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He points out that the bands of the substance in solution which without doubt correspond with those of the vapour are all shifted towards the red, as might be expected, but that the shift appears to be greater the smaller the wave-lengths of the absorbed rays. The comparison of Baly and Collie's numbers with those of Hartley and Dobbie is very interesting in this connection, inasmuch as they show a close general agreement in their divergence from the measurements of Friederichs. Furthermore, the following points may be noted :

First, the omission of the second band in Hartley and Dobbie's spectrum; second, the omission of the eighth band by Baly and Collie; third, there is a close agreement between Hartley and Dobbie's and Baly and Collie's numbers in the first, fifth, sixth, and seventh bands, but the two sets of measurements for the third and fourth bands differ more widely than the others.

It may be mentioned that the second very narrow band is visible on the photographs taken by Hartley and Dobbie, though it can scarcely be considered as measurable; no doubt a longer exposure would have rendered it more plainly. Those who have measured similar series of bands in the visible region, for example, those in the spectrum of potassium permanganate, which are also eight in number, will appreciate the close approximation of the above figures.


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The Celtic Pony.

IN a review, signed "R. L.," of "The Færdes and Iceland," in NATURE of September 21 (p. 506), I was surprised to read that I had credited Prof. Ewartwith being the first to regard Przewalsky's horse as a variety of Equus caballus." I have just re-read the paragraph relating to the wild horse in my Appendix on the Celtic Pony, and I can find no passage which, it seems to me, could by any possibility be made to bear this strange construction.

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Sanson's subspecies E. c. hibernicus appears to include all the various ponies of the British Isles, the Breton in France, as well as the horses of Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. It has been recognised for some time past that the Icelandic horses are of two different types, while the Swedish horses are admittedly very mixed. Moreover, as a result of a recent tour in Norway, it has become evident to me that there are in that country at least two distinct kinds of native horses (represented by the pure fjord horse and the Gudbrandsdal horse). In view of these considerations, the statement that the Celtic pony is "probably inseparable" from the somewhat heterogeneous assemblage (as it now appears to be) included under E. c. hibernicus becomes a little obscure. But, as "R. L." points out, I did not make this statement. I grant, however, that it might have been better had I made some allusion to this


But why I should have been expected in an

Appendix on the Celtic Pony to have entered into a discussion as to the proper technical name to apply to E. przewalskyi or to have recorded an irrelevant criticism of Prof. Ridge way's new name of E. c. libycus, I am at a loss to understand. FRANCIS H. A. MARSHALL The University, Edinburgh, September 24.



HE archæologist justly ranks himself as a contributor to the world's knowledge on the same level as those who discover previously unknown forces in nature or new facts in the life-history of animals, extinct or living. Archæology, which is a branch of the great science of anthropology, discovers and correlates new facts in the early history of civilisation. Greek archæological discovery must always be of most especial interest, since it tells us of the origins of that early civilisation of the Mediterranean basin from which our present-day culture is derived. One of the most welcome yearly publications dealing with the subject is the "Annual of the British School at Athens," the tenth volume of which lies before us. It deals with the British work of 1903-4, besides containing independent articles on matters of archaological interest.

Dr. Arthur Evans's work at Knossos does not occupy so much space in the "Annual" as usual. The discoveries of the year, while most interesting, were not so new and epoch-making as those of former years, and the chief find, the tombs of "Ja'fàr's Papoúra" (rov Thapèp ý Пlarоupa) and Isópata, are described by Dr. Evans in a separate communication to Archaeologia. The first-named tombs, on a hill north of the Knossian palace, were of various types; (1) chamber-tombs approached by a dromos; "in many cases these contained clay coffins, in which the dead had been deposited in cists, their knees drawn towards the chin"; (2) shaft-graves; (3) pit-caves, "or pits giving access to a walled cavity in the side below." In 2 and 3 the skeletons were extended at full length. On the hill of Isópata, about tun miles north of Ja'far's Papoúra, a very fine tomb, no doubt that of a king, was found, with a smaller one by its side. The larger consisted of a square chamber of limestone blocks, eight metres by six, “ with the 1 "The Annual of the British School at Athens," No. x. Session 1903-4(London: Macmillan and Co., Ltd.)


