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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. of the earth's magnetic force upon it. The work done [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions by a few light touches of the finger must be amply expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake sufficient to furnish all the energy required to deflect to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected the needle. But to a modern electrician it certainly manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. seems a remarkably efficient transformation.

No notice is taken of anonymous communications. ] GEORGE J. BURCH.

Eclipse Predictions.

It is always interesting to compare the results of observ. An Introduction to the Study of Colour Phenomena.

ation with those predicted by calculation. In the case of By Joseph W. Lovibond. Pp. 48; 10 coloured

the recent total eclipse of the sun this is rendered difficult plates. (London : E. and F. N. Spon, Ltd.; New

by the want of agreement in the predictions of the two York : Spon and Chamberlain, 1905.) Price 5s. | most used authorities, the Nautical Almanac and the net.

Connaissance des Temps. The discrepancies in the preThe author states that his object has been to supply | dicted duration of totality and of the breadth of the band the long-felt want of a power of recovering a given traced on the earth's surface by the total phase are made colour sensation and of a colour nomenclature by apparent in the following table. It is compiled from the which that sensation may be quantitatively described. table in the Nautical Almanac headed “Limits of total To this end “scales of red, yellow and blue were

phase of the Solar Eclipse," and the corresponding table constructed of glass slips, the slips of each scale

| in, the Connaissance des Temps entitled “Limites de

l'Éclipse totale et Durée de la Phase totale sur la Ligne being all of one colour with a regular variation in

centrale." Entries for as nearly as possible the same time intensity from 0.01 to 20 units, equal units of the

in each table have been taken and are placed together :three scales being in colour equivalence with each

Column A contains the authority, Nautical Almanac other. ... The test of equivalence is that a white (N.A.) or Connaissance des Temps (C.T.). light viewed through equal units of the three scales Column B contains the time (G.M.T.) for which each should give no evidence of colour. ... The fogs on prediction is made. Salisbury Plain furnished the light actually used.". Column C contains the calculated distance (in nautical It was found that red, yellow, and blue were the only miles) and the bearing of the northern limit of totality colours suitable for systematic work, and that any | from the corresponding southern limit. colour could be produced by their combination. The

Column D contains the durations of totality on the dimensions of the unit are, it is said, necessarily i

central line as predicted by the one authority and (in

brackets) as interpolated from the prediction of the other. arbitrary, but the scale-divisions are equal, while the

Column E contains the differences of these pairs of unit itself is recoverable.

values. The colour to be tested is matched by that of the

[ Ꭰ . light transmitted by one of the glasses, or by several 1905 Aug. 30 Distance Bearing N.A. C.T.

G.M.T. -uperposed, equality of luminosity being secured,

hm.

secs.

secs.

secs. when necessary, by the interposition of a neutral

C.T. 0 22

... 113:5 ... N. i W. ... (1984)... 206
... 113-5 ... N.

... 7.4 tinted combination between the eye and the coloured N.A. O 24 ... 101'5 ... »

W. ... 2006 ... (208) object. A specification of the glasses employed is C.T. 0 35 2 ... 109 5 ... E. ... (211) ... 219 registered, according to certain rules, as a formula N.A. O 36 ... 102 ...

... 2118 ... (219:5) which defines in terms of the author's constants the C.T. O 503 .. 114 ...

.. (220-2) ... 228 colour “ developed," and supplies data for its future

N.A. 048 ... 104 ...

219'1 ... (227:4) ...

C.T. 170 ... 116.5..., 10. ... (2238) ... 231 reproduction.

N.A. i 80 ... 104 To those who are accustomed to regard the spec

...

22; 8 ... (2312) ... trum as the natural basis of colour experiment the

N.A. I 24 ... 105-5 ...

22:7 ... (2266) ...

C.T. I 24'9 ... 116-5 ..., author's method cannot but appear crude and un

, ... (220-2) ... 227 ...

