Page images



ance, the galvanometer points to its presence hindering economic value of these ash heaps, either as a manure or the dissolution of the gold ; the cause of the disagreement as a source of potassium carbonate. Reports were prebetween the instruments he attributes to the formation of sented by the committee on wave-length tables of the local voltaic circuits. Mr. H. A. White gave an account spectra of the elements, the committee on the study of of a series of experiments which showed that thiocyanates hydro-aromatic substances, and the committtee on the in presence of such oxidising agents as ferric salts attack transformation of aromatic nitroamines. gold with considerable ease, and that thiosulphates exert a similar but less powerful influence. These salts are present in ordinary working cyanide solutions, and the SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN MEDICINE.1 presence of gold in mine reservoirs and in the soil under residue dumps is probably connected with their occurrence. THAT great benefits to mankind have followed the disExperiments adduced by the author indicate that in well

coveries of recent years is obvious to all, especially exposed dumps thiocyanates alone are of significance in

with regard to the causes and prevention of yellow fever

and malaria. Research is a word heard on all sides; it respect to the observed solution of gold. A process of residue treatment, based on these facts, is resulting in the

is the enemy of authority, that tyrannous spirit which has profitable extraction of a large proportion of the gold in hampered progress and retarded the advance of scientific certain of the residue dumps on the Rand.

medicine for centuries. Experimental medicine is At the second day's meeting, Dr. J. Moir discussed the sponsible for the greatest advances which have been made law governing the solubility of zinc hydroxide in alkalis,

in our knowledge of the cause, prevention, and cure of and as the result of a quantitative research stated the

disease. Most important discoveries have exerted but a conclusion that the phenomenon is essentially an equil- slight direct influence at their inception ; their full signifiibrium between alkali and zincic acid, which may be

cance has remained hidden for a time. The majority of reached from both sides, and which depends solely on the

such discoveries has been made by those engaged in reconcentration of the free alkali. It was also shown that

search in the realms of pure science. Pure science is no definite chemical compounds exist in the solution. Mr.

unselfish ; its aim is not profit, yet it is the forerunner of G. W. Williams read a paper on the functions of the

that applied science which is more obtrusively the "

of man." metallurgical laboratory, dealing with the uses of the

If we study disease, we must do so for laboratory for the testing of supplies and for purposes of

the sake of knowledge, the scientific spirit must enter

into our work. The " research, and with the personnel and equipment of a suit

practical man may not appreciate able laboratory. He emphasised the necessity for a highly

such ideals, but he is ever ready to use the discoveries trained staff

, and pointed out defects in the training given of science for his own ends. All are not born with the in the great English universities. In a valuable contribu

instincts of research, but there are many in whom they tion, Mr. S. H. Pearce stated and discussed various

lie dormant, and it should be the function of educational economic problems in metallurgy on the Rand. Each stage

institutions to detect and foster such men and lead them on of the whole process of gold extraction was considered from

to do the work for which they are adapted. But too often the economic as well as from the scientific standpoint, and

from mere lack of means such men drift away into other the results of the practical experience of years were sum

fields of activity. To carry on research successfully a man marised in a very clear and judicial manner. Much

needs an assured income. Is it possible that those who technical information, of value to all interested in gold

are able and willing to help human progress can continue extraction, was given in this paper. Mr. R. L. Cousens

to ignore the devotion and self-sacrifice of such men as gave an account of the experiments which led him to

Lazear, Myers, Dutton, Plehn, and others who have laid conclude that a radio-active substance is present in a

down their lives in the study of tropical medicine? certain ore discovered in the Transvaal. If a further

Medical research needs endowment, and it is grievous to examination of the material confirms his belief that the

see that in this country, where so much is done for charity, radio-activity of the ore is due to the presence of radium,

so pitiably little is done for the advancement of learning. the result will be of interest in view of the fact that

To teach science as it should be taught in properly uranium is not present in the ore.

equipped and organised institutions is far more expensive The third day of the meeting was devoted to agricultural

in the case of medicine than in that of any other prochemistry. The proceedings were opened by Mr. A. D.

fessional school. It does not suffice to build laboratories ; Hall, who discussed in greater detail some of the problems

they must also be provided with sufficient funds and equiptouched on in his address at Cape Town. In a paper on

ment to enable them to become working entities. Pretoria rain, Mr. H. Ingle stated that the rain falling School of Tropical Medicine from its inception have wit

