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Chinese Maritime Customs. We have not yet received be requested to place their observations at the disposal of the protocol of the last meeting, but we may state the said institution. that it included reports of the various commissions.

(3) In the case of investigations which have not yet been With regard to the Solar Commission appointed in

thus collected and coordinated, special committees specially 1903, complete arrangements were made for bringing

nominated by the union shall be charged with the work of together all data necessary for the study of simul

preparing and carrying out the needful cooperation. taneous solar and terrestrial changes. Letters had

L (4) It is proposed forthwith to organise such cooperation been received from Prof. Hale and M. Deslandres

in two branches of research :

(a) The study of the spectra of sun-spots. placing their photospectroscopic results at the disposal (b) The study of the records, by means of the H and K of the commission.

light, of the phenomena of the solar atmosphere.

(5) The committee lays special stress on the fact that,

notwithstanding the obvious utility of cooperation in certain * INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR COOPERATION

cases, individual initiative is the chief factor in a very large

number. It is as much the duty of the union to encourage IN SOLAR RESEARCH.

original researches as to promote cooperation. AT last the importance of solar research is assert.

Much time was spent in discussing the constitun ing itself, even in the minds of some who in the past have shown it scant favour.

tion of the union, and several committees were It is not a little

appointed. There were most interesting discussions remarkable that during last month two international bodies held meetings, both of them concerned with

on solar radiation, Prof. Angström describing his solar observations, the one, the Solar Commission,

instrument which has now been taken as the established in 1903, which met at Innsbruck, dealing

standard, and we may add that as this subject is also with them in relation to the meteorological changes

dealt with by the International Meteorological Comon the earth, the other, the Solar Union, established

mittee, Prof. Ångström has been appointed chairman in 1904, which met at Oxford, dealing with the

of the committees appointed by both organisations. physics of the sun itself. There is thus fortunately

The executive is to consist of a committee with Prof. a sharp-cut line between these two efforts to advance

Schuster as chairman, and a “computing bureau" is our knowledge, and we hope that both bodies will suggested at Oxford in charge of Prof. Turner, which ultimately find out the best ways of doing this. In

is to deal, if necessary, with classes of observations a preliminary circular we read :

not already provided for. The number of international organisations having con

The next meeting is to be held at Meudon in two

years' time. siderably increased lately, it is desirable that overlapping of the work of different organisations should be avoided as much as possible. As far as solar research is concerned, a committee on questions dealing with radiation and the

NOTES. connection of solar and terrestrial phenomena has been We notice with much regret that Sir William Wharton, appointed by the International Meteorological Committee. K.C.B., F.R.S., died at Cape Town on September 29 from It will probably be found advisable to omit for the present the investigation of the relation of the sun-spot cycle to

enteric fever and pneumonia, at sixty-two years of age. meteorological phenomena from the programme of the

We regret to see, in the Athenaeum, the announcement union; but the question of the solar constant being of fundamental importance must form from the beginning an

of the death, in his sixty-ninth year, of Dr. W. von Bezold, essential portion of its work. The astronomical and

professor of physics and meteorology at the University of meteorological aspects of solar radiation are, however, very Berlin, and director of the German Meteorological Institute. different, and there is no reason to doubt that some arrangement can be made by which the efforts of the

The death is announced of Dr. A. H. Japp, author of Meteorological Committee and those of the Union on Solar a life of Thoreau, several works on natural history, and Research may be united.

“ Darwin and Darwinism." We have not yet received the official protocols of the The International Congress on Tuberculosis was opened Oxford meeting, but some points may be referred to.

at Paris on Monday, October 2, by the President of the The meeting was well attended, the following foreign

French Republic. Dr. Hérard, the president of the men of science being present :-Prof. K. Angström, Acad. Sci. (Stockholm); Prof. A. Belopolski, Acad.

congress, gave an address on international medical conSci. (St. Petersburg); Fr. Cirera, Ast. Soc. of France;

gresses, and the services which they have rendered in the Cte. de la Baume Pluvinel, Ast. Soc. of France; Mr. struggle against consumption. Addresses were then given H. Deslandres, Ast. Soc. of France; Prof. W. S. by the foreign delegates, and by M. Loubet. Eichelberger; Mr. Fabry, Physical Soc. of France; Mr. G. E. Hale, Nat. Acad. Sci. (Washington); Mr.