C.T. 1 43'1 ... 115 ..., 14., ... (209.2) ... 215 ... 5:8 -cientific; but, given a sufficient supply of carefully

N.A. I 44 ... IC6 ... ,, 44 , ... 208.4 ... (214) ... 56 selected glasses, it is probable that much useful work might be done in a rough and ready way by its

It will be seen that, for stations in Spain and the adjacent means. An example occurs in the quantitative study

Mediterranean, the duration of totality on the central line

was predicted by the French authority to be from seven of the colour of the human blood in health and in

to eight seconds longer than by the British authority. In disease, which is illustrated in plate vi.

the same region, the width of the band of totality is from The book concludes with an exposition of Mr. , ten to eleven nautical miles greater by the French than by Lovibond's new theory of colour.

the British prediction. The orientation of the line connectLodex Phytochemicus. By Drs. J. C. Ritsema and ing the two limits of totality also differs considerably in J. Sack. With introduction by Dr. M. Greshoff.

the two tables. Pp. 86. (Amsterdam : J. H. de Bussy.)

It is reported that at Sousse and Gabes, two towns in

Tunisia, the eclipse was partial, while a total eclipse had DR. GRESHOFF explains in the introduction to this

been predicted for them. The prediction for these places volume that it originated in a card index to the

would surely rest on French authority: we are therefore literature of plant chemistry compiled for use in the

entitled to conclude that the mistake has been made by laboratory of the Colonial Museum at Haarlem, where the French calculators. An excessive estimate of the width the work carried on consists principally of the investi of the band of totality would almost certainly be accomgation of the proximate constituents of plants.

panied by an excessive estimate of the duration of totality, The index enumerates the names of more than two and the table shows that both estimates are considerably thousand plant constituents, and gives in each case greater in the Connaissance des Temps than in the Nautical the percentage composition, formula, melting or boil

J. Y. BUCHANAN. ing point, and at least one reference to the literature | - usually Beilstein's “ Handbuch," though in a few cases the references are to original papers. The

Absence of Vibration in a Turbine Steamship. volume also contains a short but useful bibliography

RETURNING homeward to Paris the middle of September of plant chemistry.

| from the Tripoli eclipse, and finding passage to America

difficult to obtain, I chanced to learn that the triple-screw The information given in the tables, so far as can

| turbine steamer R.M.S. l'irginian was sailing from Liverbe judged from trials in a few cases, appears to be

pool for Montreal on September 30, so I was very glad accurate, and the index should prove useful to

to have the opportunity of a voyage in a ship full powered chemists engaged in the investigation of plant with this novel type of propulsion. After a week on products.

board I have no hesitation in saying that for freedom from

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October

the nerve-annoying tremors incident to the usual recipro- | I have always found difficult to believe. The following cating engines, the l'irginian has proved far and away theory is one which has occurred to me, and seems quite the quietest steamship I have ever voyaged on. Excellent a plausible one. Meteors are usually of a metalliferu.rs evidence of this, I think, lies in the exceptionally large nature, and consequently will have a comparatively lon number of passengers who dined comfortably in the saloon electrical resistance. When they approach the earth the. at the roughest period of our entire passage. There was will enter a magnetic field, and they will cut the lines of a fairly heavy sea on, and the ship was by no means free force of this field at a high velocity. A high electrie ! from wave-origined motion. So I am quite of the opinion potential will be generated, and consequently electril that sea-sickness and all its train of discomforts must be currents which will be inversely proportional to the resistgreatly aggravated by the engine-borne tremors of the ance. The electrical energy thus produced will be dissordinary steamship, and that many people who are delicate pated in heat, and if of sufficient intensity will raise th. sailors under ordinary conditions might take ocean journeys meteor to incandescence. The truth or otherwise a with comparative comfort in a turbined ship.