side walls arching in Cyclopean fashion towards a high gable," which had long ago been quarried away. The lofty entrance-hall was approached by an imposing rock-cut dromos. "In the floor of the main chamber was a pit-grave covered with slabs. Its contents had been sifted for metal objects in antiquity, but a gold hairpin, parts of two silver vases, and a large bronze mirror remained to attest the former wealth of such. A large number of other relics were found scattered about, including repeated clay impressions of what may have been a royal seal. Specially remarkable among the stone vessels is a porphyry bowl of Minoan workmanship, but recalling in material and execution those of the Early Egyptian Dynasties. Many imported Egyptian alabastra were also found, showing the survival of Middle Empire forms besides others of Early Eighteenth Dynasty type. Beads of lapis lazuli also occurred, and pendants of the same material, closely imitating Egyptian models. Four large painted jars with three handles illustrate the fine architectonic' style of the Later Palace of Knossos, in connexion with which the great sepulchral monument must itself be brought."


The form of this square-chambered mausoleum is unique, and may be compared as a contrast with the tholos or beehive tombs of the Greek mainland. Evans says that he was tempted to recognise in it the traditional tomb of Idomeneus, but that the other tomb near by, which is cut in the rock, is hardly considerable enough to be taken for that of Meriones, which tradition placed beside the other. Nevertheless, Dr. Evans's identification may be correct; the important tomb on the slope of the hill looking towards Knossos and Herakleion would naturally be identified by the later Greeks as the resting-place of one of the greatest heroes of the

In the palace itself interesting finds were made. A section cut in the western court enabled more accurate notes of the stratification of the ancient remains to be made, resulting in a further subdivision of the Minoan period and a more accurate placing of the polychrome ("Kamáres") pottery as belonging to the stratum "Middle Minoan II." The Kamáres pottery is known by Egyptian evidence to be contemporary with the twelfth dynasty. The palace as it stands is late Minoan, which corresponds with the Egyptian evidence, which dates the Keftians who brought vases of the grand Knossian style to Egypt as contemporary with the eighteenth dynasty. Beneath the Minoan strata was found a deep Neolithic stratum going down to the virgin rock. From the modern surface of the ground to the base of "Early Minoan I." (the sub-Neolithic period) measures 5 m. 33 cm. in depth; the Neolithic stratum is 6 m. 43 cm. The date B.C. of the eighteenth dynasty and the late Minoan palace is roughly 1500; that of the twelfth dynasty and Middle Minoan II. about 2200. "Middle Minoan II." is 2 m. 50 cm. below the surface; the virgin rock is 7 m. 75 cm. From this the great age of human settlement at Knossos will be seen at a glance. A peculiarity of the Knossian site is that the late Minoan remains are found almost


FIG. 1. Two polychrome vessels of the Middle Minoan Period. From the Palace at Knossos.

island, and any other tomb close by, whether it were as large as the first or not, would then be dubbed the grave of his legendary companion.

Another interesting discovery was made outside the limits of the palace in the shape of a Minoan paved way leading due west from the "Stepped Theatral Area" discovered in 1903 towards the modern road to Candia. By the side of this were found magazines with interesting deposits of inscribed tablets apparently referring to the contents of the ancient royal stables and armouries; chariots, wheels, and yokes are pictured on them, and large numbers of arrows. Close by were found bundles of the very arrows mentioned on the tablets. A later Roman causeway overlay part of this road, but this was evidently merely a coincidence, for that the knowledge of the old road was lost after the close of the Minoan period is shown by the fact that during the early Hellenic ("Geometrical ") age a well was sunk over the old Minoan way and driven right through it. This is a very interesting proof of the entire break in culture between the Mycenæan and "Geometrical" peoples in Crete, and is a strong argument in the armoury of those who believe that the Minoans or Mycenaeans were not Greeks in our sense of the word at all, but a totally different race probably of non-Indo-European speech.

immediately beneath the modern surface of the ground. This points to the place having been kept clear of later buildings, the tradition of its sanctity and heroic associations having always persisted.

An earlier western façade of the central court was also discovered, and further cists belonging to the first period of the later palace, in the magazines. The discovery of fragments of reliefs in these cists (one of them, representing the head of a charging bull, was identified by one of the workmen as a portrait of the devil) led Dr. Evans to suppose the existence of upper halls, to which the reliefs had belonged, above the magazines. These halls seem undoubtedly to have existed, and a ramp led up to them from the "Stepped Theatral Area."