A Reuter message from Gothenburg reports that a Hansky, Acad. Sci. (St. Petersburg); Mr. J. Janssen,

severe shock of earthquake was felt on September 26, Acad. Sci. (France); Prof. W. H. Julius, Acad. Sci.

1.30 p.m., at Lundby, in the island of Hisingen. Sub(Amsterdam); Prof. H. Kayser, German Physical

terranean rumblings were heard, and the houses suddenly Soc. ; Mr. Perot, Physical Soc. of France; Prof. E. began to rock so violently that inner and outer walls were Weiss, Internat. Assoc. Acad. ; Prof. Wolfer.

cracked. The disturbance lasted about a minute. Dr. Janssen was elected honorary president, and Sir Wm. Christie president, of the meeting.

News has been received from Samoa that a volcanic Among the many resolutions passed were the follow

eruption occurred on the Samoan islands on the morning ing, laying down the principles which should be

of August 21. The eruption was preceded by a violent followed in the proposed cooperation :

carthquake shock, which destroyed a large number of (1) Cooperation is desirable in the various branches of

buildings. During the eruption large masses of material solar research such as visual and photographic observations

were ejected, and for five days lava flowed over more of the solar surface, visual observations of prominences than four miles of the surrounding country. and observations of the solar atmosphere with spectroheliographs of various types.

It is officially reported that a case of cholera occurred (2) When an institution has collected and coordinated in Berlin on September 23, the victim being a canal bargeresults from various sources, members of the union shall man on one of the Berlin canal harbours.

The provisional programme for the session 1905-6 has distribution. Observations on columbium and tantalum. now been published by the Royal Geographical Society. | by Mr. E. F. Smith, and an inquiry into the pressure and The first meeting will be held on November 6, when an | rainfall conditions of the trades monsoon area, by Mr. introductory address will be given by the president, Sir | W. L. Dallas, are the titles of other articles. George T. Goldie, K.C.M.G., F.R.S. The paper for the evening will be “ Travels in the Mountains of Central

The entomological collection of the natural history Japan," by the Rev. Walter Weston. On November 20 branch of the British Museum will shortly be augmented the paper will be “ First Exploration of the Hoh-Lumba by the collection of beetles bequeathed by the late Mr and Lobson Glaciers (Himalaya),” by Mrs. Fanny Bullock

| Alexander Fry, which has been already deposited in the Workman; on December 4, “ Exploration in the Abai

building. It is reported to be the finest collection of its Basin, Abyssinia," by Mr. H. Weld Blundell; and on

kind in the country, and although not especially rich in December 18, “ Exploration in New Guinea,” by Mr.

types, contains an unrivalled series of weevils and longC. G. Seligman. Other provisional arrangements include

corns. The total number of species in the collection is the following papers :-Colonel Sir T. H. Holdich, reported to be about 72,000, represented by some 200,000 K.C.M.G., will deal with “ Unexplored India ”; Prof.

specimens, many of these species being new to the museum J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., takes up “ The Economic Geo

The cabinet includes the collections made by the late graphy of Australia"; Baron Erland Nordenskjöld will

Mr. John Whitehead in Borneo and by Mr. W. Doherty lecture on “ Explorations in Bolivia and Peru"; and Prof. in the Malay Archipelago generally. The bequest als Alleyne Ireland on “ The Philippine Islands." Mr. G. F.

includes a number of valuable entomological books. Ir Scott Elliot will read a paper on “ The Geographical In

may be mentioned that the collection of domesticatrd fluences of Water Plants in Chile," and Mr. Laurence

animals in the north hall of the museum has been recent.. Gomme on “Maps of London." In the research depart

enriched by the gift of statuettes of two famous racement, Sir Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S., will

horses, namely, “ Persimmon," the property of His lecture on the subject On the Next Great Arctic Dis

Majesty the King, and his son “Zinfandel," owned is covery: the Beaufort Sea." In this lecture Sir Clements

Lord Howard de Walden; H.R.H. the Prince of Wales Markham will advocate detailed investigation of the un

being the donor of the one and Lord Howard de Walden (4 known region lying between Prince Patrick Island and the

the other. New Siberian Islands.