theory could, I believe, be calculated, as the data necesar So unostentatious are the rotary engines of the for doing so will be at the disposal of readers of VATt ki Virginian, let alone their occupying but one-fourth the | who make this branch of astronomy their study. 11, space of the usual expansion engines, that the quietness theory may have already been advanced, as I am not of their powerful and effective working, in every part of touch with the latest developments of the science. the ship, was continually deceiving one into thinking that 1 Coatbridge, September 5. GEORGE A. BROW the vessel had lost headway, or might have come to anchor altogether. Especially was this true in the dining saloon, that most critical of all spots, where one could rarely The electric currents which the author of the above letter detect so much as a ripple on water in a glass, although

regards as possibly constituting an efficient source of the going ahead at full speed of 15 knots.

luminosity of meteors must no doubt arise, and play To my mind the l'irginian seemed to behave all the

certain part in the heat and light development. But thu voyage quite as if her motive power were entirely without measure in which they can be supposed to contribute to her; in fact, she could scarcely have ridden more smoothly, 1

ne could scarcely, have ridden more smoothly, it must clearly be extremely small; or rather, it must 1 or with less of that exasperating vibration (the unceasing incomparably subordinate to the intense ignition of the ar action of which, I am convinced, is a prominent factor in produced, not at all by friction,' but by the air's adiabar's inducing mal de mer), if she had been towed at the

compression against the front surface of the meteorite. identical speed by a huge hawser.

DAVID TODD.

which is certainly quite competent, by itself alone, to derrl R.M.S. l'irginian, Straits of Belle Isle, October 4. what may be said to approach pretty nearly to fabulces

degrees of temperature. If the kinetic energy of translation

in foot-pounds (v2 / 2g), of 1 lb. of the air propelled (at, sar. A Parasite of the House-fly.

30 miles per second) with the meteor's speed (v feet.se

on its front face, be divided by 330, the number thus REVERTING to the recent correspondence under this head

obtained (1,180,620° C., in the case supposed) will be the ing between Mr. Davenport Hill and Prof. Hickson number of centigrade degrees through which it will be (NATURE, August 24 and 31), I recall that a few years heated by the pure process of compression, supposing that back many house-flies with Chelifers attached were sent the air can continue to subsist at all with its ordinarı to me at the Natural History Museum for determination of mechanical deportment and thermodynamical properties unthe species and explanation of the phenomenon. The first affected at that enormously high temperature. In the task was as easy as the second was difficult. The Chelifer further forward, gradually advancing layers, and in the most was in most, nay in all, cases, so far as my memory laterally escaping currents of the air, on which the bigh serves, Chernes nodosus. But those who suggest that | forward speed of the meteor is only partially impressed, the explanation is to be sought and found in the value and which move more slowly on their various courses, the of the habit as a means of securing dispersal hardly | compressions are correspondingly less, and the lower but realise, I think, the difficulties in the way of its still exceedingly high temperatures can be similarly cal acceptance. Chelifers are minute, active, and, for arthro- lated from any fair estimates of the air's collective in pods, not exceptionally prolific. Hence the sufficiency of absolute velocity of translation in those different positions. "elbow-room ” for the survivors of a family of, say, forty, It is in the different rates of transport of these heair on the site chosen by the female for her progeny does not air-streams, all of them, as well as the highly attenuated coincide with the view that they have special need of motionless atmosphere around, affording very easy passage transportation. Moreover, when we remember that a ways to electricity, across the earth's magnetic field er Chelifer attached to a fly is exposed to the danger of being system of lines of magnetic force, that fitting circuits can killed by the enemies of that insect, and also to the great certainly be found (either passing through, or else entir, chance of being landed in a wholly unsuitable environ- omitting the meteorite itself), in which, in the Built ment, it can hardly be maintained that the advantage suggested in the above letter, electric currents may be quit derived from this method of dispersal has been a sufficiently certainly concluded to be magneto-electrically induet important factor in survival to preserve and foster an For while one part of a closed air-circuit resting against initial instinct to grab and hang on to the legs of flies. the meteorite's front surface, and another part of it situat ! That the aërial porterage thus secured, whether fortuitously | in the still atmosphere in front of or behind it, would ! or “ intentionally,” must be a means of dispersal is too | journeving towards or from each other with full metro obvious to dispute ; but I do not think more than that speed, the circuits so composed would be most suitablı can be claimed for it, since it is as likely to end in failure conditioned for developing induced currents round them to as in success.