Those who have watched the progress of the London at Pretoria for twelve months from February, 1904, was collected, and its content of nitrogen, existing as nitrates,

nessed a struggle upward which is worthy of all praise. nitrites, and ammonia, determined each week. The results

This, and the sister institution in Liverpool, are known showed that the quantity of combined nitrogen brought by the members of the teaching staff and by some of the

throughout the world for the excellent work accomplished down in the rain at Pretoria is considerably greater than the average amounts in Europe, amounting in twelve

students they have sent forth. The London School has a months to 7.07 lb. of nitrogen per acre as compared with

great mission to fulfil ; it has to train men in the methods the average of 3.84 lb. per acre at Rothamsted. In a

they will be called on to employ in many parts of the second paper Mr. Ingle communicated the results of the

world, and to give them the latest and the best to take analyses of some eighty samples of soils collected in

with them on their distant journeys. It is to be hoped that various parts of the Transvaal, and drew a comparison

the public will second the noble efforts that have been between European and Transvaal soils, with special refer

made to establish a centre for the study of the diseases ence to the interconnection of their chemical composition

which affect the inhabitants of the tropical countries of and fertility as indicated by field experience. He showed

this vast Empire. that to take English standards in judging of fertility from

The Trend of Recent Investigation. chemical analysis may lead to erroneous conclusions in the

A survey of recent work in tropical medicine shows us case of tropical or subtropical soils, and that if there be a

that investigation is chiefly being directed to the study of sufficient supply of water a soil of apparently poor quality, protozoal diseases. No advances of fundamental importfrom analytical results, may yield luxurious crops under ance have been made with regard to malaria since the the favouring conditions of growth existent in the Trans- classical investigations were published with which the vaal. Mr. E. H. Croghan, in a paper on the fuel of the midland districts of South Africa, pointed out that a large elli will ever remain associated.

names of Ross and Manson, Grassi, Bignami and Bastian

The earlier work has proportion of potash is found in the excreta of sheep fed been confirmed and extended by many investigators. The in this dry and treeless region, resulting from the com

prevention of malaria by means of mosquito destruction position of the bushes, the foliage of which constitutes the

and other measures directed against mosquitoes has been chief food of sheep and cattle. Owing to want of water tried in various localities, in some instances with success, for irrigation the farmer does not use sheep excreta for

i From an address delivered at the opening of the nineteenth session of manure, but for fuel, and the ashes frequently accumulate The London School of Tropical Medicine on October 11, by Dr. George the homestead. Attention

directed to the Nuttall, F.R.S.




in others with doubtsul results. This is, however, only to be harboured much longer. Finally, the finding this what might be expected in view of the diversified difficul- year of Spirochaeta pallida in syphilis by Schaudinn and ties which must necessarily arise.

others in man, and by Metschnikoff and Roux in experiThere has been a veritable food of malaria literature mentally infected apes, cannot escape a passing notice. of recent years, including an annual volume of “ Atti della It is of some interest to note that the close bloodSocietà per gli studi della malaria," the series commencing relationship existing between the apes and man, demonin 1900, which has come to us from Italy. Mosquitoes strated independently by means of the precipitins by have received an immense amount of attention, after being Grünbaum and myself, served as a direct incentive for the much neglected in the past. The number of genera and experiments of Metschnikoff and Roux, Lassar, and species and their classification have become subjects to Neisser, which proved that human syphilis is communicable bewilder all but specialists.