The fourth part of the thirty-third and the first part THE Bureau of the Government Laboratories of the of the thirty-fourth volume of Gegenbaur's MorpholsInterior has issued a Bulletin (No. 25) containing two gisches Jahrbuch contain an exceedingly interesting and articles by Mr. R. C. McGregor on birds from various important article on the papillary ridges and grooves (o islands of the Philippine group. Several species are described as new, among the most interesting of which is perhaps a new owl of the genus Otus. Illustrations are given of the enormous nesting-mounds of the Philippine megapode and of the nests and eggs of three remarkable species of swifts from the archipelago.

Tue contents of the Zoologist for September include an illustrated article by Mr. R. B. Lodge on birds nesting in Andalusia (in the course of which allusion is made to the devastation among the bird-fauna caused by the late drought), and the second instalment of the editor's essay on extermination. Much interesting information will be found in the latter with regard to the destruction of animals caused in different parts of the world by floods, drought, pestilence, &c.

Birds obtained from the islands lying between Kiushu and Formosa form the subject of an illustrated paper com

Fig. 1.-Two examples of the plantar surface of the right bind-foot of the

chimpanzee to exhibit, in a diagrammatic manner, the ** triradius" (#1 municated by Mr. M. Ogawa to vol. v., part iv., of

After Schlaginhaufen. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses. Coloured plates are given of a Garrulus, a woodpecker, and a heron of the

the sole of the foot in the Primates (inclusive of man), with genus Nannocnus, described as new. Special interest

especial reference to their serial correspondence with those attaches to the description, by Mr. H. Sauter, of a riband

of the palm of the hand, which have already been fulls like fish from the Sagami Sea regarded as indicating a

worked out by Hepburn and others. The article, which is new genus and species (Ijimaia dofleini) of the small and

by Dr. O. Schlaginhaufen, is far too long to permit of peculiar family which the author considers to be typified

even a précis of its contents being given in this place, by the Japanese and Indian Ateleopus, the new genus

but it may be mentioned that the general arrangement being characterised by the subterminal mouth and short

of the papillary tuberosities is the same on the sole as ventral fins.

on the palm. The most generally interesting fat

brought out by the author's investigations is that while The mutual affinities of the species of cray-fishes of the in all the Old World Primates (inclusive of man) thr genus Cambarus forms the title of the only biological

ridges and grooves on the sole in the neighbourhood of paper in No. 180 of the Proceedings of the American Philo the great toe, or pollex, are so arranged as to form sophical Society. The author, Dr. A. E. Ortmann, finds

author, Dr. A. E. Ortmann, finds triradiate system, termed the triradius, this feature is that the commonly accepted division of the genus into five totally wanting in the monkeys of the New World. We groups is not based on natural affinities, which has led to have thus a new and deep-seated distinction between some erroneous conclusions with regard to geographical “ Catarhini ” and “ Platyrhini."

AMONG the contents of the latest parts of the Morpho- | ment would be an exceedingly slow process. But the logisches Jahrbuch (vol. xxxiii., part iv., and vol. xxxiv., argument that thorns are merely xerophytic structures is part i.) may be mentioned an article by Mr. E. Göppert more easily put to the test, and Dr. L. Cockayne describes on the brachial artery of the Australian spiny anteater in the New Phytologist (April) his experiments with the (Echidna), with special reference to the arterial system in New Zealand shrub Discaria Toumatou, known popularly the fore-limb of mammals in general, and a second, by Dr. | as Wild Irishman, which in ordinary circumstances is 0. Grosser, on the existence of a distinct segmental abundantly furnished with long pungent spines. The arrangement in the superficial vascular system of the human experiments consisted in removing plants, at the stage chest. In the second of the two volumes Dr. E. Küster when spines were beginning to be formed, to a moist describes the so-called tastfeder (sensory feathers) found at chamber, where they were grown, and there maintained the the base of the beak in owls and other birds, which are leafy spineless habit characteristic of seedlings. shown to be provided with sensory corpuscles, and are correlated by the author with the “ feelers” or vibrissa

The investigations of Prof. G. Haberlandt on the senseof mammals.

organs of plants, which are of great scientific interest, All the articles in the two concluding parts (iii. and iv.)

form a suitable subject for popular exposition, and an of vol. lxxix. of the Zeitschrift für Wissenschaftliche

account by Mr. G. C. Vuttall appears in the Monthly Zoologie deal with the anatomy and development of in

