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students had passed through it. They had to thank Sir John Craggs for founding a scholarship and prize, and Mr. Bomanji Petit, a Parsee gentleman, for a contribution of 70001. The committee now asked for the sum of rob.000l. for endowment, which amount was a mere drop in the bucket in comparison with the Liverpool subscriptions. The other speakers were Sir P. Manson, Mr. Alfred Lyttelton, M.P., Lord Strathcona, and the Duke of Marlborough, and among the 400 guests were Lord Rothschild, Sir Douglas Powell, Sir T. Barlow, the Hon. Sydney Holland, Sir Alfred Jones, Prof. Blanchard, Prof. Dunstan, the Hon. John Cockburn, Major Ronald Ross, Sir A. W. Rücker, Mr. Jonathan Hutchinson, Sir W. S. Church, and Mr. Watson Cheyne. Subscriptions and donations to the amount of more than 10,000l. were received.
Tu visit of the French doctors to London last summer was so successful that a return visit of their British confreres to Paris was arranged, and the party arrived on May 10. The proceedings commenced with an evening reception at the Sorbonne. M. Ziard, president of the university council, and Dr. Bouchard, Sir William Broadbent, chairman of the London executive committee, Prof. Clifford Allbutt, of Cambridge, and Dr. George Ogilvie, Semor physician to the French Hospital, London, exchanged mutually congratulatory speeches. The extensive and beautiful university buildings were thrown open, and were much admired. On Saturday the visitors attended a reception at the Pasteur Institute. Dr. Roux, the director of the establishment, welcomed the visitors in a short speech, in which he recalled the great services rendered to Pasteur by Lister. In the crypt of the institute, the dean of the medical faculty of the University of London, Dr. J. K. Fowler, laid a wreath upon Pasteur's tomb bearing the following inscription:"A ce grand Pasteur, le bienfaiteur de la race humaine.' In the course of his address Dr. Fowler is reported by the Parix correspondent of the Times to have said:" We desire to offer a tribute of our profound admiration for the great Frenchman whose noble life and example will ever be an inspiration to those who, like him, are devoted to the cause of science. The discoveries of Pasteur alone would suffice to give the nineteenth century a preeminent place in the annals of science. Science knows no frontiers; it unites in a common brotherhood all who devote their lives to its service. Those who humbly follow, no matter at how great a distance, in the footsteps of Pasteur help to unite the peoples of the world. We are convinced that the friendship between France and Great Britain will ever continue to increase in cordiality, and that the two nations will work in accord for the advancement of science and will only strive for the attainment of one noble aim, the peace of the world." On Saturday evening a banquet was held under the presidency of Prof. Bouchard, who, after reading a congratulatory telegram from M. Loubet, announced that he had received from the President of the Republic the mission to bestow upon Sir William Broadbent the insignia of the rank of Commander of the Legion
A REUTER telegram from Berlin reports that in the course of excavations in the neighbourhood of Breslau 400 graves and 150 prehistoric dwelling places were brought to light. The oldest of the graves contained bones dating from a period previous to the Bronze age, and in another grave near by were found urns showing that they had contained bodies interred five centuries later. The excavators have been able to trace the site of a village
of the Bronze age. About a dozen huts are clearly recognisable. A whole collection of spinning and weaving appliances has also been dug up.
PROF. F. A. FOREL, writing from Morges, directs our attention to an earthquake which occurred on April 29 last. The centre of the seismic disturbance appears to have been in the neighbourhood of Martigny, Argentière, and Chamonix, and its intensity at the centre was viii. on the Rossi-Forel scale. The time of the principal shock was April 29, 1h. 45m. Greenwich time. The seismic area was of 250 kilometres radius, and included 200,000 square kilometres, comprising Valais, western, central, and eastern Switzerland, upper Italy, and western France. Further shocks were experienced at Martigny and Chamonix on May 1 at 19h. 22m. and 21h. 53m.; on May 2 the movements were very slight, and on May 6 a shock occurred at 4h. 45m.
REUTER'S Agency is informed that Mr. W. Champ, the leader of the expedition which is being dispatched to Franz Josef Land to rescue the twenty-six American explorers who have been in the Arctic for the past two winters with their ship, the America, left England on Saturday for Bergen. He was accompanied to Norway by Dr. Oliver L. Fassig, who has been dispatched by the United States Weather Bureau and the National Geographic Society of Washington to be their representative on the second relief ship, which will be dispatched from Norway to the east coast of Greenland. The main relief expedition, of which Mr. Champ is in command, will leave Tromsö in about a fortnight on board the Terra Nova, and will make straight for Cape Flora, Franz Josef Land, where it is expected that records will be found, and probably also some of the explorers who, under Mr. Fiala, the leader of the expedition, have been cut off from all communication with the outside world since July, 1903.
