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A VIOLENT shock of earthquake occurred at Monteleone delivered at the research meetings are : The study of the at 3.40 p.m. on October 14.. The shock was felt at individual, Dr. !. L. Tayler; and biological methods in Messina at 3:42 p.m.; and a shock is reported to have application to social problems, M. Waxweiler. occurred at Reggio di Calabria at 2.45 p.m.

An address of considerable importance from the standWe learn from the Times that the Royal Prussian point of the connection between scientific training and Aëronautic Observatory, recently completed, was opened industrial development was recently delivered by Mr. W. on Monday, October 16, at Lindenberg, in the province of Burton on the occasion of the prize distribution to students Brandenburg, in the presence of the Emperor William and of the county pottery classes at Tunstall, Staffordshire. the Prince of Monaco. The Emperor, in a speech, eulogised | At the outset Mr. Burton emphasised the fact that manuthe many services rendered by the Prince of Monaco to facturers in Staffordshire are beginning to realise the science, and conferred upon him the large golden medal value of technical schools as a means of training students for sciencc.

to be of real service to them. But, looking backwards, The post-graduate college, West London Hospital, was

few industries in this country have during the past thirty opened on October 12 with an introductory address by

years drawn so little aid from the resources of science as Mr. Tweedy, the president of the Royal College of

the pottery industry. The methods employed in ponery Surgeons, who emphasised the need for post-graduate

at the present day do not differ very greatly from those training in medicine, and suggested that a post-graduate

in use at the time of Josiah Wedgwocd, But in science course should be made compulsory after a certain period

there has been an almost phenomenal advance since the in a man's career.

early discoveries of Priestley, the contemporary and frierd

of Wedgwood. In taking up the study of pottery today, MR. WYNDHAM, M.P., was present at the annual con the student has to commence for himsell almost entirely versazione of the Chester Society of National Science and from the beginning; there is no accumulated store of Literature on October 12, and delivered an address. He knowledge and experience, such as cxists in all branches accompanied Lady Grosvenor, who made a presentation of science, from which he may draw. The supreme gist to Mr. Robert Newstead, formerly curator of the of scientific training in method, Mr. Burton continues, Grosvenor Museum and now attached to the Liverpool is the power to see. “How many problems are there School of Tropical Medicine. The gist consisted of a life that present themselves to us every day in our businesses size carbon portrait of himself and a purse of more than that really disappear-are no longer problems--if we once two hundred guineas. Lady Grosvenor also presented the see them clearly?” The commercial organiser of a busiKingsley medal to Dr. C. Theodore Green.

ness has two problems always facing him, first the As interesting account is given in the Times (October 10)

economic production of his goods, and secondly the disof the cancer department and cancer research at the

posal of these goods in the market. A scientific training, Middleses Hospital. Since 1792 the hospital has main

in so far as it gives knowledge tending to the solution of

these problems, is of direct value to the commercial side tained a separate cancer department by an endowment

of business; many problems can be solved only by scientific which first came through John Howard from Samuel Whitbread. The cancer wards, which now contain forty

methods. But, Mr. Burton urges in conclusion, manu

facturers should not look for too immediate results from nine beds, combine the functions of an almshouse or asylum with those of a hospital, for, in accordance with

the employment of a scientifically trained man. "Rethe purpose of the original foundation, the stay of patients

member, he must have time to apply his science to your

industry. He must have time for experiment, and must is not limited. Howard also contemplated new discoveries

be given both leisure and the fullest opportunity to follow from the investigation of a large number of patients and from the accumulated records of these.

out those lines of prolonged and systematic investigation

on which alone scientific knowledge has been built." The programme of the London Institution for the !

Tue September issue of the Proceedings of the Phula.

T. session 1905-6 includes the following lectures among

the following lectures among delphia Academy contains the first portion of a long paper others :-- The origin of the elephant, Prof. E. Ray

| by Mr. C. S. Sargent on the species of thorns of the genus Lankester, F.R.S. ; submarines, Sir W. H. White, K.C.B.,

Cratægus found in eastern Pennsylvania, mainly based on F.R.S.; geographical botany interpreted by direct response

collections and notes made by several local botanists. to the conditions of life, Rev. George Henslow; the Upper Nile, Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G.; variation in man and

The Irish Naturalist for ( teber opens with an illus woman, Prof. Kar! Pearson, F.R.S. ; our atmosphere and

trated paper by that enthusiastic ornithologist Mr. E its wonders, Prof. Vivian B. Lewes.