These are all very interesting results, and show how much there is still to be discovered at Knossos. The excavations of the British School at Athens at Palaíkastro are described by Messrs. Dawkins and Currelly. The remains of a shrine of the Cretan snake-goddess (analogous to those at Knossos and Gournia) were found, besides some interesting larnaxburials. Mr. Dawkins gives a careful analysis of the pottery found in the town ruins, and a very useful comparative table of the strata of the Minoan period, with illustrative examples from Cretan and nonCretan sites (p. 195). Mr. H. R. Hall publishes a

photograph of an important Egyptian tomb-painting depicting Minoan ambassadors bringing rare vases of Cretan workmanship to the court of Queen Hatasu or Hatshepsu at Thebes.

In connection with the point raised anent the Minoan way, already described, at Knossos, that there was a great gap in history between the last (presumably non-Aryan) Minoans and the first (Aryan) Hellenes, we may note that Mr. R. S. Conway returns to the charge in defence of the "Arvanism of the Minoans in another article on the Eteocretan inscriptions of classical times, which he considers to represent the speech of the Minoan Cretans. There is no proof of this whatever, and even if Mr. Conway were to succeed in proving the Indo-European character of this late "Eteocretan " language up to the hilt, this would not in the least shake our conviction that the old Minoans spoke a non-Indo-European tongue. The craniological and archæological evidence must be taken into consideration as well as the philological, which can apparently be twisted into meaning anything that the investigator wishes. The craniologist assigns the Minoans to the "Mediterranean " race, to which the ancient Egyptians also belonged; and the archæologist brings the Minoan and Egyptian cultures back almost to a common origin. Further, Mr. Conway's idea goes counter to those of many of the philologists themselves, especially Kretschmer, whose view that the præ-Hellenic speech of Greece was non-Aryan agrees with the results of craniological and archæological research, and is generally accepted


This completes the list of articles dealing directly or indirectly with the Minoan or Mycenæan antiquities, the relics of the prehistoric culture of Greece.

Mr. Dawkins contributes an interesting philological article, entitled "Notes from Karpathos," describing the linguistic phenomena of that little known island, which he visited two years ago. The dialect seems to be more divergent from that of Crete than might have been expected. It presents all the peculiar dialectical phenomena of the Southern Ægean. Such pronunciations as "hyaloshorzho (xyaλošopžo) for Kalox@piov, which strike one so forcibly in Crete, are well represented. Aberrant grammatical forms are not uncommon. The old third plural in -σ(v) survives. Here we have a considerable difference from Cretan practice, which prefers third plural in- ve: "they went," in Cretan puyave, is in Karpathian épuyarı(v), and "they are walking," Cretan TaTouve, is in Karpathian arouσ(v), which sounds quite "Attic." This is an interesting survival. Articles of this kind are of great use and value.

Mr. M. N. Tod and Mr. E. S. Forster add contributions to epigraphic scholarship, and the latter also describes Laconian topography and archæological sites. Mr. A. J. B. Wace has an article on Greek grotesque figures as charms against the evil eye. The modern Hellenes wear charms in the shape of little silver or coral figures of hunchbacks (gobbi or gobbetti) for the same purpose.


Dr. Schäfer's German article on "Altägyptische Pflüge, Joche," is apparently published in "Annual on account of the ancient Egyptian basket figured on p. 140, which is of the same type as the Greek liknon, discussed by Miss Jane Harrison in her note on the "Mystica Vannus Iacchi," which follows. Otherwise one would have thought that its proper place would have been found in an Egyptological publication. The Berlin Museum has a large collection of ancient Egyptian agricultural implements, which are, however, of course all, with the exception of a fine plough and the basket aforesaid, of well known types equally well represented in other museums. H. R. HALL.


ETTERS from local correspondents in South
Africa have just brought us some notes upon the
recent meeting of the British Association. During
the progress of the meeting several cablegrams which
appeared in the Times were summarised in these
columns, so that many of the matters mentioned by
our correspondents have already been recorded. Dr.
J. D. F. Gilchrist has sent us an account of the part of
the proceedings of the association at Cape Town, and
the following particulars in so far as they are con
nected with Cape Town are from his communication.
As, following our usual custom, we have arranged
with officers of the sections for reports of the proceed-
ings at sectional meetings, it is unnecessary now to
give any account of these meetings.

Dr. Gilchrist states that as early as August 6 some of the British Association visitors began to arrive in Cape Town by the Tintagel Castle; eighteen more arrived on August 8 by the Kildonan Castle, and fortythree by the Durham Castle on August 12. The main body, however (eighty-six), including most of the official party, arrived by the Saxon on Tuesday, August 15.