MESSRS. FRIEDLÄNDER AND SON, of Berlin, have sent us a copy of a catalogue of books and pamphlets dealing with the anatomy and physiology of invertebrates.
To the April issue of our Scandinavian namesake, Naturen, Dr. H. Magnus contributes the final instalment of his account of South Polar expeditions.
THE birds of the Isle of Pines (about 60 miles south of Cuba), by Messrs. Bangs and Zappey, and the fifth instalment of Dr. B. M. Davis's studies on the plant-cell, constitute the contents of the April number of the American Naturalist.
No. 3 of the "Cold Spring Harbour Monographs," by Miss Smallwood, is devoted to the Salt-Marsh amphipod Orchestia palustris, a species showing more decidedly terrestrial habits than its immediate relatives, and therefore, presumably, a more specialised type.
THE two plates issued in No. 3 of vol. xxv. of Notes from the Leyden Museum illustrate papers on molluscs. In the first of these Mr. M. M. Schepman describes a new species of Trochus from the Indian Ocean, and the adult condition of Bathybembix aeola, a Japanese form originally described from an immature specimen collected during the voyage of the Challenger. In the second Dr. H. F. Nierstrasz reviews the collection of chitons in the Leyden Museum, describing new species.
THE hereditary relations of plants to the diurnal and seasonal periods of their environment form the subject of an instructive article by Dr. R. Semon in Biologisches Centralblatt of April 15. In the same issue Dr. Wasmann
continues the account of his researches into the development of slavery among ants. It is interesting to note that the various local races of the widely distributed Polyergus rufescens respectively possess different types of slave-ants, which are for the most part subspecies of Formica fusca, although in one case the enslaved species is F. nitidiventris.
IN connection with the latter part of the preceding paragraph, it may be mentioned that the April number of Himmel und Erde (Berlin) contains an illustrated popular account of the flower-gardens "made by ants in the crowns of trees in Amazonia and Peru, as discovered and described by Mr. E. Ule. These gardens," or perhaps we might rather say baskets,' are shown in various stages of growth, from the time when the plants are just budding until the long slender leaves of Streptocalyx angustifolius, which appears to be the favourite species, are fully developed. All the plants cultivated appear to have very minute seeds, or spores, which seem to be sown by the ants in their nests.
MR. L. M. LAMBE has sent us a copy of a paper by himself from the Ottawa Naturalist (vol. xix., part i.) on a large new species of sponge of the genus Esperella from the Pacific coast of Canada. We have also received a pamphlet on the life-history of the pear-midge (Diplosis pyrivora), by Mr. W. E. Collinge, published by Cornish Brothers, Ltd., Birmingham, as No. 2 of " Reports on Economic Zoology." It contains good figures of the various stages of the development of this pernicious insect, showing the manner in which it destroys young pears.
AMONG other articles in Naturwissenschaftliche Wochenschrift for April 30 is one by Dr. J. Meisenheimer summarising the results of recent investigations with regard to the origin and formation of pearls. Several illustrations indicate the positions in which pearls are usually found in shell-fish, while others show their internal structure, and others, again, the parasites usually constituting the nucleus. The researches of Mr. H. L. Jameson and of Messrs. Herdman and Hornell form the basis of a large portion of the paper.
IT has been repeatedly noticed that when a pair of rooks attempt to build apart from the rest in a tree previously unoccupied, the other members of the colony not unfrequently set to work to destroy the nest. An event of this nature is recorded in the Craven Herald of April 28 as having taken place in the churchyard of Christ Church, Skipton. In this instance a pair of rooks had built in a tree overhanging Cross Street, and the female was incubating her eggs. While thus engaged she was attacked by the other rooks, who pecked her to death, throwing the body, together with the broken eggs and the ruined nest, to the ground. The attack was witnessed by many
ACCORDING to Mr. E. E. Green, in the March number of Spolia Zeylanica, the elephant-mosquito (Toxorhynchites immisericors) differs from Anopheles and many other members of the gnat family in that the larva is carnivorous. This carnivorous habit was suggested by the structure of the head of the larva, and observation showed that these larvæ prey upon one another as well as upon those of other gnats. In fact, but a single survivor was eventually left when a number of larvæ were placed in the same receptacle. In a second article Mr. A. J. Chalmers records the species of Anophelinæ found in Ceylon, while a third Mr. H. Schoutenden contributes notes on
Ceylonese aphides, with descriptions of new forms. Considerable interest attaches to a note by J. Hagenbeck in the same issue on an incubating python which safely brought off a number of young snakes.
