exhibits. Doubtless the greatest novelty is the demon starch that was conclusively shown by the great stration of the three-colour process called “ pinatype," Claude Bernard to be of great importance in animal which is claimed to be the amateur's method of colour physiology. By degrees Errera recognised glycogen printing on paper. Three prints in chromated gelatin in all the groups of fungi, and was able to assign to are made from the ordinary three transparencies, and it the same function, i.e. that of reserve carbohydrate, these are each caused to absorb its proper colour by as it has in animals. His first researches on this soaking it in the proper dve solution. The prepared subject were published in 1884, and constituted his paper that is to bear the print is squeegeed on to thesis for admission into the University of Brussels. each of these coloured " print plates " in turn, and Prof. Errera initiated a series of papers on the rôle duly absorbs the colour. Thus the three colours are of alkaloids in plants. The origin and rôle of these :{bsorbed into a single film. The examples we saw poisons in plant economy formed, and still forms, the were of various degrees of merit.

subject of discussion. The papers of Errera and his pupils tend to prove that alkaloids are decomposition

products of nutrition, but that they may be utilised PROF. LEO ERRERA.

by plants as a defence against herbivorous animals.

He was one of those who realised the importance I EO ERRERA, professor of botany in the Uni

which attaches to molecular forces in the structure versity of Brussels and member of the Royal

of living beings and in all the obscure phenomena Academy of Belgium, whose death on August i has of nutrition. Basing his investigations primarily on already been announced, was born in 1858. He

the important works of the physician Joseph Plateau, inerited preeminently the title of professor, for not

the illustrious professor of the University of Ghent, only was he gifted as few men are gifted with the

Errera showed that cellular membranes behave in the faculty of giving a clear and precise explanation of

same way as if they obeyed the laws which regulate complicated problems, and of impressing upon the the reaction of liquid films such as are produced in minds of his hearers his conclusions, which were well

blowing soap-bubbles. His first communication on reasoned and supported by facts and conceptions, but

this subject dates from 1886. he was also one of those teachers who recognised that

But not content to lead the way in the domains it is not possible to improvise a lecture, however

of science which we have outlined and to direct the simple or commonplace, without bestowing upon it

work of his students therein, he also pursued many lengthy and conscientious preparation. In addition

investigations in very diverse subjects. He did much to the critical judgment which characterised his

to improve the methods of microscopical technique; teaching, he always kept it abreast of scientific know

he simplified greatly the microchemical examination ledge; each year, even in the case of his elementary

of certain substances; he published ingenious theories courses, his lectures were looked through, revised,

on the mechanism of sleep, and contributed lectures and brought up to date so as to include the latest

on widely different subjects varying from pedagogy results in the subject.

to natural philosophy; and all his publications were Prof. Errera was one of the first teachers in

marked by a clearness and purity of style that are not Belgium who had the courage to declare that practical

surpassed in the writings of any other man of science. work should take precedence of theoretical studies,

JEAN MASSART. which alone had formed the ordinary courses up to that time. He was convinced that a student should only accept as true what he had verified for himself, and that it is not sufficient to know scientific results

NOTES. without becoming acquainted with the methods employed. With this object he established in 1884,

MR. G. B. BUCKTON, F.R.S., author of several morowhen he was appointed professor in the university,

graphs on entomological and other subjects, died on the laboratory for vegetable anatomy and physiology

| September 26, at eighty-eight years of age. which became later the Botanical Institute. He was wonderfully assisted by the remarkable

We regret to see the report that Sir William Wharton, facility with which he assimilated all current litera

who was prevented by illness from leaving Cape Town ture. He read Danish and Swedish without any with other members of the British Association last week, difficulty, and at the congresses in which he took is suffering from enteric fever complicated by pneumonia. part, whether English, German or Dutch, he in- | His condition on Monday showed a slight improvement. variably excited admiration by his correct and expressive rendering of foreign languages. It was not As earthquake shock was felt in Stirling, Dollar, and surprising that at the International Botanical Con Alloa shortly before midnight on Thursday, September 21. gress held at Vienna last June he was nominated

The shock travelled in a similar direction to that of president for the next congress, to be held at Brussels

July 23, namely, to the south-east, but it was of slightly in 1910

longer duration and more violent in character. In Stirling The worries of teaching did not cause Errera to forget that it is the duty of every scientific man to

pictures and crockery were shaken and articles of furniture contribute to the increase of that knowledge which

moved, and a sound like thunder was heard. At Corton has been handed down to him. His energy was

railway signal-cabin all the bells were set ringing. At especially productive along four lines of research.

Bridge of Allan the shock was felt very decidedly. In When Darwin had attracted attention to the import Bannockburn and in the neighbouring villages the imance of cross-fertilisation among plants and to the pression was of a serious explosion. Comrie was only part played by insects in the transfer of pollen, Errera slightly affected : a low vumbling sound was heard, but as early as 1878, recognising the full import of this no damage was done.

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