The voyage of the main party was favoured by excellent conditions of weather, and the usual routine of life and entertainments on board was diversified by lectures by members on appropriate subjects of interest, and in one or two cases by scientific work, such as the collecting of plankton and temperature observations of sea and air. A few advance copies of "Science in South Africa," a handbook prepared on the occasion of the visit, were on board, and afforded some insight into the scientific work and problems engaging the attention of South Africans.

On arrival at Cape Town Docks the passengers were transferred to the train waiting alongside, and about 10 a.m. on August 15 arrived at the main station, where they were met by the mayor, the hospitality committee, and others. The council of the association met at 12 noon and the general meeting at 2 p.m., and the formal business was quickly got through.

The details of the somewhat extensive programme were in an advanced state of preparation, the general plan and coordination of the whole having been undertaken by a central organising committee for South Africa, the local details by the several reception committees at the seven local centres to be visited. These local committees were subdivided into entertainment, hospitality, excursions, and finance subcommittees.

Great assistance was rendered by Mr. Silva White. assistant secretary of the British Association, who arrived some weeks before the first meeting and took over the general direction of, and responsibility for the arrangements. He arranged for the services of four assistant secretaries, who were instructed as to the details to be carried out on certain sections of the programme allotted to them, an arrangement which was fully justified by the subsequent results.

The formal business of the association commenced with the presidential address, which was delivered on the evening of August 15 in the City Hall, which had just been completed in time for the meeting. The work of the various sections began the following day, and occupied the mornings from Wednesday, August 16, to Friday, August 18, half the sectional work being transacted at Cape Town and half at Johannesburg,

In the afternoon of August 16 there was a large attendance at the Governor's garden party, and in the evening the Mayor met the visitors at a reception in the City Hall.

A large number of papers were read on the mornings of the two following days. As a special feature of the papers and presidential addresses was their bearing on South African questions, exceptional interest was taken in the sectional proceedings.

The following excursions were made on August 17-(1) botanical excursion to the Kloof Nek; (2) visit to Groote Schuur for lady members of the British Association by invitation of the Loyal Women's Guild of South Africa; (3) visit to the Central Electric Station of the Cape Town Corporation.

In the evening a lecture was given in the City Hall before a crowded audience on "W. J. Burchell's Discoveries in South Africa, by Prof. E. B. Poulton, F.R.S.

The afternoon of August 18 was devoted to excursions; and a reception was held by Sir David and Lady Gill at the Royal Observatory. In the evening a lecture was given in the City Hall on Some Surface Actions of Fluids" by Mr. C. V. Boys, F.R.S.

Saturday, August 19, was devoted entirely to the following excursions :-(1) geological excursion; (2) Wellington; (3) De Beers Explosive Works; (4) Houts Bay; (5) Groot Constantia and Tokai; (6) Robben Island; (7) Stellenbosch; (8) Admiralty Works at Simons Town and Marine Station at St. James; (9) Table Mountain vid Saddle Face; (10) Table Mountain vid Wynberg; (11) Table Mountain via Kasteel Poort.

Dr. W. Flint (librarian to the Houses of Parliament), who accompanied the association throughout its entire journey, has undertaken to send NATURE some account of the Natal, Johannesburg, and Rhodesian proceedings. The following notes from a letter just received, with the promise of a further instalment by the next mail.


On the termination of the meeting in Cape Town the main body of the members of the association proceeded to Durban in the Union Castle steamers Saxon and Durham Castle. The former steamer left the docks on Friday evening, August 18, and its passengers were debarred from taking part in the numerous Cape Town excursions which had been arranged for the Saturday. The Saxon passengers had, however, the advantage of brief visits to Port Elizabeth and East London, at each of which ports of call a few hours were spent, and hospitality was tendered by the mayor and citizens. The Durham Castle proceeded direct to Durban, and, making a record passage, arrived a little in advance of the mail steamer. A party of some thirty persons elected to proceed to Durban overland in one of the trains provided by the Cape Government, which was proceeding to Durban to meet the steamers. A special geological excursion through the Hex River Pass on to the Karroo captured a few enthusiasts, who, under the guidance of Mr. A. W. Rogers, of the Cape Geological Survey, spent a few days which proved to be of great interest. These members necessarily had to deprive themselves of the pleasure of the Natal section of the tour. The trip overland to Durban, which occupied four nights and three days, was unanimously voted a great success, and as several of the passengers are proceeding to England by Beira and the east coast, the opportunity of seeing the Karroo was much appreciated.