Review (September). The main result of Prof. Habervertebrates. The minute structure of the eye receives the

landt's work was to show that where plants are sensitive attention of two writers, Mr. H. Merton discussing the

to touch, at these points special adaptations of hairs or retina in nautilus and other dibranchiate cephalopods,

cells are found. The sensitiveness of tendrils and of the while Mr. M. Nowikoff describes the eye and frontal

specialised leaves of Drosera and Dionæa is a matter of organs of the branchiopod crustaceans. The spermatozoa

common knowledge, but the irritability of the stamens of the common intestinal round-worm (Ascaris) receive

of such plants as Opuntia, the prickly pear, and Abutilon attention at the hands of Mr. L. Scheben, of Marburg,

is less generally known. At certain spots the stamens Mr. K. Thon treats of the excretory organs of the

of these plants are provided with papillæ which enable

them to perceive contact stimuli. The concluding arguhydrachnid family Limnocharidæ, while Mr. Stoffenbrink records the effects of special nutrition on the histological

ment which is presented to the reader that plants are constituents of the fresh-water planarians. Finally, Mr.

capable of experiencing sensations is by no means conA. Zwack discusses the minute structure and mode of

vincing. formation of the “ ephippium” of the fresh-water flea THE German Meteorological Institute, of which the late (Daphnia), while Dr. E. Martini devotes himself to observ- Prof. v. Bezold was director, has published a second edition ations on the amaba-like Arcella.

of its very useful “Instructions for Taking and Reducing THE latest number of lAnthropologie (vol. xvi., No. 3) Meteorological Observations." A great part of the work contains a useful article on Paumotu fishing implements. ) (as the title indicates) has been re-written and re-arranged The British Museum is singularly poor in specimens from to bring it up to date as regards the improvements in these islands, and the “ Album " of Edge-Partington and methods and instruments that have taken place in recent Heape only figures two or three fish-hooks. In the present years. The work is divided into two volumes, dealing (1) article a dozen hooks are figured and described ; the con with the requirements of stations of the second and third struction of the canoes and method of sewing the planks orders, and (2) with special observations and instruments; are also illustrated. An article on the musical instruments the latter part contains valuable explanations of the prinin French Congo is diminished in value by errors in the ciples and adjustments of Richard's much used self-recordillustrations; the bambour on p. 289 is reproduced from ing apparatus, of anemometers, sunshine recorders, and the a sketch, and the artist has omitted the pins to which the nephoscope, all of which it is most essential that observers strings are attached, making it appear that there is no should thoroughly understand, but which are not always means of altering the tension of the cords.

to be found in existing instructions. The aim of the work The Department of Agriculture in Jamaica has been

is to instruct observers in all parts of the operations reat considerable trouble to effect the improvement of home quired of them, from the choice of a suitable locality for a grown tobacco, and if the experiments carried out at

station, the erection of the instruments, and the method Hope Gardens may be taken as a criterion, there is a of taking observations, to the deduction of mean results, promising future for Sumatra wrapper-tobacco grown in

the most essential portions being printed in larger type. the open and for Havana leaf, both shade-grown for The work will certainly fulfil the intention of its author, wrapper and outside-grown for filling.

viz. to render lighter the labours of observers and to ensure The South Orkney Islands, lying about 600 miles south

accuracy in their observations and calculations. rast of Cape Horn, were visited by members of the In the Memorie of the Royal Institute of Lombardy Scottish National Antarctic Expedition voyaging in the (vol. xx.) Dr. Alessandri gives an account of the Regina ship Scotia in February, 1903. The collections of mosses Margherita Observatory at the summit of Monte Rosa, on and lichens obtained by Mr. R. N. R. Brown, the botanist the peak known as the “ Signalkuppe," 4559 metres above of the expedition, are described in vol. xxiii., part i., of sea-level. The station is under the control of the Central the Transactions and Proceedings of the Botanical Society Meteorological Office at Rome, and it is intended (if of Edinburgh. Mr. C. H. Wright has identified six mosses possible) that observations should be made each year which are all Antarctic, except one previously known only between July 15 and September 15. The difficulties from Tristan da Cunha. Dr. O. V. Darbishire has worked encountered in the first year (1904) were so great that Dr. cut the lichens and distinguishes twelve species, including Alessandri states that the expedition can only be considered one, Placodium fruticulosum, new to science.