1 Although a very general belief, it is as yet an entirely mistaken suppositis: Chelifers may be found not uncommonly beneath the that the bigh speed of impact of a meteorite into the rarer regions of the wing-cases of large beetles. Presumably this habitat has atmosphere reduces the air, by giving it no time to dissipate itself in fr: been adopted for the sake of the food supplied by the

the meteorite, to a state of granulation, or to a wedged throng of molecular

producing heat by friction inter se and against the surface of the meteocit parasitic mites infesting the beetles. This fact, I think,

Just the reverse of this condition is, bowever, really true, that tbe 2. suggests a line of investigation which may lead to a more remains a perfectly and frictionlessly elastic fluid, however much it is con satisfactory explanation of the association between Chelilers pressed and intensely heated by the impact. The speeds of sound waves and flies than that put forward in Prof. Hickson's letter

the heated air which perform the office of transmitting and maintaining the

orderly array of pressures in the streaming flows, ar length differ 1 defe Zoological Gardens, October 14.

R. I. Pocock. in fact, from the air's speeds themselves in proportions which, as to

mount up to meteor-speeds of many miles per second, only decline asym; totically to about the ratio 1:1's, or nearly 1:a. Since, then, thes

sound-waves, which convey the strokes and shocks of the collision to Z Incandescence of Meteors.

fro between the meteor-centre and the surrounding air, arise and trai

in the moving field of the compressed air as if it were at rest, it is easy : It is with great diffidence that I approach this difficult perceive that by their extremely rapid actions a most exceptically perle subject, but the theory that the incandescence of meteors i

elastic-fluid relation, or steady disposition of the lines, or lanes of a is due to the heat generated by the friction between these

and blast-pressure, must really be established and maintained in el

persistent shapes and contour, in the swirl of incandescent air which i s bodies and the molecules of gas composing our atmosphere ihe meteor's head.

their quickly altering enclosures of a constantly changing' PHYSICIL LABORATORIES IN GERMANY." number of the earth's lines of magnetic force, while thus

THE Director-General of Education in India has rapidly opening out or closing up. But the very short extent, not probably much exceeding some few feet or yards,

I
I

just published a valuable work in a report by which the swiftest moving part of such a circuit, in meteor

Prof. Küchler, of the Presidency College, Calcutta, nuclei of various sizes, would embrace, and again the oft

on physical laboratories in Germany. It forms one proved weakness of the earth's magnetic field for exciting of a number to be included in a volume of the series such induced electric currents, scarcely allow us to expect of occasional reports. that any very high voltages would be attained in even the Prof. Küchler " was placed on special duty to inmost select cases and the most favourable choices of con- quire into (1) the methods adopted at the universities ditions of such meteoritically produced air-circuits. The and polytechnics of Berlin, Munich, Vienna, and hottest, and therefore also probably the best conducting

other prominent universities and technical instituportion of each current's path, compressed against the

tions in Germany with regard both to the ordinary meteorite's front surface, would also not, presumably, be that in which the heat and light producing action of the

study of physical science and to the character of the current would be strongest, since this would rather be used

investigations and the system pursued in the case of up in producing brush and glow discharges through the

students who are entering upon a course of indemi re resisting portion of the circuit in the outer air. The

pendent research. (2) The construction and equipirto ricr parts themselves of stony meteorites, when they ment of modern German laboratories, the special tave fallen, have not been found, by either sight or touch, merits of scientific instruments of German manufactus furnish any proofs of having been much heated, but ture, and the facilities for standardising these instruis tense effects of heat and fusion on the outer surfaces of ments which are offered at central institutions in fullen meteorites are always very obvious.

