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An electrical exhibition on a large scale was opened at the result that he became an authority on fungi, and ac Olympia, Kensington, on September 25 by the Lord Mayor the meeting of the club in February, 1885, contributed a of London. The exhibition is under the auspices of the paper entitled “ The Fungi of Mt. Baw Baw," in which National Electrical Manufacturers' Association (Incor- he described some twelve species of the genus Agaricus porated), and is intended to demonstrate the powers and In November of the same year he contributed a further uses of electricity in domestic, manufacturing, and com- paper on the fungi of North Gippsland, in which he made mercial directions. Among the special exhibitors are the some important remarks regarding the fungus then known General Post Office and the Marconi Company.
The as Mylitta australis, Native Bread.” During the interval Institution of Electrical Engineers is taking an interest in of nearly twenty-one years between his first and last papers. the exhibition on the educational side; and a series of he contributed numerous papers to the meetings of the popular scientific lectures and demonstrations has been club, all relating more or less to botany, either as bea:arranged upon wireless telegraphy, electric motor develop- ing on a particular branch or descriptive of trips cr ments, domestic lighting, telegraphy, telephones, and other excursions in search of specimens. In addition to his subjects.
knowledge of Victorian phanerogamic and cryptogamic IN Nature of July 13 (p. 244) there appeared a letter plants, Mr. Tisdall was, at the time of his death, an
authority on marine algæ. He contributed an article on by Mr. Rotch, director of the Blue Hill Meteorological
the flora of Walhalla to the mining department's report Observatory, U.S.A., describing the Franco-American expedition for the exploration of the atmosphere in the
on that goldfield (1902), as also some useful papers to the tropics which was sailing on M. Teisserenc de Bort's
meetings of the Australasian Association for the Advancesteam yacht Otaria. During a two months' cruise, the
ment of Science, which included a list of the marine alga
of Victoria. scientific members of the expedition, Messrs. Maurice, of Trappes Observatory, and Clayton, of Blue Hill, executed
In l'Anthropologie (xvi., No. 3) M. Boule gives a more thirty-two soundings with balloons and kites, and made detailed account of the machine-made eoliths referred to observations on two tropical peaks, all between latitudes in his paper in the Comptes rendus, translated in NATURE 9° and 37° N. and longitudes 16° and 31° W. A of August 31 (p. 438). From the descriptions and illus southerly or south-westerly return trade was found at a trations, it appears that among the sperimens collected height of about two miles in the tropics and an easterly wind in the equatorial regions, confirming the generally accepted theory of atmospheric circulation. While the detailed observations are to be published in a special volume by Messrs. Teisserenc de Bort and Rotch, the general results of the investigation will, it is hoped, be embodied in an article which will appear in the columns of NATURE.
The first congress of the International Surgical Society was held from September 18–22 the Palais des Académies in Brussels under the patronage of King Leopold. A correspondent of the Times says that more than two hundred delegates attended, representing the following countries :-Great Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, the United States, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, Japan, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Sweden,
FIG. 2. Norway, Italy, Denmark, Greece, Finland, Rumania, Servia, and Egypt. The subjects discussed were of a purely by M. Boule in a few minutes from the great pile et technical order, and papers were read on the latest develop- refuse Aints are all the forms regarded as characteristic ment of surgical science. An interesting feature of the of eoliths. In particular, we find the bulb of percussion congress was an exhibition of the latest surgical appliances. present in more than one example; one of these, shown The delegates received a cordial welcome from the Govern- in Fig. 1, is remarkable for what would, in an artificial ment and municipal authorities and from their local colleagues. The last meeting of the congress was held on Saturday, September 23. During the session a congratulatory telegram was sent in the name of the society to Lord Lister on the great progress of surgery directly resulting from his antiseptic discoveries. It was resolved that the second congress should also be held in Brussels in 1908. Prof. V. Czerny, professor of surgery in the University of Heidelberg, was appointed president, and the various national committees were also nominated.