to the chimpanzee and ourang outang. The important discoveries on sleeping sickness ushered Of interest has also been the further discovery this in by the researches of Castellani, a pupil of this school, year of a number of new protozoal parasites in the blood have been confirmed and extended by Bruce and his of different animals, in addition to numerous new species collaborators of the sleeping sickness commission. The of Trypanosoma. I refer to new forms called “Leucorelation of the flies belonging to the genus Glossina to the cytozoa " because they inhabit the white blood corpuscles transmission of the trypanosomes is being actively studied, of their vertebrate hosts. Leucocytozoa were first disand many important questions we must hope are nearing covered by Bentley in dogs in India, and were described, their solution in connection with this most fatal malady. without sufficient mention of this fact, by James. Another A contribution has just come to hand from Gray and species has been found by A. Balfour in the rat (M. decuTulloch with regard to the multiplication of the parasites manus) in Khartoum; and lastly, W. S. Patton informs in Glossina, indicating that the belief recently expressed me that he has found a species in the squirrel (Sciurus is warranted, namely, that the parasites undergo a cycle palmarum) in India, and apparently observed developmental of development within the insects. Of importance in their forms thereof in a louse. Balfour has, moreover, described bearing on the question of the development of trypano- new Hamogregarine occurring in the jerboa (Jaculus somes in other than their vertebrate hosts are the investi- jaculus), and Graham-Smith in our laboratory has found gations of Schaudinn on Trypanosoma noctuae in Culex, another new endoglobular parasite in the mole. This by those of Brumpt on certain trypanosomes of fishes which no means exhausts the “ finds ” of this year, but it will undergo their cycle of development in leeches, and those suffice to show that British workers are doing their share of Prowazeck on the rat trypanosome, which he has demon- in furthering our knowledge in this regard. strated undergoes development in the rat louse (Haemato- Of the diseases due to Vermes I can say but little. The pinus spinulosus).

discovery of Catto's Schisostomum in this laboratory is Of recent discoveries, the one which to me appears to familiar to you all. It is interesting to note, following on carry the greatest weight is that of Novy and McNeal. the experiments with Ankylostoma duodenale by Loos, They have been the first to obtain pure cultures of proving that the embryo worm can infect by penetrating Protozoa, maintaining trypanosomes of different species through the skin, that Boycott in London and Tenholt in alive in vitro for many generations. There is no telling Germany have confirmed the fact this year in two experiwhither the methods they have given us may lead ; they ments conducted on medical men who volunteered for the directly stimulated Leonard Rogers to experiments wherein purpose. he succeeded, by an ingenious method of his own, in Again, it is apparent that the subject of immunity in cultivating another protozoon, the Leishmania, obtained relation to protozoal diseases is proving to be one of great from cases of kala-azar.

difficulty, and the results hitherto obtained indicate that The work on the tick-transmitted diseases known as new methods will have to be devised if the problem is to the piroplasmoses (redwater, &c.) occurring in cattle be solved from a practical, and still more so from a sciensheep, horses, and dogs has been pursued in various parts tific, standpoint. It is also obvious in this connection that of the world with great activity. The results appear to the problems before us can only be solved by animal experime to indicate, what I believe also holds for human malaria ment, and this accentuates the need of our giving an inparasites, that we shall in time learn to distinguish creasing amount of attention to comparative pathology as different parasites which we at present consider to repre- we push on toward the alleviation of the ills to which sent single species.

our own flesh is heir. The investigations of Dutton and Todd on tick fever in Many matters have necessarily been left untouched, inthe Congo Free State, announced in February, have gone cluding even such important diseases as yellow fever and to prove that this disease is transmitted by a tick Malta fever, on which active work has been done. My (Ornithodoros savignyi) after it has infected itself with object has been to seize upon a few salient facts with the blood containing the Spirochætæ. This has been confirmed view of showing how much has been accomplished within by Koch, if we may rely on what has appeared recently a short period, and how great are the opportunities of the in German newspapers. It is, however, quite premature workers in this school who are destined to labour in new to assume that African tick fever and European relapsing fields in different parts of the world. Perhaps what I fever are due to one and the same species of Spirochæta; have said-in no spirit of presumption--will serve as an in fact, it is highly probable that this is not the case, incentive to some of my hearers. Let me conclude with although the report in question refers to the Spirochætæ some wise words from the Talmud :one species. In relapsing fever in Europe the bed

The day is short and the work is great. bug (Cimex) has long been suspected to be a carrier of

It is not incumbent upon thee to complete the infective agent, a probability which was considerably

the work, but thou must not therefore heightened by Karlinski's observation of motile Spiro

cease from it." chætæ in the bodies of the insects up to thirty days after they had fed on relapsing fever blood. Schaudinn, moreover, informs me that he has observed the multiplication THE MECHANICS OF THE ASCENT OF of the Spirochaeta obermeieri in Cimex. These observ