Germany." While nothing seems to point to any very easily dis

In the course of his tour, lasting more than six cernible actions of electric currents immediately arourd a meteor's head, unless we may ascribe to electric agency

weeks, the principal universities and technical schools the occasional production of an “ aura " of sparks, or of

were visited, and the report sums up the information a misty envelope of light enshrouding it, the stream of

in a useful manner. It is naturally divided into two heated dust and vapours which travel in a meteor's wake. | sections corresponding to the two parts of the extending to considerable widths and lengths, as may be reference; the first deals with the methods of study, often noted, is perhaps a more visibly displaved, ard a the second treats of the construction, methods of more evidently and distinctly active scene of luininous dis- equipment, &c., of the laboratories. The training of charges of induced electric currents : for the accumulated, the university undergraduate of necessity differs flow behind the meteor-head resembles in some degree al from that of the pupil of the high school, and both columnar, vaporous follower of the metrcrite itself, left to methods are described at some length. Attention is pursue its course along the meteor-track when the nucleus directed to the importance of the set lecture in the has disappeared. Being thus virtually a shooting-star of a long-extended shape, but of too dwarled velocity to raise

| scheme of education; the number of lectures given itself by heat to incandescence, the same induced electric

during the session in a university such .as Berlin is currents as were above inferred to be developed in the

very considerable, and cach lecturer has the use of meteor's head would here continue to evince themselves a properly equipped lecture-room and apparatus. along the column by glow discharges in the vapours and The importance of the organised teaching of practhe outer air, so long as sufficiently swift flow of the tical physics, for medical students, chemists, and l'apours can be persistently maintained through the retard- engineers, in addition to the professed physicist, is ing resistances of the opposing atmosphere. Thus a fairly now realised in Germany, and in an appendix, which, intelligible raison d'être by electric current interventions

by electric current interventions | however, is not printed in the report, details of the may not impossibly have been incidentally divulged, by means of the recourse proposed by Mr. Brown to magneto

practical instruction at some of the universities and lectric actions, of the long-enduring light-streaks left along

technical colleges are given. In view of the large the paths of all the swifter class of shooting-stars and

number of students in some of the German univerlarger meteors; the real modus operandi of those streaks

sities, the numbers attending practical classes, as having always presented to meteor observers a mysterious

given on p. 7, seem small. It Berlin there are 140 question for discussion, never admitting hitherto of satis

students in two divisions, each under three assistants. factory solution by known experimental illustrations, or of The average number of students in the charge of a ury quite surely scund elucidation by less trustworthy con single assistant comes to twenty-two or twenty-three, jei tures.

I. S. H. which is probably about the same as in one of our

well organised English courses. A Rre Game Bird,

Students who propose to take a degree in physics I THINK it is worth recording that on

work usually for two years at a dissertation. Thursday,

Prof. October 5, Sub-Lieut. H. R. Sawbridge, R.X., shot a

Küchler specially directs attention to the fact “ that quail, Perdix coturnix, on Lopham Fen, close to the rising

students are discouraged from commencing the final of the waters, the common source of the Waveney and

stages of their labours before they have been the Ouse, near Diss, Norfolk.

thoroughly trained in practical manipulation and The bird, either a hen or a young male, was very fat have carefully gone through a complete course of a beautiful little specimen.

laboratory work such as is represented, say, by The last quail known by me) to have been shot in this Kohlrausch's very elaborate handbook.” This fact neighbourhood was in the 'fifties of the last century, by Mr. is sometimes conveniently forgotten by those who llenry Button, of this parish.

urge the adoption of the introduction of research I understand that this bird was much more frequently found in the middle of last century in the neighbourhood

work at an earlier stage in our English training; the of Great Yarmouth, and that, as a rule, it was found

average number of these research students is said singly, as this was, in the autumn.

to be five or six, though, of course, at Berlin, as It is being preserved by Mr. Cole, of Norwich. What

| indeed at Cambridge, the number is much larger. was a little foreign bird like this doing singly and alone

To illustrate the construction and equipment of the on our eastern counties' heaths and fens?

laboratories, Prof. Küchler has given in full the plans Is it a case of lost or strayed, or what is it?

of a number of representative institutions, and these It would be interesting to know whether other specimens plans form a most valuable part of the report. They If the quail have been heard of inland in the eastern will enable a professor building or organising a counties of late years.