Williams on the recent occurrence in Ireland of a number

of specimens of the Greenland and Iceland falcons, mur The Sociological Society has now issued its programme

especially the former Previous records of the occurrener of meetings arranged for the winter session, along with

in Ireland of the Greenlard falcon included nineteen a list of papers to be delivered before its affiliated societies

instances, now raised to twenty-eight by the occurrence of in the universities of Oxford and Manchester. It is notice

no less than nine examples during the present year. On the able that a new departure has been made by the Socio

other hand, only two previous records of the occurrence on logical Society in the holding of research mectings (at

the Iceland falcon were known, this number being raised which papers of interest to specialists only will be read

to three by the capture of an immature female in Galway and discussed) in addition to its ordinary monthly meet

in March. The author speculates why the Iceland falcun ings for the reading and discussion of papers of general

should be so much more rare in Ireland than the far ricrr interest. The following papers have been arranged for the

distant Greenland species. ordinary monthly meetings :- The biological foundations of Tue Halifax Courier of September 30 contains a full sociology, Dr. Archdall Reid; the origin and function of report of a long paper, read at the first meeting far the religion, Mr. J. E. Crawley; and the Institut de Sociologie, 1 present session of the Halifax Scientific Society, on the its equipment and work, M. Waxweiler. The papers to be rducational value of the Bankfield Museum, by Mr. L

Roth, the hon. curator. This institution, which is under started; the rubber plants consist of Castilloa and the control of the Halifax municipality, is devoted to art, Funtumia. The work at the agricultural school in St. local history, numismatics, and ethnology, and it has Kitts is worthy of mention; the practical course includes been the object of the present curator during his whole term the cultivation of vegetables, the application of manures of office to make these collections thoroughly representative to pine and cotton crops, and the propagation of plants and of real educational value. Consequently he has by budding and cuttings. rigorously excluded from the exhibition cases all speci

We have received from the Minister of the Interior the mers coming merely under the designation of “curios,"

twenty-fourth Bulletin issued by the Peruvian Corps of and devoid of special local or educational interest-an

Mining Engineers. It contains the mineral statistics of example which might, by the way, be followed by the

Peru for 1904. The production in that year included authorities of at least one rate-supported local museum we could name. Whether this rigid censorship has aroused

59,920 tons of coal, 38,683 tons of petroleum, 2209 tons ill-feeling we cannot say, but at the conclusion of his

of lead, 9503 tons of copper, 2675 tons of borates, 18,544

tons of rock salt, 21 tons of sulphur, 145,165 kilograms address Mr. Roth referred in somewhat bitter terms to the

of silver, and 601 kilograms of gold. Compared with the apathy displayed by the municipal authorities towards his efforts. Certainly thirty-six guineas a year is not a lavish

production in the previous year, noteworthy increases are

shown. sum for the needs of such a museum, and the committee appear to have funds at their disposal which they refuse

The interesting paper on some phenomena of permanent to spend.

deformation in metals read by Mr. G. H. Gulliver, of

Edinburgh University, before the Institution of Mechanical No. 13 B. of the Publications de Circonstance, recently

Engineers in February has now been published in pamphlet issued in Copenhagen by the International Council for the

form. In making a tension test of a metal bar as soon Study of the Sea, contains an account of the present con

as the yield-point is reached, the deformation becomes dition of the German fisheries in the Baltic, and is a

visible to the naked eye as the well known Lüder's lines. continuation of the publication already issued (No. 13 A)

Hitherto the lines occurring at the yield-point have been on the Danish and Swedish fisheries in that sea. The

confused with the two straight depressions known as the present work has been prepared for the German Sea