SAP IN TREES." ations, following closely upon Marchoux and Salimbeni, are of greatest interest and The following remarks, relating to one of the most

powerful and universal of the mechanical operations practical import. The last named authors demonstrated

of organic nature, are based mainly on the numerous that a fatal disease of the fowl in Brazil is due to a experimental results reported in Dr. A. J. Ewart's recent Spirochæta which is transmitted through the agency of a memoir. Their chief object is to assert the view tick (Argas miniatus), and this is capable of conveying

we are not compelled to suppose the sap, in the column the disease even six months after feeding on infected blood. These Spirochætæ multiply in the tick, and are present

of vessels through which it rises, to be subject to the

great actual pressure, amounting in high trees to man in large quantities in its body cavity throughout this period. These observations are very suggestive, since they

atmospheres, that is sometimes postulated. It is hard demonstrate the long persistence of the parasites in their

1 By Prof. J. Larmor, Sec R.S. Paper received at the Royal Society

June 29. carriers, and render it probable that they will be found 2 Roy, Soc. Proc., vol. Ixxiv. p. 554 ; Phil. Trans., B, vol. cxcviii. A **



necessary to remark that the problem of the rise of sap It would, however, appear that the great resistance is one of mechanics, in so far as concerns the mode of to flow offered by what botanists call Jamin-tubes, viz. the flow and the propelling power.

thin liquid columns containing and carrying along numerous Contrary to the view above referred to, it seems not broad air-bubbles, is conditioned mainly by the viscosity unreasonable to consider that the weight of the sap in of the fluid, and involves only indirectly the surface-tension each vessel is sustained in the main by the walls and base of the bubbles. In fact, the resistance to flow may be of that vessel, instead of being transmitted through its expected to remain much the same if each bubble were osmotically porous base to the vessels beneath it, and thus

replaced by a flat solid disc, nearly but not quite fitting accumulated as hydrostatic pressure.

the tube. Its high value arises from the circumstance We could in fact imagine, diagrammatically (as happens that the mass of liquid between two discs moves on nearly in ordinary osmotic arrangements), a vertical column of as a solid block when the flow is steady, so that the vessels, each provided, say, with a short vertical side-tube viscous sliding has to take place in a thin layer close to communicating with the open air, in which the pressure the wall of the tube, and is on that account the more is adjusted from moment to moment, and yet such that intense, and the friction against the tube the greater. the sap slowly travels by transpiration from each vessel The increased curvature of the upper capillary meniscus to the one next above, through the porous partitions of the bubble is thus merely a gauge of the greater between them, provided there is an upward osmotic intensity of the viscous resistance instead of its cause, and gradient, i.e. if the dissolved substances are maintained modification of the surface-tension cannot be involved as in greater concentration in the higher vessels. This a propelling power. The experimental numbers given by difference of density must be great enough, between Dr. Ewart show that, even where the vessels are largely adjacent vessels, to introduce osmotic pressure in excess occupied by bubbles, the greater part of the resistance to of that required to balance the head of fluid in the length active transpiration still resides in the partitions between of the upper one, into which the water has to force its them. way. Thus, in comparing vessels at different levels, the If the osmotic gradient, assisted possibly by capillary sap must be more concentrated in the upper ones by pull at the leaf-orifices, is insufficient to direct a current amounts corresponding to osmotic pressure more than of transpiration upward, capillary alterations inside the counteracting the total head due to difference of levels, vessels, arising from vitally controlled emission and absorpin order that it may be able to rise. As osmotic pressure tion of material from the walls, cannot be invoked to is comparable with gaseous pressure for the same density assist : rather it must be osmotic alterations from one of the molecules of the dissolved substance, the concen- vessel to the next, of, so to speak, a peristaltic character, tration required on this view is considerable, though not that might thus come into play. But any such alteration very great.