as a preliminary attempt, with the view of overcoming The explanation that plants have developed thorns to them in future years. The conveyance of instruments and keep off the depredations of herbivorous animals does not materials from Alagna had partly to be done by mules and lend itself to experimental investigation, as the develop- partly by men, at a cost of 62 centesimi for each kilogram

(2.2 pounds' weight), with the result that many of the General Horace Porter writes a graphic account of the instruments were broken in transit. Owing to the intense investigations which led to the search for the body of cold, the clogging of the apparatus by hoar-frost and violent Paul Jones and its ultimate recovery in the forgotten snowstorms, together with the intense electrification of the cemetery of Saint Louis, its identification, and removal to atmosphere, rendered regular observations almost impossible the United States. with the means then available. The shade air-tempera

We have received the results of meteorological obserture at the summit of Monte Rosa is practically always

ations for 1900-2, and of rain, river, and evaporation below freezing point; the thermometers taken by Dr.

observations for 1901-2, made in New South Wales. "The Alessandri read to – 20° C., but the extreme temperature

latter work contains valuable statistics of rainfall for often fell below that. The mean reading of the barometer

each month for the years in question, and various returns during the summer of 1904 was 17.1 inches; water there

for other periods, e.g. the mean annual rainfall at all fore boiled at about 85° C. The lightning conductors

stations with three and up to fourteen years' records from frequently appeared like steadily burning candles, and the

1889 to 1902 inclusive, and records for the whole of observers experienced at times such unpleasant shocks that

Australia for individual years since 1840. In the years it became advisable to retire within the observatory.

1901–2 severe and almost unprecedented droughts were ABOUT twenty years ago Messrs. Michelson and Morley experienced. The average fall for the whole colony for concluded from the results of their well known experiments thirty-two years (1871-1902) is 24.15 inches, but in 1901 that the ether in the neighbourhood of the earth is not at the amount was only 18.15 inches, and in 1902 14.09 inches, rest in space, but is carried along with the earth in its the lowest average on record with the exception of that motion. Prof. Fitzgerald and Prof. Lorentz subsequently for the year 1888, when it was only 13-40 inches. The suggested that the experimental results of Michelson and effect on sheep grazing was disastrous; the number of Morley might also be explained by the dimensions of the sheep in the western division during seven years ending apparatus being modified by its motion through the ether. with 1901 dwindled from about 16 millions to 5 millions, In order to test this assumption, Messrs. E. W. Morley representing a loss to the State of about 30 millions and D. C. Miller (Proceedings Amer. Acad. Irts and sterling. Sciences, xli., No. 12) have repeated on a more elaborate

Is the current issue of the Journal of the Franklin Institute the first instalment is published of an elaborate monograph on mica by Mr. G. W. Colles. The subject is dealt with chiefly from an industrial point of view, the present, past, and probable future of mica mining being discussed.

A SECOND edition of the second volume dealing with the chemistry of manufacturing processes-of " Chemistry for Engineers and Manufacturers," by Messrs. Bertram Blount and A. G. Bloxam, has been published by Messrs. Charles Griffin and Co., Ltd.

Mr. Oscar GUTTMANN, 12 Mark Lane, London, E.C., intends to publish a facsimile reproduction of all ancient pictures and engravings dispersed in libraries all over the world referring to the invention, early manufacture and examination, and first use of gunpowder. It is to be a

work of art, printed by hand on the finest hand-made scale the experiments of 1887, using two modified forms

paper, with an imitation fifteenth century binding, and of apparatus. The sandstone of the earlier experiments

limited to about three hundred numbered copies. was replaced in one form of apparatus by a structure of white pine, whilst in the final and more complete experi

We have received from Messrs. J. J. Griffin and Sons, ments a steel framework was used to support a system of

Ltd., 20-26 Sardinia Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C., pine rods. The figure shows the steel cross-framework their “T” list of thermometers and pyrometers for adopted, with the trusses supporting the distance pieces measuring temperatures between – 200° C. and 4000° C. and the mirror frames and telescopes in position. The The list is a fairly complete one, and comprises ordinary, entire apparatus weighed 1900 lb., and floated in mercury. technical, and standard thermometers, as well as the As a result of the experiments, a nearly similar conclusion principal forms of electrical resistance, thermoelectric, and to that previously formed is arrived at. If the dimensions optical pyrometers. of the pine are changed, the change is of the same amount Messrs. Philip HARRIS AND Co., Ltd., of Birmingham as with sandstone; if the ether near the apparatus did have issued their diary intended for the use of teacher not move with it, the difference in velocity is apparently and others during the session 1905-6. A very complete less than 3.5 kilometres per second.

calendar of the examinations to be held by the chief public The Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute for examining bodies during the coming educational year is September (xxvi., No. 8) contains an important paper by provided, and there are spaces for daily notes, general Prof. Woodhead on the water supply problem in rural memoranda, addresses, and cash accounts. districts, together with the discussion thereon.