THE l'ictorian Naturalist announces the death of Mr. H. T. Tisdall, formerly president of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, and an active botanical teacher and investigator. In September, 1883, he contributed his first flint, be called " beauty of work" on one of the edges paper to the club, the title being A Botanical Excursion (Fig. 2); others, of which Fig. 3 is a good example, show in North Gippsland." Having to a great extent exhausted the notch, which, like the bulb of percussion, is commonly the phanerogams of the district, he was induced by Baron regarded as a criterion of human workmanship. From von Mueller to turn his attention to the cryptogams, with the rescarches of M. Boule, it seems that the eolith should
no longer be cited in proof of human antiquity greater where by aid of constant syringing they were induced to than can be assumed on other grounds. Eolithic forms bloom in a hothouse, when it was found that the petals may be due to human agency, but independent proof of are so arranged as to form a kind of penthouse for the the contemporary existence of man in the area in question protection of the central organs from the constant showeris henceforth indispensable.
bath existing in the “rain-forest." The latest issue (vol. viii., part i.) of the Transactions An important issue of the Palaeontologia Indica (Mem. of the Norfolk and Norwich Naturalists' Society contains a Geol. Survey of India) is devoted to the description of number of interesting papers, mostly dealing with the some recently discovered vegetable and vertebrate remains natural history and antiquities of the county. The papers from the permo-Carboniferous strata of the Vihi Valley, on local biology include one on the water-beetles of the fifteen miles to the south-east of the city of Srinagar, ** Broads" by Mr. F. B. Browne, another the Kashmir. The remains in question were discovered by hydrachnids of the same district by Mr. C. D. Soar, notes Noetling in beds apparently underlying the marine Kuling
the Yarmouth herring-fishery of last year by Mr. series (Permian) of the Kashmir Valley; and as they T. J. Wigg, lists of Norfolk lichens and liverworts by include a member of the “glossopteris flora ” of the Lower the Rev. E. N. Bloomfield, and an account of the rotisers Gondwana system of peninsular India, their discovery of the county by the Rev. R. Freeman.
serves to confirm the reference of these deposits to the
Upper Palæozoic. The plant remains, which are described We have received from Dr. E. M. Goeldi, director of the museum at Parà, a budget of separate copies of papers
by Mr. A. C. Seward, include only one generically deterby himself, published, with the exception of one, in the
minable type, namely, Gangamopteris, from the base of
the lower Gondwanas of the peninsula. The vertebrates, Comptes rendus of the sixth zoological congress held at
for the identification of which Dr. A. S. Woodward is Berne last summer. The one exception is from the Ibis
responsible, include a couple of species of the palæoniscid for April, and deals with the habits of a Brazilian tyrantbird (Myiopatis semifusca); this species, in place of being from Rhenish Prussia, and fragments of a labyrinthodont
ganoid genus Amblypterus, nearly allied to Lower Permian insectivorous, feeding on the fruits of a parasitic plant amphibian apparently referable to Archegosaurus, a genus and disseminating the seeds, thus causing harm to arbori
known elsewhere only from the last mentioned and culture. The other papers relate to rare animals from
equivalent formations. No reference is made the Amazonia, the yellow-fever mosquito (Stegomyia fasciata), labyrinthodont from the Lower Gondwanas of the peninsula and the habits of ants of the genus Atta.
described as Gondwanosaurus, but originally referred to We have received two new parts of the reports of the Archegosaurus. scientific results of the voyage of the Belgica, 1897-9,
In the third part of his contribution to the study of the issued at Antwerp. in one of which Prof. H. Leboucq
mischievous insects commonly known as leaf-hoppers and discusses the development of the flippers of Antarctic seals
their enemies, published at Honolulu as part iii. of the from the point of view of the evolution of the pinnipeds
first Bulletin of the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian in general, while in the second Mesdames Bommer and
Sugar-Planters' Association, Mr. R. C. L. Perkins furnishes Rousseau describe the funguses collected during the cruise,
some very interesting information with regard to the lifeall of which, with the exception of a single Antarctic history of the rasitic Stylopidæ (Strepsiptera). It appears specimen, were obtained from Tierra del Fuego. Judging that although the majority of these degraded beetles infest from the collection, the fungus-fauna of the latter area
bees and wasps, a certain number of species are parasitic appears to be a rich one of which but little is at present
on leaf-hoppers and other Homoptera, and it is the latter known. Prof. Leboucq's article is the first of a series on
that form the subject of the communication before us. the organogenie of the seals. In the case of both
Although death usually follows some time after being memoirs we may direct attention to the difficulty they
stylopised," many leaf-hoppers are able to procreate their present to recorders of biological literature, or, for that
kind after being badly affected by the parasites, especially matter, to anyone who desires to quote from them. They
if by females. The male stylopids, on account of the are respectively headed Zoologie " and Botanique,” | larger size of the puparia, are, however, much but, despite the fact that they are not the first issues of
speedily fatal to the leaf-hoppers, the hole left in the bodies those two series, each is separately paged, and neither
of the latter by the escaping insect being relatively large. bears any volume number. Consequently the whole title Moreover, a fungus immediately makes its appearance, with has to be quoted for reference purposes.