Jous S. SAWBRIDGE. Thelnc tham Rectory, Dins, Norfolk, October 10.

P A Report to the Director-General of Education in India by Prof. G W.

Kichler.

laboratory in India to see readily the arrangements

THE ESSEX FIELD CLUB. which have commended themselves in Germany, and the report directs attention to the modifications which IV order to mark the completion of a quarter of a will be needed to adapt them to Indian conditions. 1 century's scientific work in the county of Essex,

Perhaps the details which strike an English the above society has published the first issue of . student most are the number and size of the lecture “ Yearbook and Calendar " which will be found of rooms, the accommodation provided for the museum, interest to all who follow the work of our local and the absence of rooms specially designed for scientific societies. This extremely active association elementary classes of large numbers.

was founded in 1880 by Mr. William Cole, the first The Director-General deserves the gratitude of all president being Prof. Meldola. The work of the club interested in the organisation of the teaching of has been noticed from time to time in our columns, physics for having initiated this work, and Prof. and the present “ Yearbook " contains, as an approKüchler is to be congratulated on the manner he | priate opening chapter, a history of the society by has carried out his task. Still, a companion volume Mr. Miller Christy, who is now president. That the is needed.

club has carried out the objects for which it was British physical laboratories of to-dav have founded, and that it has more than justified its existmany admirable points. A book that described ence, is made perfectly clear in this introductory

[graphic][merged small]

the new laboratories at Liverpool, Manchester, chapter. As the author says, “there is in Esses ne the Royal College of Science, and the McGill Uni- other organised scientific body having the same versity at Montreal, to say nothing of the historic similar aims." laboratories in our two ancient universities, would. The actual scientific achievements of the club were contain much to interest those inhabitants of India ! fully set forth in an address delivered by Prof. Meldola to whom Prof. Küchler's report appeals, while in at the annual meeting in 1901.? As regards publimany respects, specially, perhaps, in the organisation cations, the output has been not only large in of the practical work for large classes, the arrange- quantity, but, what is more to the point, excellent in ments in the English laboratories seem to have the quality and strictly appropriate to the functions of u advantage.

local society. Five volumes of Transactions and In dealing with the last part of his subject, the Proceedings were published down to 1887, after whics construction and standardisation of instruments, the official publication was named the Essen Prof. Küchler again rightly directs attention to the Naturalist. The fourteenth volume of the latter is important services rendered to German industry by the Reichsanstalt and

1 " Yearbook and Calendar for 1905-6." Edited by William Cole Tthe disadvantages under

Club's Headquarters, and Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent and Co., Ltd.! which English manufacturers find themselves from

Price is. the incomplete equipment of the National Physical

2 "The Coming of Age of the Essex Field Club" (ico) Copies cau le

obtained on application to the Hon. Librarian, Mr. T. W. Reader, Esens Laboratory.

Museum, Romford Road, Stratford, Essex.

now in course of publication. In addition to the The second essay contains an abstract of the results above periodicals, three " special memoirs" have also of experiments undertaken in 1903, with special been issued, and it is hoped that others will be added reference to Stegomyia fasciata and Culex fatigans, from time to time. In 1885 appeared Prof. Meldola's regarded from a sanitary point of view. and Mr. White's “ Report on the East Anglian Earth The third essay is devoted to biological details quake of 1884," in 1890 Mr. Miller Christy's “ Birds chiefly relating to the development of the principal of Essex," and in 1898 Mr. Henry Laver's indigenous species. • Mammals, Reptiles and Fishes of Essex." All The fourth essay consists of a report on Stegoniyia these works were noticed in our pages at the time of publication. Four “ museum handbooks" must also be credited to the club.