“contractile cross." The author shows that the two Fisheries Association by Dr. E. Fischer in cooperation

phenomena are quite distinct. In his experiments flat with Prof. H. Henking. It gives in a concise form in

steel bars were used inch in thickness and of various formation as to the different kinds of fishing practised in

widths from 3 inch to 4 inches. the area, as well as an account of the boats, nets, and other fishing gear employed, and of the quantities and

The second part of the mines and quarries general values of the fish landed. The fluctuations of the various

report for 1904 has been issued by the Home Office. It fisheries from year to year for the last ten years are shown

contains statistics of the persons employed and of the in a series of tables and curves, and a number of litho

accidents that occurred. The total number of persons graphed charts illustrate the relative local abundance of

employed at mines and quarries in the United Kingdom different species of fish along the German coasts of the

and in the Isle of Man in 1904 was 974,634, of whom Baltic.

877,057 were employed at mines. The death rate from

accidents was 1.243 per 1000 persons employed at mines The second part of the first volume of the useful little

and 1:15 per 1000 at quarries. By the Act of 1903, the flora of the upper Gangetic plain, by Mr. J. F. Duthie, has

value of scientific training in mining is now shown to be been published recently ; it includes the orders Caprifoliaceae

appreciated by the Government, the holders of diplomas to Campanulaceæ, and the index to the volume.

at institutions approved by the Secretary of State for the The late Prof. L. Errera showed a marked preference

Home Department being eligible for managers' certificates for physiological problems, and one of his last papers,

after three years' practical experience instead of five as which is published in vol. xlii. of the Bulletin de la

was formerly the case. The list of institutions that have Société royale de botanique de Belge, takes up the difficult

been approved is given in the report, and comprises the

Royal School of Mines, the universities of Birmingham, subject of the ultimate cause behind reaction in plants. The paper deals with dominance and inhibitory action, as

Cambridge, Durham, Glasgow, Leeds, London, Oxford, exemplified in the correlation existing between the direc

Sheffield and Wales, the University College, Bristol, the tions assumed by the main vertical shoot of a tree and its

Glasgow Technical College, and the Wigan Mining College. branches under the influence of geotropic stimulus. Nutri In the American Journal of Science (vol. xx., No. 118) tion or polarity has generally been invoked to furnish an Mr. Bertram B. Boltwood quotes a number of analyses of explanation, but Prof. Errera argues in favour of inhibit minerals containing uranium and thorium, and interprets ing action, possibly due to internal secretions.

them by assuming that the ultimate disintegration proREPORTS for 1904-5 on the botanic stations at Antigua

ducts of the radio-active elements may include lead, and St. Kitts have been received. Owing to the want of

barium, bismuth, the rare earths, argon, and hydrogen. uniformity in the amount of fucs on the cotton seed

The question is raised whether the quantities of these imported from the Sea Islands into Antigua, some doubt

elements actually existing in nature have not been produced was expressed as to its purity. To test the matter some

wholly by some such process of disintegration. of the seed was graded, and each grade was sown on a In the Atti dei Lincei (vol. xiv. p. 188) B. Gosio deseparate plot ; however, on reaping the cotton, the lint from scribes how the decomposition of exceedingly dilute the different plots did not present any marked difference, solutions of alkaline selenites, or, better, of alkaline and the seed was no more uniform than before. The con tellurites, may be utilised as a delicate test for living ilusion is drawn that the character of the lint is fixed, and bacterial contamination. Most living bacteria are capable does not alter with variations in the character of the of decomposing potassium tellurite with the production seed. In St. Kitts and Nevis interest attaches to the of a blackish precipitate, becoming themselves, when viewed cacao and rubber plantations which have been recently under the microscope, tinged blackish grey. Dead bac

teria or spores not undergoing actual development are NATURE of November 20, 1902 (vol. lxvii. p. 53), and it is totally without action on a solution of the tellurite. The only necessary to mention that more examples have been test seems to be especially useful for ensuring sterility in added to the appendix, and that particulars of the the case of liquids or therapeutic sera destined for hypo " Wright" and other electrolytic meters have been dernic injection.