fatal effect, in the tube ; and in artificially infecting leafACCORDING to the report for the year ending in May hoppers with stylopids it is considered of the highest last, the Rhodesia Scientific Association, in the importance that the fungus should also be introduced. seventh year of its existence, continues to make satis- The report on economic zoology contributed by Prof. factory progress, both as regards the length of its roll Theobald, of Wye Agricultural College, to the college of members and in the work accomplished. With the journal for the year 1904-5 deals chiefly with the insect report we have received a copy of the fourth volume pests of field and garden crops, and on this important (1903-+) of the association's Proceedings, which contains subject gives great deal of useful information. a number of papers dealing with the biology and antiquities During the year Prof. Theobald dealt with about 1200 of the country, together with one on its soils. The communications, and his report contains descriptions of latter do not appear to be so promising as might have the most troublesome pests brought to his notice. Among been hoped, most of them possessing only a moderate the pests of fruit trees, the apple aphides Aphis pomi, degree of fertility, and none exhibiting that redundant A. sorbi, and A. fitchii were much the most destructive. growing capacity we are accustomed to associate with Prof. Theobald points out that these forms have been virgin lands. Perhaps the generally interesting wrongly described as a single species, A. mali, by previous paper is one on a new gladiolus which grows in the spray English writers. The aphides do great damage to young of the Victoria Falls, and has therefore been called the shoots, leaves, and blossoms, but it is apparently hopeless Maid of the Mist." Four bulbs were sent to England, to attempt to get rid of them by spraying in the usual
way in spring The only practical remedy, especially in many branches of knowledge the advance since that where the first two species are concerned, is to spray in date has been immense. It is therefore a matter for conautumn, and a heavy paraftin emulsion is recommended, gratulation that Dr. v. Neumayer has been able to supervis as injury to the leaves is not a serious matter at this the re-issue and gather around him so many able
The work is troublesome but effectual. In many coadjutors. cases it may be possible to collect and burn affected leaves in autumn, and this is recommended. Prunings should
A COMMISSION has been appointed by the Lieutenantalso be burnt before March. In the same report Prof.
Governor of the Transvaal to consider the question of the Theobald mentions a case in which honey-comb was de
safety of persons travelling in shafts. It will inquire into stroyed by the maggots of the window fly (Rhyphus
the structure, material, preservation, and examination of fenestralis). The window fly is a very common insect, but
winding ropes and the adaptability of safety catches. has never before been reported as an enemy of the bee, and
Messrs. PercivAL, MARSHALL AND Co. have published the case is mentioned as showing how a harmless insect
a useful little guide to standard screw threads and twist may suddenly change its habits and become a pest.
drills by Mr. George Gentry. Tables are given of the Two recent botanical parts, Nos. 9 and 11, of vol. xii.
Whitworth standard thread, the
British Association of the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and standard, bicycle screw threads, the V standard thread, Sciences deal with systematic work. In the one number the United States standard thread, the international Mr. B. L. Robertson collates some American Eupatorieæ, metric standard thread, watch and clock screws, and twist and Mr. J. M. Greenman presents a list of new flowering drills. The guide, which is published at od. net, is plants from Mexico and the south-western l'nited States.specially designed to meet the needs of the model engineer, In addition to the new species, Mr. Greenman proposes
and shows in a striking manner the necessity for the two new genera, Lozanella, near to Trema, of the order general adoption of standard threads as advocated in an Ulmaceæ, and Mimophytum, a borraginaceous genus allied article recently published in NATURE (August 31). to Omphalodes and Cynoglossum. The other part contains the sixth and last of the preliminary diagnoses by Prof.