IN the Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie, vol. Ixxix., part i., Mr. O. Schroeder, of Heidelberg, discusses the abdominal sense-organ, or so-called abdominal eye, of the palolo worm (Eunice viridis) of Samoa. This organ differs so widely from all definitely known types of eyes that it is difficult to find a basis of comparison. Indeed, whether it is an organ for the perception of light at all is extremely doubtful. The reasons that it has been regarded as such are the presence of nerve-cells, pigment, and a lens; but similar pigment is found in other parts of the creature's body, while the so-called lens would not come under the optician's definition of such an instrument. Pigment and lens-like structures are not unfrequently met with in luminous organs, but the so-called eye of the palolo worm certainly does not come under this category. In no other annelid has a similar organ been detected. The other articles in the same issue include one by Mr. P. Heinemann on the development of the mesoderm and the structure of the tail in the ascidian larva; a second, by Dr. M. Lass, on the histological anatomy of the female dog-flea; and a third, by Mr. A. Rufini, on the existence of an undescribed sheath in the terminal tract of human
PROF. W. B. BENHAM, writing from the Otago University Museum, Dunedin, comments upon Dr. Alex. Hill's letter in our issue of February 2 on Can Birds Smell?" Prof. Benham says that several points concerning the structure and habits of the kiwi suggest that its sense of smell is possibly highly developed. The nostrils, instead of being at the base of the beak, are at the extreme tip and on the under surface. The olfactory sacs, with their complex of turbinals, extend so far back as to project into the orbits, the eyes being separated by them instead of by a thin bony interorbital septum. The eyes of the bird are small and inefficient, notwithstanding its nocturnal habits, and observers state that the kiwi seeks its food by its sense of smell or hearing. In searching for food, the bird thrusts its beak into moss, piles of leaves, or into holes in the ground, and assumes an attitude suggestive of trying to obtain evidence of the presence of food either by smell or by listening for the sound of movements made by a worm in its burrow. These statements suggest the probability of a well developed sense of smell by the kiwi, and Prof. Benham hopes to have experiments carried out on the apteryx, oxydromus, and stringops in order to obtain evidence upon the matter.
THE Century Magazine for May contains articles by Mr. Brush on the evolution of the arc electric light, by Mr. Holland on the recently discovered white bear of northwestern British Columbia, and by Dr. McGee on the Japanese Army medical service. In the last named the organisation is described, particularly the arrangements in force for treating and transporting the large number of wounded from the seat of war, and the sanitary arrangements whereby typhoid and dysentery, the great scourges of armies in the field, are hardly known.
THE April number of the Bulletin of the Trinidad Botanical Department contains articles on the phosphoric acid requirement of cacao plants, and on coffee curing for the small settler. The record of the visits paid by the two agricultural instructors to different districts and schools shows that their services are highly appreciated throughout the island.
The fact is not generally known that species of the rad Zamia can be artificially multiplied by cuttings. The subject of regeneration in Zamia is treated by Dr. J. M. Coulter and Mr. M. A. Chrysler in the Botanical Gazette (December, 1904). As a rule, new growth proceeds from meristematic tissue of the cork, but an instance is mentioned in which a portion consisting only of cortex gave rise to new shoots and root.
THE Department of Agriculture at Nairobi has instituted a series of leaflets which should be most useful to settlers in British East Africa. The first, issued in January, gives the native names in different dialects for the principal crops. A second provides some useful hints for cotton cultivators. Egyptian seed is recommended in preference to Sea Island or upland American, because, so far as experience goes, it has produced heavier crops, and also because it has been less affected by unfavourable conditions of the weather.
WE have received vol. xxvii. of Aus dem Archiv der deutschen Seewarte, for the year 1904. This valuable work, like its predecessors, contains some important discussions of meteorological and kindred subjects by well known men of science. One by Dr. W. J. van Bebber, entitled "Barometer and Weather," is of especial interest to meteorologists. He discusses, with reference to Hamburg more particularly, the relations of barometrical conditions to rainfall, temperature, and weather generally for the year, seasons, and months, for a period of twenty-five years. On this subject he brings to bear the special knowledge obtained as chief for many years of the Hamburg weather forecast department.