(of either kind) will involve local supply of energy. Is Such a steady gradient of concentration could apparently, there a sufficient fund of energy, latent in the stem, to on the whole, become self-adjusting, through assistance provide permanently the motive power for the elevation from the vital stimuli of the plant, for concentration in of the sap? In what form could this energy get transthe upper vessels is promoted by evaporation. Yet ported there? The energies of the plant-economy come pressures in excess or defect of the normal atmospheric from the sunlight absorbed by the leaves. The natural amount might at times accumulate locally, the latter view would appear to be that the work required to lift giving rise to the bubbles observed in the vessels, through the sap is exerted at the place where the energy is rerelease of dissolved gases.

ceived, and that it operates through extrusion of water It may be that this assumes too much concentration of by evaporative processes working against the osmotic dissolved material in the sap, as it exists inside the vessels attraction of the dissolved salts; while the maintenance of the stem, to agree with fact. In that case the capillary of equilibrium along the vessels of the balanced osmotic suction exerted from the nearest leaf-surface might be column, with its semi-permeable partitions, demands that brought into requisition, after the manner of Dixon and an equal amount of water must rise spontaneously to take Joly, to assist in drawing off the excess of water from the place of what is thus removed. the vessels. The aim proposed in this note is not to The subject might, perhaps, be further elucidated by explain how things happen, which is a matter for observ- observation of the manner in which the flow is first ation and experiment, but merely to support the position

established at the beginning of the season, or possibly by that nothing abnormal from the passive mechanical point experiments on the rate at which water would be absorbed of view need be involved in this or other vital phenomena. by a wounded stem high above the ground.

As regards estimating the amount of flow, at first sight it may not appear obvious, a priori, that the transpiration through a porous partition or membrane, due to osmotic

EXPERIMENTS WITH THE LANGLEY gradient, is equal or even comparable in amount to what

AËRODROME. would be produced, with pure water, by a hydrostatic


THE experiments undertaken by Smithsonian pressure-head equal to the difference of the osmotic

Institution upon an aërodrome, or flying machine, pressures on the two faces of the partition. But more exact consideration shows that, on the contrary, osmotic

capable of carrying a man have been suspended from pressure is defined by this very equality ; 2 it is that

lack of funds to repair defects in the launching apparatus pressure-difference which would produce such an opposite As these experiments have been popularly, and of late

without the machine ever having been in the air at all. percolation of water as would just balance the direct percolation due to the osmotic attraction of the salt

repeatedly, represented as having failed on the contrary, solution.

because the aërodrome could not sustain itself in the air, I

have decided to give this brief though late account, which 1 Thus, in an ordinary osmotic experiment with a U-tube, the percolation

may be accepted as the first authoritative statement of of water through the plug gradually produces a difference of hydrostatic

them. pressure on its two faces, which is sustained by the fixity of the plug itself, It will be remembered that in 1896 wholly successful but would be at once neutralised if the plug were free to slide in the tube. This increase of volume of the salt-solution, by the percolation of pure water

Aights of between one-half and one mile by large steaminto it, is on the van 't Hoff analogy correlated with the free expansion of

driven models, unsupported except by the mechanical the molecules constituting a gas. It goes on with diminished speed under effects of steam engines, had been made by me. In all opposing pressure, until a definite neutralising pressure is reached, inaptly

these the machine was first launched into the air from called the osmotic pres-ure of the molecules of the solute, which just stops it, while higher pressures would reverse it. The stoppage is due to the

ways,” somewhat as a ship is launched into the water, establishment of a balance between the amounts of water percolating one the machine resting on a car that ran forward on these way under osmotic attraction, and the opposite way under hydrostatic ways, which fell down at the extremity of the car's pressure. The pressure established, c.g. in an organic cell immersed in salt-solution, is thus really the reaction which is set up against the osmotic

motion, releasing the aërodrome for its free flight. process. That process itself is perhaps more directly and intelligibly In the early part of 1898 the Board of Ordnance and described as the play of osmotic affinity or attraction, even though it must Fortification of the War Department allotted 50,000 dollars be counted as of the same nature as the affinity of a gas for a vacuum. cf.

for the development, construction, and test of a large aëroProc. Camó. Phil. Soc., January, 1897, or Whetham's “Theory of Solution," p 109

1 Abridged from a paper by Dr. S. P. Langley in the Smithsonian Repot ? See preceding footnote.

for 1904



| one.

drome, half of which sum was to be available immediately | examination of the launching mechanism had been made. and the remainder when required.

it was found that the front portion of the machine had The flying weight of the machine complete, with that caught on the launching car, and that the guy post, to of the aëronaut, was 830 pounds; its sustaining surface, which were fastened the guy wires which are the main 1040 square feet. It therefore was provided with slightly strength of the front surfaces, had been bent to a fatal greater sustaining surface and materially greater relative