THE current issue of the Bulletin de la Sociéta R. Thaxter on new species of Laboulbeniaceæ, a specialised d’Encouragement contains an important memoir by a group of minute ascomycetous fungi which live para- Swedish engineer, Mr. Hjalmar Braune, on the influence sitically on insects.
of nitrogen on iron and steel. That metalloid exerts an
influence more harmful even than that of phosphorus, and SEVERAL points of interest noted in a phyto- appears to be the chief cause of the fragility of mild steel. geographical sketch by Dr. L. Cockayne of the vegeta- Its presence in iron is not due to the direct combination tion of the two Open Bay islands, which lie close to the of the metal with the nitrogen of the air ; the intervention shore of South Westland, a county in the southern island of basic slag is necessary. Metal made by the Thomas and of New Zealand. Characteristic liane formations occur on Gilchrist process contains more nitrogen than steel made both islands; on the larger northerly island the dominant by the acid process, and this explains the inferiority liane is a screw-pine, Freycinetia Banksii, and in some generally ascribed to the former material. parts, Muehlenbeckia ad pressa, of the order Polyonaceæ, is associated with it or takes its place; on the smaller
The annual report on
the mineral resources of the island the Freycinetia is absent, and the Muehlenbeckia United States for 1903 has been issued under the able forms pure scrub or grows with a large-leaved variety of editorship of Dr. David T. Day. It forms a bulky volume l'eronica elliptica. The account appears
the Trans- of 1204 pages, and contains, in addition to statistics of actions of the New Zealand Institute (vol. xxxvii.), as also production, a large amount of descriptive and technical a list of newly-recorded habitats for New Zealand plants matter. In 1903, for the fourth time, the total value of the by the same writer. The identification of a Carex from
United States mineral production exceeded 200,000,000l.. Chatham Island, as a variety otherwise only recorded from
iron and coal being the most important of the mineral Patagonia, adds another to the list of plants which con- products. The United States in 1903 were the greatest nects the floras of New Zealand and South America.
producers of iron, coal, copper, lead, petroleum, and salt
in the world. Tin, it is interesting to note, has been At the age of four score years, Dr. v. Neumayer has the found in commercial quantities in South Carolina, and the satisfaction of issuing the third edition of his Anleitung mines were actively worked in 1903. The manufacture zu wissenschaftlichen Beobachtungen auf Reisen." It is of arsenious acid, a new industry in the United States, appearing in parts (Jaennecke, Hanover) at a price of is carried on at Everett, Washington. The production of 36 marks, and will comprise two volumes, the first deal. gypsum continues to show a remarkable increase, owing, ing with geography and inanimate nature, the second doubtless, to the use of plaster of Paris in large modern with plants, animals, and man. More than thirty experts buildings. There was, too, a notable increase in the proare collaborating under Dr. v. Neumayer's editorship, so duction of the ores of nickel, cobalt, chromium, tungsten. that each subject will be treated by an expert. The first molybdenum, vanadium, titanium, and uranium owing to two parts have already appeared, and contain articles on their use for steel-hardening purposes. A great advance geographical observations, directions for somatological in the lapidary industry is also reported. The fact that observations, anthropological questionnaire, which larger establishments have been formed, which are able seems to be identical with that issued by the Berlin to purchase the rough diamonds in greater quantities, has Museum for Africa, and, finally, the commencement of placed the American diamond-cutters in a position equal an excellent article by Dr. v. Luschan on field work in to that held by those of Amsterdam, Antwerp, and Paris archæology. No provision seems to be made for an article The cutting of American gems has also assumed large on a traveller's outfit or general hints; but it would not proportions, notably in the cases of the beryis a materially increase the size of the book to do so, and amethysts of North Carolina and Connecticut, and of the probably its general usefulness would be much increased turquoises, sapphires, tourmalines, chrysoprases, by the addition. The last edition appeared in 1888, and garnets of other States.
The Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruc- have, generally speaking, received little attention. In a tion for Ireland is publishing a series of Bulletins upon recent number of the Atti dei Lincei (vol. xiv., ii., p. 5) experimental science, and No. 4 of this series, relating to Prof. A. Battelli and A. Stefanini have brought forward, * Voltaic Electricity," has just been issued. It has been however, a number of facts which, if subsequently verified, prepared by Mr. James Comerton, and is a useful little are likely to prove insuperable objections to its validity. pamphlet of thirty pages with numerous illustrations. The A necessary consequence of Van 't Hoff's hypothesis is author states in the introduction that the experiments de- that isosmotic solutions should, under similar conditions, scribed are merely intended to introduce the student to be equimolecular ; but it is stated that several cases have the more systematic study of electrical measurements. been observed in which solutions possessing very different When the student has worked through the forty-three molecular concentrations are in osmotic equilibrium. The experiments described in this pamphlet, it is hoped that characteristic of these solutions is that they have equal he will have a fair general working knowledge of voltaic surface tensions, and it is contended that osmotic pressure electricity--its generation, measurements, and the purposes is essentially a capillary phenomenon. Osmosis would to which it can be applied. Primary cells, resistances, then be a tendency to equalise the surface tensions of the galvanometers, and voltameters are illustrated, and their liquids on the two sides of the membrane. The further use is described in these pages. The handbook should developments of the authors' experiments will be watched prove a useful addition to the literature of elementary with interest. electrical measurements.
An interesting lecture device for illustrating the superThe principal centres of the calcium carbide industry in position of simple harmonic motions of different periods France are in the Alps and Pyrenees. At present, accord- has been submitted to us by Mr. W. C. Baker, of the ing to a writer in the Journal of the Society of Arts, there School of Mining, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario. are eleven manufactories capable of producing 40,000 tons A horizontal bar (about 4 cm. deep and 15 cm. long) carries of calcium carbide annually. The total output sold during a pointer about 50 cm. long rigidly attached to it. This 1904 may be estimated at 18,000 tons. The average yield system, which must be as light as possible, is suspended of gas per unit of weight of carbide is about 40 gallons by two hinges which permit it to oscillate freely about per pound. The cost price per ton of calcium carbide in a horizontal axis. To the underside of the bar are Europe was estimated by Prof. Lefevre, of the École des attached two pendulums (100 cm. and 75 cm. long) the Sciences, Nantes, in 1897, at from 81. to rol. M. Pictet,
bobs of which are of equal mass, say 250 grams each. however, in the same year, thought that the product might If the pendulums be displaced together through an be made at the cost of a little more than 3l., by the use of, say, 15o and then released, the pointer will be set of a new furnace. Theoretically, said Prof. Lefevre, one vibrating through an arc which will vary from a maxipound of calcium carbide ought to produce, by its action
mum when the pendulums are in phase with one another upon water, about seven ounces of acetylene. It has been to very approximately zero when they are in opposition, stated by one of the most important of the French firms, thus illustrating the formation of beats. There is, of speaking of the production of 1904, that this was disposed course, no obvious relation between the amplitude of the of at 81. per ton, the standard accepted and declared being motion of the pointer and that of the pendulums; the about 40 gallons of gas per pound. The product at the
oscillations of the latter give rise to periodic forces upon factory realises 81. per ton, and the rate for the retail the horizontal bar, and the pointer indicates the resulting dealer is 141. These figures demonstrate the advances motion. We may point out that a somewhat analogous made in manufacturing since the publication of Prof.
device was shown by Lord Rayleigh during a recent course Lefevre's treatise in 1897.