THE Meteorological Office has issued a circular stating that it will, as before, supply forecasts of weather by telegraph to agriculturists during the coming harvest
ason, at the cost of telegraphy only. These forecasts are prepared each afternoon from June 1 to September 30, except Sundays; but in view of the suspension of agricultural work on that day the office will, if required, transmit special forecasts on Saturday evening, giving, in very general terms, the prospects of the weather for the ensuing forty-eight hours. In the last published annual report of the office it is stated that many of the recipients of these forecasts keep a record of the weather experienced during the time the forecasts are sent, and return them to the office for the purpose of checking the results. From this comparison it appears that about 50 per cent. of the telegrams were completely successful.
MESSES. CARL ZEISS, of Jena, have issued a new catalogue (in English) of their photomicrographic outfit for use with ultra-violet light of wave-length 0-275 μ, in addition to several catalogues of new ordinary microscope stands. The whole of the glasses-eye-piece, objective, slips and cover glasses-are of fused quartz, and the source of light is supplied by the current of sparks of a Leyden jar between cadmium electrodes. We notice one tion-dissolving power should be resolving power. ASSLER'S planimeter is SO well known to mathematicians that there is no need to direct their attention to its usefulness. We have, however, just received a small pamphlet by Mr. William Codd (London: E. and F. N. Spon) entitled " Land Area Computation made Easy," the object of which is to show non-mathematical readers how simple is the process of computing areas from maps or plans with this instrument. Mr. Codd has also, we learn, published land area tables" to facilitate reduction to acres, roods, and perches, thereby saving the tedious calculations which are unnecessary in countries using the metric
A SERIES of observations on respiration at high altitudes is described by Prof. Angelo Mosso in the Atti dei Lincei, xiv. (1) 6. A special feature of these observations is the effect of carbon dioxide as a remedy for mountain sickness, a property regarding which experiments performed both on human subjects and on monkeys have led to most conclusive results in Prof. Mosso's hands. It is recommended that about 8 per cent. of carbon dioxide should be added to the compressed oxygen carried for use in high balloon ascents, as pure oxygen is not in itself sufficient to remedy the effects of great barometric depressions.
IN the Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland (xviii., 5), Mr. John Riekie discusses the various systems of compound locomotive engines, and describes a new form with which he has experimented. In it there are two equal high-pressure cylinders and one low-pressure cylinder of about 1 times the volume of the combined pair. It appears to differ from the well known Webb" compound in that the crank-rods are all connected to a single three-throw crank set at angles of 120°, instead of working on the cranks of the axles of the two different driving pairs. It requires no special starting
THE Atti of the Lincei Academy (xiv., 4) contains the announcement of the foundation by the King of Italy of
new international institution of agricultural studies. Among the advantages likely to accrue from the establishment of such an institution, the advancement of our knowledge of the best methods of combating against plantdiseases is specially mentioned. On this latter branch of study an interesting paper occurs in the same number of the Atti, by Dr. Vittorio Peglion, on the pathology of Euonymus japonica. This shrub, so common in Italian gardens, has been for many years subject to diseases, traceable in the first place to a scale insect, and in the second to a species of Oidium described by Saccardo and Arcangeli under the name of Oidium evonymi-japonicae, with which the present paper deals.
FROM a copy of the Corriere di Catania received from the Observatory of Catania, we gather some interesting particulars of the sudden eruption of Stromboli which took place about four weeks ago. On April 16, at about 2.9 p.m., a tremendous explosion as of a big cannon was heard, and the whole of the eruptive portion was enveloped in a dense black smoke. A large number of masses about one metre in diameter, and other smaller ones, were projected to a distance of 200 metres, and rolled down the Sciara del Fuoco to the sea, raising clouds of dust in their descent. Four or five minutes later there was a fall of scoriæ, about 5 cm. in diameter, over an area 4 kilometres long and 400 metres broad running E.N.E. of the volcano, in which direction the wind was blowing. A shower of ashes followed, and a quarter of an hour later a slight shower of rain occurred. At the time of the eruption Dr. Schulze was 300 metres to the south of the eruptive cone, where he was wounded in the head and leg by falling stones, fortunately not seriously. According to him, the opening by which this explosion took place is in the centre of the six others; it is known as No. 4. A considerable panic occurred throughout the island, and many of the inhabitants declare that such an eruption has never been witnessed before.