The two days spent in Durban and the neighbour

sponded. A garden party generously given by Sir Benjamin Greenacre, for which very elaborate preparations had been made, was partly spoiled by a heavy thunderstorm, but large numbers braved the downpour and were rewarded by seeing a few of the glories of the Berea.

Two lectures were given in Durban to very large audiences. Mr. Douglas W. Freshfield discoursed on Mountains-the Highest Himalaya,' and Prof. W. A. Herdman on “ Marine Biology.


The second day in Durban was occupied chiefly with excursions. Perhaps the first place was taken by the entertainment provided by the Hon. Marshall Campbell at the Mount Edgecombe Sugar Estate. contrast afforded by a Zulu war dance and a demonstration by Christian native girls was an object lesson which many were glad to have seen.

The excursion to Umkomaas was scarcely less enjoyed, the romantic subtropical scenery being a revelation to many of those who were privileged to be present. The botanists especially seemed to revel in the opportunity, the wealth of Strelitzias in their native habitat being particularly attractive. On Thursday morning, August 24, the whole party left in four trains, to be known henceforth as A, B, C, and D trains, and arrived about mid-day in Maritzburg. The journey is one of the most attractive in South Africa, passing in its earlier stages through sugar, banana, and pine-apple plantations, and ascending rapidly to the Botha Hill heights, from which views of singular extensiveness and beauty are obtained. On reaching Maritzburg admirably complete arrangements were found to have been made, and members found themselves welcomed with great cordiality by Mr. A. W. Kershaw, the Mayor, and a host of willing citizens who had thrown themselves with great zeal into their task.

His Excellency Colonel Sir H. E. McCallum held a garden party at Government House which was a very successful function, and in the evening the Town Hall was thronged when His Excellency and the Mayor gave addresses of welcome. Colonel Bruce followed with a lecture on "Sleeping Sickness " which created great interest.

On the following day there were visits to the Government experimental farm and the Government laboratory, but it is to be feared that these were somewhat overshadowed by the Kafir dance and wedding which took place at Henley. The wedding was that of a young hereditary chief, and was preceded by the various dances and ceremonies customary on such an occasion. Never, probably, were so many photographs taken on a single day in Natal. The cameras were legion, and some of the photographers were not content with less than two or three dozen of pictures.

In the evening the young Natalian member of the official party, Mr. H. D. Ferrar, by special request, gave a lecture on "Antarctic Regions,' " he having been a member of the Discovery Antarctic Expedition.

Both in Durban and Maritzburg all members of the association had free use of the municipal trams, and nothing was left undone to ensure the comfort and enjoyment of the visitors, who in their turn were loud in their praises of the reception accorded.


avalanches undertaken by the Forestry Department of Savoy during 1904 on the south-west flank of Mont Blanc is contained in a paper entitled "Observations sur l'Enneigement et sur les Chutes d'Avalanches," issued by the Commission française des Glaciers (Paris: Club Alpin français). The

of the mayor and his numerous helpers having prohood were very fully occupied, the hospitable ideas A RECORD of observations on snowfall and vided a very attractive programme. Tuesday morning, August 22, was occupied in settling down and taking the bearings of the town, and early in the afternoon a public welcome was tendered by the mayor, Mr. Henwood, to which Prof. Darwin re

saper is a continuation by M. Mougin of his report of June, 1903, and deals with the results obtained from the seven instruments placed at appointed stations between the village of Houches and the Aiguille du Goûter. Unfortunately, the snow-gauge placed on the Aiguille du Goûter was destroyed by a party of young students from Geneva who attempted the ascent of Mont Blanc without guides in 1902. On the Tête-Rousse, again, the instrument was found completely empty; fortunately, however, the platform snow-recorder, placed on the glacier, enabled an estimate of the snowfall to be made.

The general results derived from the records of these seven stations show that between 1000 metres and 3200 metres the snowfall increases with altitude, but the results are not altogether satisfactory. Thus the record at 2100 metres gives a fall equivalent to 0.3194 mm. of water only, whereas the stations above and below show falls of 1.848 mm. and 0.491 mm. respectively.

Even if the upper station is excessive, the station above at 2850 metres at the Pierre-Rondestill shows an increase, being 0.4461 mm.; it is possible, therefore, that the mouth of the instrument has become blocked by a film of verglas. With regard to the large fall recorded at 2550 metres, it is possible that here we have the altitude at which the greatest precipitation takes place. The loss of the instrument at the summit of the Aiguille du Goûter is all the more to be regretted on this account, as it would undoubtedly have thrown light on this point, and it is to be hoped that the instrument may speedily be replaced

The report gives a detailed description of the instruments used. These consisted of horizontal boards placed one metre above the ground, and also of Vallot's snow-gauges of a modified design.