inserted. The many thermoelectric methods which have been A Second edition of Mr. J. W. Russell's “ Elementary devised during the past few years for the measurement of Treatise on Pure Geometry " has been published by the very high and of very low temperatures have proved them Clarendon Press. The first edition of the book was noticed selves of a wide and general utility. But hitherto no in our issue of June 1, 1893 (vol. xlviii. p. 101). Besides instrument of a similar type has been made available for numerous small improvements throughout, other changes the accurate measurement of temperatures between o° C. have been made in the revised edition, and among the and 200° C. In the Physical Review (vol. xxi. p. 65) Mr. may be mentioned the re-arrangement of the examples and A. de Forest Palmer describes a thermojunction consisting the omission of redundant ones. Each chapter has been of a soft iron wire in conjunction with an “advance" made independent of following chapters; more use has wire containing copper, nickel, and iron, by means of been made of projection in proofs of theorems, and corre which temperatures within the extremes named may be lative theorems have been proved by reciprocation. An determined with an error not exceeding 0:04 per cent. index has been added. Such an instrument is easily calibrated, and in certain

MESSRS. FLATTERS AND GARNETT, LID., Deansgate, Maocircumstances can profitably replace a mercury thermo

chester, have sent us a specimen of new storage cabinets meter of a corresponding degree of accuracy.

made by them for lantern slides. Each drawer of the Le Radium for September (20 année, No. 9) contains cabinet will hold 100 slides in five divisions, and is fitted articles on the influence of the connections on the action with brass handle and space for movable card label. of vacuum tubes, by M. Charbonneau, on the treatment Single drawers are supplied, and cabinets are made with of cancer with radium, by M. Darier, and a summary of four, six, twelve, and twenty-four drawers. There are no current work connected with radio-activity.

grooves in the drawers, but the top edges are cut down a

little, so that the slides rise above the edges and can The Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute for October

readily be lifted out. The cabinets provide a convenient (xxvi., No. 9) contains articles on the administration of

and neat means of storing lantern slides. A despatch box the Food and Drugs Act, by Mr. Wellesley Harris, on the

also submitted by Messrs. Flatters and Garnett is fitted waste of infant life, by Dr. Nash, on hygiene in education,

at cach end with a strip of brass which clasps the cover by Mr. White Wallis, and notes on common parasites found

when the slides are in transit, and can be swung of in bodies of animals used for food, by Mr. King.

immediately the slides are required. This box has the We have received Contributions from the Research usual rubber packing to prevent shock and breakage. Laboratory and Sewage Esperimental Station," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, vol. i., 1905. It

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. contains several valuable papers, e.g. the mode of action of the contact filter in sewage purification, by Messrs.

ANOTHER LARGE SUN-SPOT.—Another large group of sun

spots, the fourth or fifth this year to be visible to the proPhelps and Farrell, determination of organic nitrogen in

| tected naked-eye, is now to be seen on the solar disc not sewage by the Kjeldahl process, by Mr. Phelps, a study of

very far from the centre. The group, which consists of the methods in current use for the determination of free a large number of separate small nuclei, is, roughly, and albumenoid ammonia in sewage, by Mr. Phelps, and 100,000 miles across its longest diameter, and was first determination of the number of bacteria in sewage, &c., seen coming round the limb on Saturday, October 14. by Mr. Winslow.

M. BIGOURDAN'S ECLIPSE RESULTS.-M. Bigourdan, who

was placed in charge of the Bureau des Longitudes exMessrs. F. VIEWEG AND Sox, Brunswick, have published pedition to Sfax (Tunis) to observe the recent total eclipse a fourth edition of “Hauptsätze der Differential- und of the sun, communicated the preliminary results of his Integral-rechnung,” by Prof. R. Fricke.

observations to a meeting of the Paris Academy of Sciences

held on October 2. The greater part of his cominunication MR. W. B. Clive has published a third edition of Dr. consisted of descriptions of the instruments employed and G. II. Bailey's “ Second Stage Inorganic Chemistry

the conditions they were employed under. (Theoretical).” This edition has been re-written and

A coronagraph, designed to take numerous large-scale

photographs, in order to show the relation between the enlarged.