Not the least important part of the results achieved since 1880 is the establishment and maintenance of two museums, one of a strictly local character for the Epping Forest district at Queen Elizabeth's Lodge, Chingford, and the other of a county and educational character at West Ham in connection with, and attached to, the Municipal Technical Institute (see illustration). The first of these is carried on under an agreement with the Corporation of London, as conservators of Epping Forest. The other county) museum was founded for the club by Mr. Passmore Edwards, and is maintained by the Borough Council of West Ham and the Essex Field Club, the library and headquarters

Fig. 1.-Larva of Strgomzia fasciata. of which are now in this same building. The personnel of the club as narrated by Mr. Christy is fasciata and its connection with the transmission of also of interest. The presidency has been held in yellow fever. This was presented to the International succession by Prof. Meldola, Prof. Boulger, Mr. T. V. Zoological Congress at Berne in August, 1904. Holmes, Mr. E. A. Fitch, Mr. H. Laver, Mr. F. The book appears to be an extremely careful and Chancellor, Mr. David Howard, Prof. Meldola, Mr. valuable piece of work, and the paper, printing, and F. W. Rudler, and Mr. Miller Christy. All these are illustrations leave little or nothing to be desired. It still living and active supporters of the club, while must not be overlooked by any worker who is Mr. William Cole has acted as hon. secretary, editor interested in mosquitoes either from a scientific or of the publications, and curator of the museums during the whole twenty-five years of the society's existence.

There are few, if any, local societies in this country which can show such a good record. The Essex Field Club has earned the gratitude, not only of its own county, but of the world of field naturalists generally for the splendid example which it has set in showing how such organisations can keep alive the spirit of scientific research in the rural districts. In congratulating the club on its past achievements, we feel sure that the wish that its future work may be carried on with equal success will be cordially endorsed by all readers of NATURE.

[graphic]

Fig. 2. -Stegomyra fasciata & at rest. THE MOSQUITOES OF PARÁ." IN 1859, when H. W. Bates returned from Pará, from a medical point of view. Several new forms are the town, though rapidly improving even then,

described; and on p. 73 even the musical note of was still a little-known Brazilian port, and Bates

Stegom yia fasciata is discussed-a slight but signifiembarked on a North American trading vessel, “ the

cant illustration of the intimate connection and interUnited States route being the quickest as well as the

dependence of all branches of human knowledge. pleasantest way of reaching England.” At present,

The figures which we have selected for reproduchowever, Pará is a very important place, and well

tion represent the larva and imago of Stegomyia up to date in scientific matters—if we may judge by fasciata.

W. F. K. the handsome publication before us, on one of the more recent branches of scientific inquiry--the transmission of yellow fever and other diseases by means

NOTES. of mosquitoes. Four essays are included in the present volume,

IN connection with the Conservatoire des Arts et the first dealing with the mosquitoes of Pará re Métiers, a museum of industrial hygiene will be opened garded as a public calamity. This section is devoted this month at Paris by the President of the Republic. to an historical sketch of the subject, the biology of mosquitoes, the views of various writers on the

PRINCE SERGE TROUBETZKOI, Rector of the University of sanitary importance of the subject, and on the urgent

Moscow, and professor of philosophy in that university, need of practical efforts to abate the evil.

died at St. Petersburg on October 12. I "Memorias do Museu Goeldi (Museu Paraense) de Historia Natural e The death is announced of Mr. A. C. Pass, one of the Fthnograpbia." IV. Os Mosquitos no Pará. Reunião de quatro trabalhos sobre os Mosquitos indigeras, principalmente as especies que molestam.. early and most enthusiastic members of the Bristol bomem. By Prof. Dr. Emilio Augusto Goeldi. With 100 figures in text and 5 chromolithographic plates.

Naturalists' Society, and for many years president of the Pp. 154. (Pará, Brazil : Č. Wiegandt, 1905 )

| geclogical section of the society.

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