IN the Journal of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society (1904, No. 4) we, notice the following papers :An elaborate sketch and scientific analysis of the work, in organic chemistry, of Prof. Egor Egorovitch Wagner, by
C. V. Lavroff, followed by a full bibliographical index.Determination of the inner energy of the gas-liquid systems, by A. N. Tschoukareff, with a résumé in French. By sealing various liquids in steel "sparklets," capable of supporting considerable inner pressures, the author could thus bring these liquids to high temperatures, above the critical temperature, and thus determine the specific heat of these substances in the critical state. On the thecry of the singing Voltaic arc, a mathematical inquiry by S. Maysel, which brings the author to conclusions opposed to those of Duddell, Janet, and Granqvist.
MESSRS. MACMILLAN AND BOWES, Cambridge, will publish in a few days a small book on Mendelism," by Mr. R. C. Punnett, Cambridge. The volume will give an outline of Mendel's work on heredity, and its recent develop
ORBIT OF COMET 1905 a.-A graphical representation of the orbit of comet 1905 a, according to the elements computed by Miss Lamson, of the U.S. Naval Observatory, is given in No. 5, vol. xiii., of Popular Astronomy. From this it is seen that the comet, at its perihelion, passed within 12,000,000 miles of the earth, but the latter body had, about a month before, passed the point where closest proximity was possible. The comet will continue, therefore, to grow fainter, and on May 30, according to Miss Lamson's ephemeris, it will be only 0-3 as bright as when first discovered, and it was only a faint telescopic object then.
PROVISIONAL ELEMENTS FOR JUPITER'S SIXTH SATELLITE. -Whilst awaiting more definite information from Lick, Mr. Crommelin has computed provisional elements for Jupiter's sixth satellite from the data already available. These data are not sufficient to decide the eccentricity of the orbit, so a circular form has been assumed. Although the Lick observers have now stated definitely that the ** retrograde in their first telegram did not refer to the orbital motion, the observations yet made have not settled the question of direction, and Mr. Crommelin has therefore computed elements both for direct" and "retrograde." He finds the distance from the parent planet to be about 6,200,000 miles, and a comparison of this with the observational data favours a "direct orbital motion, although, of course, much uncertainty exists. The inclination of the satellite's to the planet's orbit is 23°-8 or 239, according to whether the motion is "* direct or retrograde, whilst the inclination of the orbit to Jupiter's equator is either 20° or 247. This inclination is unusually large as compared with other satellite orbits in the solar system, and according to the reports so far received the orbit of the seventh satellite has a still larger inclination.
elongation) was 4'96, and from this it is deduced that the inclination of the orbit plane to the line of sight on that date was 57 (Monthly Notices, vol. Ixv., No. 5).
WINTER FIREBALLS IN 1905.-In No. 357 of the Observ atory Mr. Denning summarises the accounts of fireball observations, during January and February, which have been forwarded to him. Quite an unusually large number of these objects were observed. One slow meteor seen on January 27 at 11h. 59m., and another seen on February 28d. 12h. 10m., were at least as bright as the full meon. whilst one on January 14 at 10h. 16m., which was brighter than Venus, was noted by one observer as being followed by a slight rumbling noise at an interval of 24 minutes. The probable radiant of this object was 119°+3°, and it travelled from a height of 60 miles to a height of 29 miles, along a path of about 55 miles, with a velocity of 15 miles per second. A meteor seen at 10h. 15m. on February 28 from a radiant at 220° +40° divided into two parts at disappearance, whilst the last named of the eighteen objects mentioned in Mr. Denning's report, seen at gh. tom. on March 18, swelled out and exploded three times with lightning-like flashes during its four seconds' flight.
OBSERVATIONS AND LIGHT-CURVES OF SEVERAL VARIABLE STARS. In No. 4011 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Dr. L. Terkán, of the O-Gyalla Observatory, publishes the results of a series of observations, and some light-curves, of several important variable stars. The observations were made during 1904 with a Zollner photometer, and the results are compared with the various published elements of each object. The stars dealt with are S Sagittæ, T Vulpeculæ, & Cephei, n Aquila, B Persei, and A Tauri. OBSERVATIONS OF "D," IN THE SOLAR SPECTRUM.-In No. 4012 of the Astronomische Nachrichten Dr. H. Kreusler, of Berlin, records two observations in which he saw the helium line, D., as a dark line in the spectrum of the region about a sun-spot. The first observation was made between noon and 2 p.m. on June 12, 1904, the second on the following day, and on both days the faculæ surrounding the spot were exceptionally bright. Dr. Kreusler suggests that, as it was near a maximum epoch of solar activity when Prof. Young recorded a similar observation in 1870, this phenomenon may be a characteristic of sun-spot maxima.