details of the inner corona and those on the corresponding The third, revised edition of “ Leitfaden für das 200

regions of the solar disc, became deranged after the second logische Praktikum," by Prof. W. Kükenthal, has been

plate was exposed, but the two plates obtained show published by Mr. Gustav Fischer, Jena.

numerous details of the inner corona. In a second cornoThe second

graph, of 0.95 m. focal length and 0.15 m. aperture, a edition of this work was reviewed in NATURE of April 24, green glass screen, transmitting only those wave-lengths 1902 (vol. Ixv. p. 581).

near to 1 530, was placed in front of the plate, and the

exposure made to last throughout totality. Tue first part of a work on “ Die ätherischen Öle," by

The negatite

obtained shows the corona extending for about 30' from Dr. F. W. Semmler, has just been received from the pub the moon's limb. lishers, Messrs. Veit and Co., Leipzig. It is proposed to Two spectroscopes having slits much longer than the issue the work in twelve parts which will make up three

diameter of the solar image were employed, the slits bring volumes, to be completed during next year. The work

so arranged that the spectrum of the coronal radiations si will be noticed when the whole of the parts have been

points situated at the ends of the sun's axis and equatur

respectively might be photographed. Photometric obser. received.

ations of the corona, both visual and photographic, mire A THIRD edition of Mr. Tyson Sewell's “ Elements of

also made. Electrical Engineering " has been published by Messrs.

Observations of the terrestrial magnetic elements shoard

that the variations caused by the interposition of the moun Crosby Lockwood and Son. The book was reviewed in were but small. The shadow bands formed a very striking

feature of this eclipse, and were recorded by many observers at Sfax as being sinuous, undulating, and nearly parallel.

INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON RADIOLOGY They travelled at a rate equal to the average walking pace

AND IONISATION. of a man (Comptes rendus, No. 14).

THE first international congress for the study of ATMOSPHERIC ORIGIN OF “SHADOW BANDS."-In No. radiology and ionisation, organised under the auspices 4049 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Signor T. Zona, of the Belgian Government, was held at Liége on of Palermo, suggests that the shadow bands observed September 12-14. The work of the congress was divided during a total eclipse of the sun are of a purely atmo into two sections, devoted respectively to physical and spheric origin. He has observed that the rays of light biological science. The first section dealt with the followprojected from a man-of-war's searchlight on to a wall ing questions :-41) physics of electrons, comprising also several kilometres from the ship exhibit just the same radiations of all kinds; (2) radio-activity and the accomkind of light and dark bands that he observed at Sfax panying transformations ; (3) meteorological and astroduring the recent solar eclipse.

nomical phenomena attributable to ionisation, radio-activity, Similarly, he noticed that the light from Venus projected and to radiations of different kinds. The second section through a small window on to the opposite wall of the had for its scope the study of the physiological properties room in which he was seated exhibited the same appear of the radiations and their application in medicine. unce.

The opening session of the congress was held in the Signor Zona suggests that the atmospheric vibrations physics theatre of the University of Liége on September 12 which cause the agitation seen at the sun's limb, when under the presidency of Prof. Kuborn, member of the Royal the latter is observed directly, are the cause of the Belgian Academy of Medicine. Among the members present oscillating bands seen during total eclipses.

may be named Profs. Becquerel, Bouchard, and Bergonié, reSPECTROGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF THE SOLAR

presenting the French Republic, Señor J. Muñoz del Castillo, PARALLAX.-In Nos. 4048-9 of the Astronomische Nach

| Officially representing Spain, Drs. E. F. Nichols and W. richten Herr F. Küstner describes in detail a method which

Dieffenbach (United States), Prof. Hurmuzescu (Roumania), he has employed to determine the sun's parallax spectro

Prof. Gillon (Italy), Dr. Yankorits (Servia), Lion Sy Thang graphically, from measurements of sixteen lines on each

(China), Dr. Arrago (Guatemala), Dr. Ortiz (Argentine). of eighteen spectrograms of Arcturus, obtained during the

Prof. Lassar represented the Röntgen Association of Berlin, period June 24, 1904-January 15, 1905. with the Bonn