We have received from Messrs. Williams and Yorgatra In the Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine for October | copy of a new work published by Herr H. 1. Ludwig Prof. Chittenden gives a popular account of his researches · Degener, of Leipzig, entitled “ Wer ist's?" The volume on the amount of nitrogenous food required to maintain is similar in its scope to “Who's Who," and is edited physiological equilibrium, which, should his results stand by Herr H. A. L. Degener. In addition to the particulars the test of time, will mean great economy in the future. given of distinguished Germans, the book also includes biographies ci famous living Austrians, Frenchmen, | of, their heliometers for the transits of Venus in 1874 and Englishmen, and celebrities of other nationalities. The 1882. The 1873-5 results showed a progressive change Englishmen noticed in the volume appear to be politicians


similar to that indicated by the measures of the Rutheras a rule, and, so far as we have tested the book, the men

furd photographs taken in 1871-2, whilst the 1880-3 helio

meter measures confirmed the photographic results of of science and of letters selected for inclusion are neither

1870-1. Yet another confirmation was found on measurnumerous nor particularly representative.

ing five solar negatives taken at Northfield (Minn., U.S.A.) We have received from Messrs. W. M. J. Brooks and

during the years 1893-4. the change in figure being the

same as in 1871-2 and 1873-5. Co., Letchworth, Herts, a set of five templates, or curves, Plotting the differences between the polar and equatorial accurately cut in celluloid, representing respectively the diameters in conjunction with the sun-spot curve, it is seen parabola, ellipse, hyperbola, cycloid, and cubical parabola. that the two agree, not only in point of time, but also of When such curves are required it seems better that a intensity, the excess of the equatorial diameter occurring student should make them for himself, but failing this Mr.

at sun-spot maximum.

From these results it appears that the sun is usually Brooks's curves may prove useful in special cases. The

an oblate spheroid, but at times of sun-spot minima the price is is. each curve.

length of the polar axis increases in regard to that of the equatorial diameter, and the solar figure becomes prolate.

Mr. Lane Poor incidentally suggests that this variation OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

of the solar figure may explain the anomalies in the

motions of Mercury, Venus, and Mars. FURTHER RESULTS OBTAINED BY THE French Eclipse

BiblioGRAPHY of Halley.—No. 14 of the Bulletin of EXPEDITIONS.-In No. 12 (September 18) of the Comptes rendus MM. Deslandres and Andover give brief summaries

Bibliography Pamphlets, issued by The Boston Book of the results obtained by them on their respective expedi

Company, contains the material for a bibliography of

Dr. Edmond Halley, the second Astronomer Royal, and tions to observe the recent total solar eclipse. M. Deslandres directed the Bureau des Longitudes mission

will be found a useful adjunct to any astronomical library, to Burgos, where the actual duration of visible " totality

Reading through the numerous items, one is struck anew was curtailed by clouds to one minute, which did not

by the range and number of Halley's writings. The include either the second or the third contacts. The pro

pamphlet is an extract from No. 4 (July), vol. iv., of the posed photographing of the chromosphere spectrum was

Bulletin of Bibliography published by The Boston Book therefore impossible. Photometric observations of the corona

Company, and costs 25 cents. were obtained, and M. d'Azambuja was able to measure OBSERVATIONS OF JUPITER'S SATELLITES.-In No. 4045 of the ccronal radiation, obtaining figures which were the Astronomisch: Nachrichten Profs. A. A. Nijland and decidedly lower than those obtained by M. Charbonneau J. van d. Bilt publish the results obtained from a large in 1900. M. Kannapell obtained four photographs of the number of observations of Jupiter's satellites. corona polarised by reflection. M. Blum obtained two These observations were made with the 26 cm. Utrecht photographs of the corona through coloured screens so refractor during the period June 30, 1904-February 17, arranged as to transmit only the gaseous radiation of the 1905, and in the tabulated results the time of the eclipse, prominences. By comparing those with the ordinary photo transit or occultation of the particular moon is given, graphs it will, probably, be possible to determine whether together with the difference between these and the calcuor not the prominences emit a more intense continuous lated times. spectrum than that emitted by the surrounding regions.