BRIGHTNESS OF JUPITER'S SATELLITES.-In an attempt to settle the question of the variability of Jupiter's four brightest satellites, Prof. Wendell, of Harvard, made a series of photometric comparisons of them with a polarising photometer attached to the 15-inch telescope. The satellites were compared, for brightness, among themselves, and a large number of settings was made in such a manner as to eliminate accidental errors. The order of brightness was always iii., ., ii., iv., and the results afford no evidence for any variability during the period over which the observations extended, viz. from J.D. 2416900 to J.D. 2416928 (Circular No. 95 of the Harvard College Observatory).
VARIABLE STARS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOCD. Some time ago it was reported in these columns that Miss Leavitt had newly discovered 57 variable stars in the small Magellanic cloud. In order to provide material for a closer study of the light-curves of these objects, sixteen negatives were taken at Arequipa with the 24-inch Bruce telescope, with exposures varying from two to four hours each. When the plates arrived at Cambridge (U.S.A.) in January, Miss Leavitt was greatly surprised to find that in this same region there were hundreds of variables which had not been seen on the previous inferior plates. In Circular No. 96 of the Harvard College Observatory the number in each half-degree square of the region is given, and, including the 57 previously announced, there are 910 new variable stars in all. This means that within the limits of the clouds there is one variable to every 308 stars, whereas of the 40,000 stars in the surrounding region shown on the plates only one in 3300 is apparently a variable, although all have been examined with equal care. During the examination of the plates it was found that a thirteenth magnitude star, the position of which for 1900-0 was R.A. th. 6m. 1s., dec. 72° 45' 5. has a large proper motion amounting to +0.135. in R.A.. +0"-42 in dec., and o"-73 in a great circle.
SANITATION IN THE TROPICS.1 PROF. BOYCE and Messrs. Evans and Clarke, of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, recently returned from a journey to the west coast of Africa, the
of any kind, the pail system being in use, and a pure
seem to be carried out, mosquito nets are not made use of to any extent, and malaria is still very rife. The authors remark that (p. 20) "With model water supply under the control of the authorities, no streams, a good porous soil, and perfect sanitation mosquitoes should be got under control, and the freedom of the Europeans and of the natives from malaria guaranteed."
Freetown, in Sierra Leone, is not well laid out, and cesspits are the rule. Of these there were 2650 in 1897, and their number has since increased, while more than 2000 of the inhabitants have no sanitary accommodation of any kind. The street drainage is still imperfect, and numerous opportunities exist for Anopheles mosquitoes to breed; but this condition of things is undergoing gradual improvement, and mosquito nets are in general use. The authors think that the health of the Europeans has in consequence improved, but evidently no striking result has yet been achieved. On the whole, we are disappointed that more definite results cannot be chronicled as the outcome of the health propaganda
FIG. 1.-Principal Boulevard in Conakry, showing factories and Decauville rails. The main drain is under
object of which was to study the present sanitary condition
At Bathurst sanitation is clearly of no low order, the town is well laid out, the streets are drained, and rarth closets are the rule in the European quarters; but in the native compounds there are many cess-pits which tend to foul surfacewells, of which there are a number still in use, though there is a good public supply from deep wells. Anti-mosquito measures have been in force since 1902, consisting of the removal of old tins and rubbish, levelling and clearing of roads, examination of wells and water receptacles for larvæ, &c., and the more regular use of the mosquito net by Europeans. These precautions have made people think and be more careful, and the Europeans, it is stated, have been more free from malaria than formerly, but Culex mosquitoes still abound.
FIG. 2.-A street in Freetown consisting of rock surface, in which there are innumerable pools
Conakry, in French Guinea, is a comparatively new town, well planned and laid out. There are no cess-pits "Report on the Sanitation and Anti-malarial Measures in Practice in Bathurst, Conakry, and Freetown." By Prof. Rubert Bovce, M.B., F.R.S., Arthur Evans, M.R.C.S., I..R.C.P., and H. Herbert Clarke, M.A.. B.C. (Cantal), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Memoir xiv. (Liverpool: University Press. London: Williams and Norgate, 1905.)
so ably preached by the Liverpool School and its energetic staff, but obviously such success as has been attained should prove a stimulus for further effort, and not lead to any relaxation of present measures. The authors formulate a number of suggestions for the improvement of the health of the districts visited, of which the principal are:-(1) the