Prof. Onnen the Royal Society of Batavia, and Mr. Wilton spectrograph. From these measurements he found the

the University of Adelaide, South Australia. The followradial velocity of Arcturus relative to the sun to be

ing were also present :-Messrs. Birkeland, Himstedt -4.83 +0.27 km. for the epoch 1904.8, and the value for

(Freiburg in B.), Gariel (Paris), and Legge (London). the mean velocity of the earth to be 29.617 + 0.057 km.,

Sir William Ramsay had intended to present an address the accepted value for the velocity of light in vacuo being

on radio-thorium, but in his unavoidable absence it was 299865 # 26 km. per second.

read on his behalf. M. Becquerel gave a lecture on the As the solar parallax previously accepted, viz. 8".800, is

analysis of the radiations of radio-active substances. The based on the assumption that the earth's velocity is

address will be published in the Comptes rendus of the 29-765 km., and as these two quantities vary proportionally,

congress, shortly to be issued by the organising committee it follows that with a more correct value for the latter a

(general offices, No. i Rue de la Prévôté, Brussels). more refined value for the former may be determined.

On September 13 a general meeting was held. Prof. Having made the determination, Herr Küstner arrives

Wind, of Utrecht, presented a communication on the at the quantity 8".844 0".017 as his final result for the

diffraction and wave-length of the n-rays, and demonstrated value of the solar parallax.

the character of the apparatus designed by his colleague

M. Haga and himself for the study of this much controNova AQUILÆ No. 2.—The results of several recent

verted question. Prof. Lassar, of Berlin, gave an account observations of the Fleming Nova are published in No.

of the practical application of the new radiations. M. 4049 of the Astronomische Nachrichten.

Tommasina, of Geneva, described a study of the radioProf. Wolf, observing on September 17 at Sh. 4:3m.

activity produced by atmospheric air (Elster and Geitel's (Konigstühl M.T.), found the Nova's magnitude to be

phenomenon), and papers relating to the therapeutic action 9.6, showing a decrease of not quite 0-3 mag. since of the X-rays and of radium were read by Drs. Bergonié September 4.

(Bordeaux), Dieffenbach (New York), and Kassabian Dr. Guthnick, observing at Bothkamp, obtained the

(Philadelphia). The latter's hands, owing to their frequent photometric resuits shown in the following table :-

exposure to the radiations used for therapeutic treatment, 1905 M.T. Berlin Mag, 1905 M. T. Berlin Mag. have during the past few years undergone characteristic Sept. 5 .. 8 gh. ... 10'32 Sept. 14 ... 8.3h. ... 10:47 changes. 8 ... 10'3h. ... 10:30

19 ... 9'2h, ... 10:55

The following papers of noteworthy interest were pre, 12 ... 10'Ib. ... 10'40 , 22 ... 9'3h. ... 10 66 sented at later meetings :-Remarks relative to the termin, 13 ... 9 oh... 10:52 | 1 23 ... 9'1h. ... 1063

ology of ionisation, Prof. de Hemptinne (Louvain); dis

ruptive discharge in gases at high pressures, Prof. Guye The magnitudes are based on those given for the com

(Geneva); the spectroscopic study of radium light, Prof. parison stars in the Harvard photometric revision of the Himstedt (Freiburg in B.): the kinetic theory of the B.D. catalogue.

electron serving as a basis for the electronic theory of LIGHT-VARIATION OF SATURN'S SATELLITES.- From observ- radiation, Dr. Tommasina (Geneva); on the radio-active ations made on twelve evenings, Dr. P. Guthnick, of constituents of sediments from Echaillon and SalinsBothkamp Observatory, has determined the phases of the Moutiers, Dr. Blanc (Rome); a new apparatus for determagnitude changes of Tethys, Dione, Rhea, and Titan. I mining the radio-activity of spring-waters, Dr. H. Sieve