The machine, then, had never been free in the air. horse-power than the model subsequently described which but had been pulled down as stated. flew successfully. The brake horse-power of the engine On December 8, 1903, a test was made at Arsenal Point, was 52; the engine itself, without cooling water, or fuel, quite near Washington, though the site was unfavourweighed approximately 1 kilogram to the horse-power. able. The engine being started and working most satis The entire power plant, including cooling water, factorily, the order was given by the engineer to release burettor, battery, &c., weighed materially less than the machine, but just as it was leaving the track another 5 pounds to the horse-power. Engines for the large disaster, again due to the launching ways, occurred. This machine and for a model of the large machine one-fourth time the rear of the machine, in some way still unof its linear dimensions were completed before the close explained, was caught by a portion of the launching car, of 1901, and they were immediately put in their respective which caused the rear sustaining surfaces to break, leaving frames, and tests of them and of their power-transmission the rear entirely without support, and it came down almost appliances were begun.

vertically into the water. A test of the quarter-size model in actual flight was Entirely erroneous impressions have been given by the made on August 8, 1903, when the machine worked most account of these experiments in the public Press, from satisfactorily, the launching apparatus, as always hereto- which they have been judged, even by experts, the fore, performing perfectly, while the model, being launched impression being that the machine could not sustain itself directly into the face of the wind, flew directly ahead on in fight. It seems proper, then, to emphasise and to an even keel. The balancing proved to be perfect, and reiterate, with the view of what has just been said, that the the power, supporting surface, guiding, and equilibrium- machine has never had a chance to fly at all, but that the preserving effects of the rudder also. The weight of the failure occurred on its launching ways; and the question model was 58 pounds, its sustaining surface 66 square of its ability to fly is consequently, as yet, an untried feet, and the horse-power from 2 to 3. This was the

There have, then, been no failures so far as the actual test of the Aying capacity of the machine is concerned, for it has never been free in the air at all. The failure of the financial means for continuing these expensive esperiments has left the question of their result where it stood before they were undertaken, except that it has been demonstrated that engines can be built, as they have been, of little more than one-half the weight that was assigned as the possible minimum by the best builders of France and Germany; that the frame can be made strong enough to carry these engines, and that, so far as any possible prevision can extend, another flight would be successful if the launching were successful; for in this, and in this alone, so far as is known, all the trouble has come.

The experiments have also given necessary information about this launching. They have shown that the method which succeeded perfectly on a smaller scale is insufficient on a larger one, and they have indicated that it is desirable that the launching should take place nearer the surface of the water, either from a track upon the shore or from a house boat large enough to enable the apparatus to be launched at any time with the wings extended and perhaps

with wings independent of support from guys. But tha Fig. 1. - Reproduction of an instantaneous photograph, taken from the boat construction of this new launching apparatus would invoke

itself and hitherto unpublished, showing the aerodrome in motion before further considerable expenditures that there are no present it had actually cleared the house boat. On the left is seen a portion of a beam, being a part of the falling ways in which the front wing was

means to meet: and this, and this alone, is the cause of caught, while the front wing itself is seen twisted, showing that the

their apparent failure. accident was in progress belore the aerodrome was free to fly.

Failure in the aërodrome itself or its engines there has

been none; and it is believed that it is at the moment ce first time in history, so far as I know, that a successful success, and when the engineering problems have bern flight of a mechanically sustained fiying machine was solved, that a lack of means has prevented a continuance made in public.

of the work. Serious delays in the testing of the small machine were caused by changed atmospheric conditions, but they proved

UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL to be almost negligible compared with what was later

INTELLIGENCE. experienced with the large one.