of lectures at the Royal Institution. PROF. D'ARSONVAL describes in the Bulletin of the French
Le Radium for August contains various articles and Physical Society a new and simple form of apparatus
reviews on all the branches of radio-activity, together with manufactured by the Sociéié Française de l'Acétylène
a summary of current researches in this subject. dissous, which serves for the generation and automatic THE Revue Scientifique (September 9) contains compression of oxygen. The gas is generated by the com
interesting summary on trypanosomes and trypanosomiasis bustion within the compression cylinder of a combustible by Dr. Brumpt. In addition to the ordinary pathogenic substance mixed with potassium chlorate, the heat pro- forms, the trypanosomes of birds, reptiles, and fishes duced being sufficient to liberate the whole of the oxygen receive notice. from the chlorate. The largest form of apparatus, the
According to La Naturs (September 16), the ravages of industrial type, gives a production of about 60 cubic feet of oxygen per hour. A new form of oxyacetylene burner
the phylloxera in northern Spain are very serious, many is also described by means of which a very intense light
of the older vineyards being almost destroyed; and it is is produced by allowing the jet to impinge upon a suitable becoming a question whether it will not be necessary to mixture of the rare earths ; lime and magnesia are useless
substitute cereals and fruit for the vine in the affected
districts. for the purpose, as they are rapidly fused and channelled by the intense heat of the oxyacetylene flame.
THE Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital for During the past few years doubts have been expressed September (xvi., No. 174) contains an interesting historical
article on Cotton Mather's rules of health by Prof. William by several investigators, notably by Fitzgerald, Kahlenberg, Quincke, and Traube, of the correctness of Van 't
Thayer, together with papers of medical interest. Cotion Hoff's hypothesis that the osmotic pressure of solutions
Mather was a divine who was born in Boston in 1663, a is purely a kinetic phenomenon due to the impact of the
learned man with a remarkable literary style, and his molecules of the solute against a membrane impermeable
rules are often very quaint. to them. This hypothesis has been so fertile of results In the August number of the Journal of the Royal and is so intimately associated with the progress of modern Microscopical Society, Mr. Conrady writes on the applichemistry that any arguments of a subversive tendency cation of the undulatory theory to optical problems, and
II - II
notes are contributed by Mr. Nelson on the presence of
existence of the Nova whilst examining the Draper a flagellum at each end of the tubercle bacillus, by Lord memorial photographs on August 31. A photograph of
the spectrum, taken on August 18, shows the hydrogen Rayleigh on an optical paradox, and by Dr. Lazarus
lines H8, Hy, and HB bright and broad, also faint traces Barlow on a new form of hot stage. The usual summary of the bright bands at 1 4472 and 1 4646. On that date of current researches concludes this excellent quarterly. the magnitude of the Nova was about 6.5, on August 21
it was 7.5, whilst on August 26 it had fallen to 10.0. Yo Messrs. Charles GRIFFIN AND Co., Ltd., have published
trace of the Nova is visible on a plate taken on August 10, a sixth edition of Mr. Andrew Jamieson's Elementary although stars of magnitude 9.5 are shown thereon. A Manual of Magnetism and Electricity." Several additions plate taken with the Bruce telescope at Arequipa on have been made in this new edition.
August 15, with an exposure of four hours, contains
images of sixteenth-magnitude stars, but not of any object A KEY to the exercises in the second part of Mr. Pendle- which can be recognised as the Nova. bury's “ New School Arithmetic " has been prepared by A chart of the region, published by Prof. Wolf, shows the author and published by Messrs. George Bell and Sons.
the position of the Nova in regard to the star B.D.
-4°4663, and further shows that the Nova occupies a posiThe price of the “ Key” is 8s. 6d. net.
tion between two spaces which are void of stars down Messrs. SMITH, ELDER AND Co. have published a sixth
to the fifteenth magnitude. edition of Marshall and Hurst's “ Junior Course of
EPHEMERIS OF THE VARIABLE ASTEROID (167) L'RDA.-In Practical Zoology.' The new edition has been revised
No. 4047 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Herr A. throughout by Dr. F. W. Gamble, who has also added Berberich publishes an ephemeris for the asteroid l'rda, short accounts of Monocystis, Coccidium, and Obelia.
which Dr. Palisa recently showed to be variable.