He found that the first named is brightest when at king (Karlsruhe); Moser's radiations, Prof. Piltschikoff easterly elongation (90°) and faintest at about 330°, Dione (Kharkoff): discharge phenomena caused by X-rays and reaches its maximum brightness at 90° and its minimum radium radiations, and the transformation of these rays, at about 40°. Rhea apparently has two maxima, one at Prof. Hurmuzescu ; critical observations on the theories of 40°-120° and a fainter one at 240° the corresponding atomic disintegration and chemicophysical dissociation, minima occurring at 180° and 330° respectively. The Prof. Muñoz del Castillo; the method of transmission of maximum brightness of Titan occurs at 240°, its minimum excited activity to the kathode, Mr. Makower (Manchester); brightness at 20°. In regard to Japetus, Dr. Guthnick's radio-activity of the lava from Vesuvius (eruption of 1904), observations confirm the results obtained by Prof. Picker- | Dr. Tommasina; on the change of properties of the ing, viz. that the maximum brightness of that satellite chemical elements, Prof. Fabinyi (Kolozsvar, Hungary); occurs at the western, and the minimum at the eastern, 1 (1) the experimental methods of studying the transformelongation. The range of light-variation for each of the ! ations of the X-rays and the secondary rays resulting theresatellites Tethys, Dione, and Titan is about 0.75 mag., 1 from, (2) classification and mechanism of the different for Rhea about 1.0 mag., and for Japetus about 1.75 mag. electric phenomena caused by the X-rays, Prof. Sagnac (Astronomische Vachrichten, No. 4049).

(Paris); absorption phenomena of radium and polonium

rays, Prof. Riecke (Göttingen), paper presented by Dr. ) and that the Salopian Permian on either side of the Emil Bose.

Pennine Chain conforms to the Coal-measures, but is unLimitations of space prevent the enumeration of papers conformably overlain on the eastern side by the Magnesian not read at the congress but accepted for insertion in the Limestone series. Comptes rendus, as well as of the communications read It has been found advisable to adopt purely descriptive before the biological section. The final meeting of the terms for various subdivisions, and for similar reasons the congress was held on September 14. After several interest expressions Upper, Middle, and Lower Coal-measures have ing communications had been read, including one from

not been adopted, since the positions of the palæontological Sir William Huggins, presented by Prof. Becquerel, the

boundary lines which give a definite significance to the following motion was put before the meeting by the

terms have not been determined with accuracy. Since the executive of the congress, acting at the wish of Prof. Jose memoir was written, Mr. R. Kidston has contributed a Muñoz del Castillo :

paper to the Geological Society on the divisions and corre The International Congress for the Study of Radiology

lation of the upper portions of the Coal-measures, in and Ionisation assembled in plenary session at Liége on which he proposes the name “ Staffordian " for the series September 14, 1905, considers that, although State regula included between the Black Band group and the Newcastletion and protection may sometimes impede free research

under-Lyme group, while the Keele group and similar beds among men of science, it is, however, necessary that

in the Midland coalfields, hitherto referred to the Permian Governments should, without creating monopolies, be

system, are classed with the Radstock group, previously brought to apply to radio-active substances the same legis called Upper Coal-measures. The distribution of the lative measures that prevent the monopolisation of other

plants certainly favours such a classification, but there is useful substances, and should guarantee by the play of

evidence which seems to show a gradual passage of one economic laws free scientific research and the application

group into another, and Dr. Hind, who has devoted conof these substances to the treatment of the sick; and con

siderable attention to the study of the lamellibranchs, is siders also that it is desirable to be able to advise or remind

not in favour of the proposed subdivision. the Governments of the importance of these measures and

One of the most pleasing features is the accurate and that a permanent commission invested with powers by the complete description of the palæontology, which is treated actual congress, an assembly of men of science devoted to in detail by Mr. John Ward, and is accompanied by full the study of these questions and belonging to different

lists, with six plates, of the common fossils of the Coalcountries, would carry weight in discussing with public

ineasures. The Pottery Coalfield has long been recognised authorities matters appertaining to the needs of science or as an unrivalled field for the study of Carboniferous fishes, the requirements of the sick. It has therefore decided

the study of which has to some extent overshadowed the (1) That an international commission for examining all

examination of a numerous and varied series of molluscan questions of general interest relative to radio-active sub

remains and the equally abundant flora it has yielded. stances shall be instituted.