CAMBRIDGE.— The number of first-year students matricuOn October 7, 1903, the weather became sufficiently

lated on Saturday, October 21, was 1008. Last year at quiet for a test. In this, the first test, the engineer took

the same date the number was 884. With those matricuhis seat, the engine started with ease and was working without vibration a' its full power of more than 50 horse,

lated during the Lent and Easter terms, the total for the and the word being given to launch the machine, the car

civil year 1905 is 1039; but this number will be slightly

increased, as several freshmen were unable to attend on was released and the aërodrome sped along the track. Just as the machine lere the track, those who were watch

Saturday. Hitherto the largest entry has been 1027, in the

vear 1890. The number of medical students is 117: there ing it, among whom were two representatives of the Board of Ordnance, noticed that the machine was jerked violently

is also a large entry of engineering students and of

candidates for the economics tripos. down at the front (being caught, as it subsequently

The professor of mineralogy has, with the consenso appeared, by the falling ways) (Fig. 1), and under the full

the Vice-Chancellor, re-appointed Mr. A. Hutchinsun, of power of its engine was pulled into the water, carrying Pembroke College, to be demonstrator in mineralogy and with it its engineer. When the aërodrome rose to the sur- assistant curator for five years from January 1, 1900. face it was found that while the front sustaining surfaces had been broken by their impact with the water, yet the

The special board for biology and geology has nomie

ated Mr. F. A. Potts, of Trinity Hall, to use the universet rear ones were comparatively uninjured. As soon as a full table at Naples for six months as from October 1, 1905.


" What

A university lectureship in mathematics is vacant by for a closer linking together of the two systems was felt, the resignation of Mr. Jeans, who has accepted a professor

and an officer of the college has been appointed as supership at Princeton L'niversity, New Jersey. The general intendent of the continuation classes concerned, whose board of studies will shortly proceed to appoint a lecturer principal duty is to keep in close touch with the teachers, to hold office from Christmas, 1905, until Michaelmas, both of the college and the school boards, and whose 1910. The annual stipend is 501. The lecturer will be active mediation will, it is hoped, secure the carrying out expected to lecture on applied mathematics. Candidates of the scheme of work agreed upon. are requested to send in their applications, with statements of the branches of mathematics in which they are prepared

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. to lecture, and with testimonials if they think fit, to the

LONDON. Vice-Chancellor on or before November 6.

Entomological Society, October 5.-Mr. F. Merrifield, Science announces that New York University has received

president, in the chair.- Mr. E. Harris showed living

larvæ of Cordylomera saturalis, taken from a log of 5oool. by the will of the late William A. Wheelock.

mahogany imported from the Sekondi district of the Some excellent views of the plant and equipment of the

Gold Coast, together with the perfect beetle, which was workshops and laboratories at Birmingham University are given in illustration of a series of articles by Mr. C. Alfred

dead at the time the discovery was made.-Mr. A. T. Smith in Engineering.

Rose exhibited a remarkable melanic specimen of Catocala

nupta, taken by Mr. Lewis in his garden at Hornsey, N., DR. ALEXANDER McKenzie, lecturer and senior demon- in September. The coloration of the lower wings was of strator in the University of Birmingham, has been a dull brown, and all the markings of the upper wings appointed head of the chemical department at the Birkbeck were strongly intensified.-Mr. N. H. Joy brought for exCollege in succession to Dr. John E. Mackenzie, who has hibition Coleoptera taken during a three days' trip to accepted the appointment of principal of the Technical Lundy Island in August, including Melanophthalma Institute, Bombay.

distinguenda, Con., a species new to Britain ; Stenus The Ontario Government has selected, says Science, the ossium var. insularis, a variety apparently new to science; following men to compose a commission to report on the and Ceuthorrhynchus contractus var. pallipes, Crotch, proposed reorganisation of the University of Toronto :- peculiar to the island. One hundred and sixty-three species Prof. Goldwin Smith, Sir William Meredith, Messrs. were taken on the island, about eighty of which are not A. H. N. Colquhoun, Byron E. Walker, J. W. Flavelle, the recorded in Wollaston's and F. Smith's lists of Lundy Rev. Canon Cody, and the Rev. D. B. Macdonald.