The following is an extract from this ephemeris, which The following popular science lectures will be given was calculated from the elements published in the “ Jahrat the Royal Victoria Hall, Waterloo Bridge Road, S.E.,
buch and for 12h. M.T. Berlin :during next month :-October 3, A Journey of Surprises : 1905
log 2 through Yunnan to Tonquin,” Mrs. Archibald Little ; October 10,
22 13 is
0:3 ... 0'4463 ... 0'2875 October 17, The Plants of Other Days : what their
6 22 10 36
9'9 Fruits and Seeds were Like," Mr. H. E. H. Smedley ;
0'4467 ... Oʻ3044 October 24, “My Cruise Around Spain and Portugal,"
Observations made on August 31 and September 5 gave Mr. F. W. Gill.
corrections to the above of +45. and 70'.8. Messrs. Philip HARRIS AND Co., LTD., Birmingham,
The following figures indicate the changes of magnihave just issued the third edition of their valuable cata
tude which were observed during the period July 30logue of scientific instruments required in all departments
September 5:of instruction or research in physics. The volume con
Aug. 31 Sept. 5 tains five hundred pages
13.0 and is lavishly illustrated, a large number of the pictures representing new instruments The l'LTRA-VIOLET CHROMOSPHERIC SPECTRUM.-. At the or new methods of illustrating the principles of physical total eclipse of 1900 M. H. Deslandres devoted his attenscience. Many manuals and text-books of physics used
tion to two special researches, of which the first was to in schools have been consulted, and novel forms of
obtain the ultra-violet spectrum of the “ reversing layer,
and the second to obtain a great number of plates showing apparatus described in them are now made by Messrs.
the bright lines, in order to detect the changes which Harris, and appear in the present catalogue. The volume might take place in the chromosphere in the interval is well bound, and should be very useful for reference by between the second and third contacts. teachers of physics in schools and colleges. No doubt it In the first research he was successful, and obtained a will find a permanent place on the bookshelves of many
duplicate series of plates showing the bright spectrum laboratories and lecture-rooms.
between 1 3000 and 1 5000. The first series was obtained with a prismatic camera of i metre focal length, the
second with a camera of half this focal length. The OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
prisms employed were of 60° angle, and were made of
Iceland spar, whilst the objectives were made up of an ASTRONOMICAL OCCURRENCES IN OCTOBER :
achromatic combination of quartz and fluorspar. Oct. I. 8h. 52m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei).
The general results obtained from the reduction of one 5h. 41m.
of the larger negatives, which was exposed for two seconds & 9h. "Mars in conjunction with Uranus (Mars 1° 48' S.). at second contact, are given in No. 9 (August 28) of the Saturn. Major axis of ring = 42":28, Minor axis =
Comptes rendus, and deal only with the 157 lines photo8":46.
graphed between 1 3400 and 4 3066. The chief character14. 15h. Mars in conjunction with a Sagittarii (mag. istic of the spectrum in this region, as in the less re2-9), Mars 0° 7' N.
frangible region already known, is the predominance of Illuminated portion of disc =0.868, of Mars
" enhanced " titanium lines. In fact, M. Deslandres states =o 861.
that, considered as a whole, the spectrum is that of the 19-22. Epoch of October meteoric shower (Radiant titanium spark. Vanadium and chromium are representrd 92° +15°).
by lines of less intensity, whilst the iron lines are extremely 6h. 5im. to Sh. 12m. Transit of Jupiter's Sat. III.
weak, the enhanced lines being considered in each case. (Ganymede).
The coronal radiations are represented on two other 10h. 35m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei).
negatives by well defined lines at a 3329.6, 33880, and 23.
18h. 24m. to 19h. 30m. Moon occults Leonis 3447-7, the last having the greatest intensity. The same (mag. 3:8).
negatives, which were exposed for fifteen and thirty 24. 7h. 23m. Minimum of Algol (B Persei).
seconds respectively, show several prominences, and here, 27. Ioh. 15m. to nih. 35m. Transit of Jupiter's Sat. III.
again, the spectrum of titanium predominates, (Ganymede).
The “chronophotographe,” an instrument for photo31. Uranus in conjunction with Sagittarii (mag. 5-3).
graphing from six to ten spectra per second at the two
contacts, was less successful, the vibration produced by Nova AQUILÆ.—Further news concerning Nova Aquila | its manipulation spoiling the definition. M. Deslandres No. 2 is published in No. 4047 of the Istronomische gives the details of the instrument, and points vut its Nachrichten. It appears that Mrs. Fleming discovered the probable efficiency if suitably mounted.