In this section Dr. W. Hind has given Mr. Ward a great (2) That the commission shall meet regularly each year,

eer regularly each year, deal of assistance. The fossil fishes have been named by and may be convened on any exceptional occasion by the

Dr. Traquair and Dr. Smith Woodward, while the plants president, acting with the majority of the executive.

have been dealt with by Mr. Kidston. A complete geo(3) That it shall organise periodically international

logical bibliography of the North Staffordshire coalfields, congresses, to meet every five vears, and shall also be

covering fifteen pages, forms a valuable appendix. empowered to convene the congress in extraordinary

The Triassic and Glacial deposits are described in session. (4) That the members of this commission shall be subject

separate chapters, and the economic products of the Pottery

Coalfields are treated in chapter xü. The latter account to re-election at each meeting of the International

includes the consideration of the future coal supply of the Congress.

district from the concealed coalfield, to which consider

able attention is paid. In addition descriptions are added THE COALFIELDS OF NORTH

of the local building stones, clays, and marls, supplemented STAFFORDSHIRE.

by an enumeration of the chief source of water.

H. W. HIGHES THE memoir described below contains detailed accounts

of the coalfields of North Staffordshire, especially those of the Pottery and Cheadle Coalfields. The re-survey THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWER.' on the 6-inch scale was commenced in 1898 and completed

TWENTY-SIX vears ago, at the meeting of the British in 1901. The present volume, which contains detailed de

Association at Sheffield, August, 1879, a lecture, on scriptions furnished by each geologist of the area surveyed

* Electricity as a Votive Power," was delivered to some by himself, has been largely written and edited by Mr.

thousands of working men, and, for the first time, they Gibson, who personally carried out the greater part of

realised that forks and spoons could not only be plated the field-work. It was pointed out by Beete Jukes long

with the electric current, but could also be polished with ago that, so far as the higher portions of the Coal-measures

a brush made to spin with the same agency. were concerned, North Staffordshire provided the type de

The sea of upturned faces beamed with delight when velopment of the Midlands. Mr. Gibson has now estab

Jack, their popular comrade, stepped on to the platform, lished in that region a definite stratigraphical sequence in

took the newly plated spoon in his hands, and burnished it the comparatively barren strata which conformably overlie

-a pair of thin wires tied to a church stecple being the the productive Coal-measures, and he has also proved that

only connecting link between the dynamo machine in a the same sequence may be recognised in the other coal

neighbouring wcrks -ordinarily used there for electrofields of the Midland area,

plating-and the electro-motor driving the polishing brush The chief points of interest are contained in chapter iv.,

er lV., in the Albert Hall, Sheffield. which describes fully the determination of the Newcastle

But an electro-motor is only a toy, thought my audience: under-Lyme group, the Etruria Marl group, and the Black

nobody could construct an electro-motor that we could Band group, and more particularly the removal of Hull's

not stop with our hands; and at the end of my lecture * Salopian Permian" into the Carboniferous. A full

they actually tried, and—wondered. account of the palæontological and stratigraphical evidence

As far as I am aware, it was at that lecture that the on which this change is based is given at pp. 53 to 55. | following composite Suggestion was first put forward-to The evidence shows that the Salopian Permian of Stafford

obtain economy in electric transmission of power the current shire, Denbighshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, and in must be kept small, while to transmit much power the all probability Lancashire, occurs as the highest group of electric pressure between the conducting wires must be at definite sequence everywhere overlying the higher beds made large ; and, lastly, to secure safety and convenience of the true Coal-measures, but never discordant to them,

i Lecture delivered on Tuesday, August 29 at a meeting of the Britis i “Memoirs of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. The North Association in Johannesburg, by Prof. w. E. Ayrton, F.R.S., and illas Staffordshire Coalfields." By W. Gibson. With Contributions by G. trated with many experiments in moving machinery, diagrams * Barrow, C. B. Wedd, and J. Ward. Pp. vii + 404 : with 1 Coloured Map lantern slides, tivo lanterns being used, in the American fashion, for and o Plates. (London : Edward Stanford, 1905.) Price 6s.

enabling pictures to be contrasted on the screen.

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