Coleoptera.—Mr. A. Sich showed examples of Argyresthia THE classes in craft instruction in photography and illuminatella, Z., two of the four specimens taken near process work at the Regent Street Polytechnic were in

Hailsham, Sussex, on June 15 this year. They were augurated by a social re-union on October 17. We notice beaten off Pinus, and until examined with a lens were the time-table for the present session includes classes in supposed to be Ocnerostoma piniariella, of which species practical and technical photography, studio operating, re

two were also exhibited for comparison.-Mr. W. J. Lucas touching, finishing in colours, photo-engraving, and in

exhibited the larva, cocoon, and the subsequent imago of colour photography.

an “ant-lion,” Myrmeleo formicarius, from two Spanish The Bishop of Birmingham, delivering the presidential

larvæ given him by Dr. T. A. Chapman last autumn. address to the members of the Midland Institute at

The difference in size between the small larva and the Birmingham on October }. took for his subject

large perfect insect was remarkable. He also showed a is an Educated Man?” He said the uneducated man is

living of the rather scarce grasshopper Stenobothrus without an ideal, consciously held and deliberately striven

rufipes, taken in the New Forest at the end of August, and after. He may be a specialist of trained faculty, but, if kept alive by feeding on grass.-Mr. G. C. Champion exhe has no general ideal enabling him to give his special

hibited several examples of Lymexylon navale, L., from subject its place in human progress as a whole, he re

the New Forest, where it was not often found.-Mr. A. H. mains a trained specialist rather than an educated man.

Jones showed series of Lycaena argus (aegon, Schiff.), The educated man knows something of modern scientific var. hypochiona, taken on the North Downs this year, method and achievement. Then the world becomes to him

approaching the form of L. argyrognomon taken not unthe scene of great constant forces which admit of being commonly in the Rhone Valley. Together with these he guided and directed and combined to promote the purpose

had arranged for comparison typical British L. argus, L., of human progress. A man to become educated need not

L. var. corsica, from Tattone, Corsica, and a series of have time to read much, if he reads the right books. He L. argyrognomon, Brgstr. (argus, auctorum), from Chippis, ought to know some one other language than his own, and

near Sierre.-Colonel J. W. Yerbury exhibited specimens enlarge his study in some other literature. A man who

of Hammerschmidlia ferruginea, Fin., from Nethy Bridge, has read carefully any one of the works of Darwin will the first authentic British specimens; also Microdon know what real scientific caution is, coupled with the

latifrons, Lw., a specimen of which, taken at Nethy Bridge widest power of hypothesis.

June 18, 1900, he had wrongly identified as M. devius, * A copy of the annual report of the Glasgow and West

and under this name it was recorded in Verrall's “ British of Scotland Technical College has been received. The

Flies”; and of Chamaesyrphus scaevoides, Fin., a single total expenditure to date on the site, building, and equip- specimen swept on June 15 in the Abernethy Forest near ment of the first section of the new building, the memorial

Forest Lodge.--Mr. H. J. Turner exhibited series of four stone of which was laid by the King two and a half years species of the genus Coleophora, C. alcyoni pennella, ago, has been 163,000l. ; the building and equipment fund

C. lixella, C. albitarsella, and C. badiipennella, together now stands at 209,7631., of which 198,8452. has been

with the larval cases mounted in situ on the ruined leaves received. The small balance available after payment of

of their respective food plants. He also exhibited living the liabilities already incurred is not sufficient to enable

larvæ and their cases, of Goniodoma limoniella on Statice the governors to proceed with the remaining section of the

limonium, Coleophora obtusella on Juncus maritimus, and building, but it is hoped that they will soon be placed

C. glaucicolella (?) on Juncus glaucus, found in the Isle in a position to complete the scheme originally proposed.

of Wight.-Commander J. J. Walker read a paper by Mr. In addition to the subscriptions to the building and equip

A. M. Lea entitled “The Blind Coleoptera of Australia ment fund, the college will receive a legacy of 20,000l.

and Tasmania,” and exhibited specimens of Nlaphanus under the will of the late Mr. James Donald, and also the

stephensi, Macl., from Watson's Bay, Sydney, N.S.W., residue of his estate. This welcome addition to the re- and Phycochus graniceps, Broun, and P. sulcipennis, Lea, sources of the college is to be used in the development of

from Hobart, Tasmania. the facilities already existing for the study of chemistry

MANCHESTER. and mechanics. The scheme for the coordination of certain Literary and Philosophical Society, October 17.-Sir of the continuation classes conducted by the school boards William H. Bailey, president, in the chair.--The " shadow of Glasgow and Govan with the corresponding classes in bands " seen during the total eclipse observed at Burgos, the college was in force during last session, but did not in Old (astile, on August 30: T. Thorp.- Inaugural work so satisfactorily as was anticipated. The necessity address : the President (see p. 637).

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