Comparative experiments were made during the winter at Chambéry between the official rain-gauge, the Vallot tubes, and the snow-table. The results are expressed in tables and by curves. No useful comparisons could be made between the rain-gauge and the Vallot tubes, but the results obtained with the latter instrument are compared with those obtained with the snow-table, and are expressed both in depth of snow and amount of water melted. The small number of snowstorms during the winter of 1902-3 was also unfavourable to any definite conclusion being arrived at; further experiments are required. . The report ends with tables showing the snowfall and number of avalanches which fell in Savoy during 1902, also the damage done to forests, roads, and water-courses, and accidents to men and animals.

Another report received from the Commission française des Glaciers deals with the observations by M. Paul Girardin on the glaciers of Maurienne, Vanoise, and Tarentaise during August and September, 1903, and also with the glaciers of the massif of La Vanois in 1903, by J. A. Favre (Extrait de l'Annuaire du Club Alpin français, vol. xxx., 1903). M. Girardin arrives at the conclusion that these glaciers are retreating, the amount varying in different glaciers and even in different lobes of the same glacier. The general law is, therefore, complicated by local shade, &c. Retreat is most marked where surface moraines are absent, while those covered thickly with débris are more stationary. The rate of retreat has, however, diminished during the

last ten years.

In the massif of the Vanoise we find the same story. Glaciers like the Grands-Couloirs, Pelvoz, &c., are all losing in thickness. In the case of the Pelvoz a new medial moraine has appeared owing to the marked ablation, while a glacier marked on the map north of the Col d'Aussois has completely disappeared. E. J. G.


Second and Third Meetings.'

AMONG the various points brought under notice,

the president, Dr. Pernter, stated that M. Violle wished that his proposals made to the meeting at Southport on the question of solar radiation should be discussed. After considerable deliberation, it was resolved that the principal observatories should be requested to make observations of solar and terrestrial radiation. Measurements should be made daily, those of solar radiation at 11h. a.m. or from 11h. a.m. to 1h. p.m., and those of terrestrial radiation at 10h. p.m. or from Ioh. p.m. to 12h. p.m. The apparatus used should be exclusively Angström's compensation actinometer,

Upon the subject of excessive rainfall, Dr. Landa, of the k.k. hydrographisches Central-Bureau (Vienna), proposed (1) that meteorological offices should be invited to inquire into the causes of origin of cases of excessively heavy rainfall over large areas, including those which have already occurred, and any that may occur in future, in the districts under their supervision, and to publish the results of their investigations, and (2) that it should be recognised as useful to investigate the historical documents of various countries for particulars of abnormal meteorological occurrences, such as floods, droughts, very severe winters, &c., and to classify and publish the results

of their researches.

The classification of meteorological stations, according to the nature of the work carried out, was referred to the International Meteorological Committee, as was also the definition of such phenomena as hoarfrost, silver-thaw, glazed frost, &c.

On the important question of long series of homogeneous observations, necessary for the study of secular variations, the conference adopted Dr. Hellmann's proposal that central meteorological offices should establish in their respective organisations one or more secular stations, according to the extent of the country, and should carry on the observations as uniformly and continuously as possible. At the same time, the conference expressed the hope that old series of observations might be critically discussed and published.

On the proposal of M. Rosenthal, the conference requested General Rykatcheff to undertake, on the part of the Central Physical Observatory, St. Petersburg, the publication of a summary of the results of observations made during the last century. Dr. Hellmann was requested to assist in the preparation of this useful work.



Prof. von Bezold raised the question of the status of the conferences of directors, and of the International Meteorological Committee; he thought they should maintain official character, so far possible, and that the number of meetings should be as few as practicable. After considerable discussion a proposal by Dr. Hellmann was adopted, viz. that the conference should request the International Meteorological Committee to draw up a standing order relating to the International Meteorological Organisation, at the same time taking note of the historical development of the committee. This rule. dealing with conferences of directors, the international. committee, and the subcommittees, should be submitted to the next conference of directors for discussion.

M. Froc made a communication respecting the organisation of the meteorological service of the 1 An account of the opening meeting appeared in NATURE of Septem 21 (p. 510).

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