A Lost DOUBLE STAR.-A remarkable chapter of At El-Arrouch, 32 km. from Philippeville, M. Andoyer

coincidences is recorded in No. 7, vol. xiii., of Popular simply attempted to obtain as many direct photographs of Astronomy by Prof. Doolittle, of the Flower Observthe phenoinena as possible. His instrumental equipment atory, U.S.A. In Sir John Herschel's first catalogue of consisted of a photographic objective of 14 cm. (5.0-inch)

double stars, No. 165 was described as a 3" pair with aperture and 60 cm. (24-inch) focal length, mounted with a position angle of 330°. its position being given as two enlarging cameras which increased the diameter of

R.A. = 10h. 26.8m., dec.= +12° 32' (1825). In 1878 Prof. the image by three and eight times respectively.

Burnham directed his attention to the pair, and recorded Altogether forty-four plates were exposed, eleven of them

its position angle as 2050-3, and its distance as 2":59. during totality. A negative exposed two minutes before

Again in 1991 he observed the double with the 40-inch totality shows a reversed image, due to over-exposure, and

refractor, and obtained a measure agreeing with Herschel's a silhouette of the ccrona.

record; but in 1902 he could find no trace of the pair ELEMENTS OF Comet 1886 V111.-From eighty-six observ observed in the previous year, nor of the star measured ations of comet 1886 viii., made by various observers by him in 1878. Observations made this year with the between January 24 and May 20, 1887, Herr E. Fagerholm, 18-inch refractor of the Flower Observatory failed to reveal of Upsala, has calculated a set of clements for the orbit of the double given by Herschel, but showed a very wide that object. These, as given below, appear in No. 4047 faint pair in the exact position given by him. of the Astronomische Nachrichten, together with the details Thinking that Prof. Burnham in 1901 might have conof the computation and of the planetary perturbations taken fused the sign of the declination, Prof. Doolittle turned his into account :

telescope to the same R.A. in declination minus 12°, and

there apparently found exactly the pair that was wanted. T = 1886 Nov, 28 44284 +0.00267 (11.T. Berlin).

This seemed to have cleared up the mystery ; Prof. BurnOp = 31° 55' 34" 53+ 18":25

ham had in 1901 observed the wrong star. B = 258° 13' 1"-35+ 4":43 1887.0

A letter from that cbserver showed, however, that this į = 85° 35' 17"-33 + 3":84!

is not the correct explanation. log q = 0'1704712 +0'0000214

The truth is that Herschel made a mistake of exactly THE FIGURE OF THE SUN.--In No. 2, vol. xxii., of the one hour in recording the right ascension of H. 165, and Istrophysical Journal, Mr. C. Lane Poor publishes the Prof. Burnham had, unwittingly, made precisely the same results of an investigation. carried out by him at the mistake in 1901. Thus the latest observation of Herschel's Columbia University Observatory, which seem to indicate No. 165 shows its position to be R.A. =9h. 31m. 135., a periodical variation in the figure of the sun agreeing in dec. = +12° 25' (1880), and its position angle and distance, phase with the sun-spot curve. On measuring the at the croch 1905-38, were 333°1 and 2".04 respectively. Pquatorial and the polar diameters of the solar images on In 1878 Prof. Burnham, observing in the position given twenty-one plates taken by Mr. Rutherfurd in 1870, 1871, | by Herschel, saw a pair which was not identical with and 1872, he found indications that during this period the Hl. 165, and in the year 1902 was too faint for him to see. equatorial diameter was first increasing and then decreasing In 1901, repeating Herschel's mistake in the R.A., he with regard to the polar diameter. To check this result observed the true H. 165, whilst in 1905 Prof. Doolittle he re-investigated the measures made by the German found a similar pair to H. 165 in the same declination observers whilst adjusting, and determining the constants I south and in the R.A. given in mistake by Herschel.

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