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instruction of newcomers in the part played by mosquitoes 99.82 per cent. of iron, and normally has only 20 to 22 in conveying malaria, and in the habitual and proper use tons tenacity with 25:30 per cent. elongation. This iron of mosquito nets ; (2) the segregation of the native popula- | becomes brittle to an extraordinary degree under the intion away from the European quarters; (3) the total aboli- fluence of the low temperature - 182° C., whereas nickel tion of cess-pits; (4) the rational and systematic use of tested at the same low temperature has improved rather anti-malarial measures ; (5) the public control of drinking than deteriorated, not only in tenacity, which iron also water ; and (6) the establishment of laboratories on the spot does, but in ductility, in which latter quality iron entirely for the study of health problems. R. T. HEWLETT. i breaks down. If nickel, therefore, is present in an iron

alloy containing but little carbon or comparatively low in that element, it acts as a preventive of brittleness, or is

a very considerable modifier of that objectionable quality. IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE.

This action of nickel is simply marvellous in certain of the

alloy specimens, for example, in the case of an alloy of THE annual meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute wasiron, carbon 1.18 per cent., nickel 24:30 per cent., and

held at the Institution of Civil Engineers on May 11 manganese 6.05 per cent. Here the ductility is extraand 12, and was very largely attended. The report of the ordinary at not only ordinary but low temperatures, probcouncil, read by Mr. Bennett H. Brough, the secretary, ably the highest known for any iron alloy, and certainly shows that the institute continues to inake satisfactory for an alloy having such tenacity as 84 tons per square progress. The membership now amounts to 2000. The inch. There is still present in this alloy 68 per cent. of proceedings began with the adoption of a resolution of

iron, yet the tendency of the latter metal to wander into regret at the death of Sir Bernhard Samuelson, Bart.,

the paths of brittleness is not only entirely checked at the P.C., F.R.S., past president, referred to elsewhere (p. 61). liquid air temperature and this brittleness, as shown so

After the usual routine business, the retiring president, clearly in this research, occurs to an extraordinary extent Mr. Andrew Carnegie, inducted into the chair the presi in pure iron cooled to – 182° C.-but the elongation or dent-elect, Mr. R. A. Hadfield, whose first duty was to ductility, already so great, is considerably increased, namely, present the Bessemer gold medal to Prof. J. O. Arnold from 60 per cent. to 674 per cent. There is also an in(Sheffield).

crease of tenacity in both cases, namely, a rise of from Mr. R. A. Hadfield then delivered his presidential

10 per cent. to 38 per cent. Thus the nickel present address. It dealt chiefly with the history of metallurgy enables the bar under this high tension and at - 182° C. and with those branches of the subject to which his atten to remain far more ductile than the very best of ductile tion had been directed, more especially with the alloys of iron of one-third the tenacity. Although the action of iron with other elements. He urged the necessity for nickel has been specially referred to, it must not be over. constant research. In progressive manufacture, the com looked that in this alloy there is also present 6 per cent. plexity of which increases year by year, there is, in addi of manganese, which in its ordinary combination with iron, tion to the many ordinary difficulties met with, that of that is, with no nickel present, would confer intense brittlethe solution of new problems which constantly present ness upon the iron and render it more brittle than if not themselves. This can only be done by research, which present. This treble combination of nickel-manganese should form an actual part of 'industrial operations, and with iron appears to reverse all the known laws of iron demands almost as much attention as is devoted to the alloys. manufacturing side. It is more than ever necessary not Mr. J. H. Darby (Brymbo) and Mr. George Hatton to rest satisfied with the knowledge of to-day, or to think (Round Oak) summarised the recent developments in the that this will satisfy the needs of to-morrow. Rapid and Bertrand-Thiel process of steel manufacture. This process, great changes are constantly occurring in metallurgy as in which was first used in Bohemia in 1894, consists in other branches of scientific knowledge. The thanks of the carrying out the preliminary refining in an upper openmeeting for the address were expressed by Sir E. H. hearth furnace, and the steel-making is completed in a Carbutt and Sir William White, K.C.B.

secondary open-hearth furnace. The original plan of Mr. S. Surzycki (Czenstochowa) submitted results having furnaces at different levels has not proved so satisobtained with the continuous open-hearth steel process as factory as having the furnaces arranged in line with a carried out in fixed furnaces in Poland. The process, mixer at one end. Pig iron of almost any ordinary comwhich has proved eminently successful, is based on the position may be used. At Brymbo, with a highly phosprinciple of the Talbot process, with the essential differencephoric pig iron, seven 20-ton charges per day have been that it can be carried out in any fixed furnace of not less attained, and at the Hoesch works in Dortmund ten than 25 tons capacity. The advantages do not consist | charges per day have been regularly produced. solely in the continuity of the process, but in the longer At the New York meeting of the Iron and Steel Instilife of the furnace, the higher production and yield, the tute, the paper read by Mr. James Gayley on the applilessened fuel consumption, and the simplicity of the plant. cation of the dry air blast created quite a sensation in the

A very elaborate paper was read by Mr. R. A. Hadfield, iron industry. Mr. Gayley now gives, in a supplementary the president, describing some experiments relating to the paper, a record of operations of the Isabella furnaces at effect produced by liquid-air temperatures on the properties Pittsburg from November, 1904, to March, 1905, showing of iron and its alloys. About eleven hundred specimens that the increased iron output and the decreased coke conwere tested. The bars, which were prepared with great sumption derived from the use of dry air were well maincare, were submitted to various heat treatments, the exact tained. temperatures being recorded, and then forwarded to Sir The rapid development of the gas engine of recent years James Dewar's laboratory at the Royal Institution. The has given special value to the gas escaping from the blast tests were carried out on a small hydraulic testing machine, furnace, previously often described as waste gas. The gas to which the necessary arrangements could be readily | leaving the blast furnace carries with it a varying amount applied for immersing the specimens in liquid air. The of gritty dust, which has proved a serious obstacle to the results showed that, with certain exceptions, the effect of successful operation of large gas engines. The various low temperatures is to increase in a remarkable degree the methods of cleaning the gas were described in the paper resistance of iron and iron alloys to tensile stress, and to submitted by Mr. Axel Sahlin, who has designed a slowly reduce the ductility from the highest point to practically revolving apparatus for the purpose. nil. The changes take place even in the softest wrought Dr. O. Boudouard (Paris) submitted a lengthy account iron. The absence or presence of carbon in ordinary of experiments made to determine the fusibility of blastcarbon steel in which other special elements are not present furnace slags. He gave a chart enabling metallurgists to has little influence. Subjected to Brinell's hardness ball determine the fusion temperature of a given aluminotest, a specimen of Swedish charcoal iron at normal calcic silicate. The information given in this lengthy paper temperature had a hardness number of so, whereas when is of great value, inasmuch as one of the most important tested at about - 182° C. this increased to no less than considerations in the satisfactory running of a blast furnace 266, or about equal to the hardness of 0.80 per cent. carbon is a knowledge of the degree of fusibility of the slag. steel at normal temperature. This almost seems incredible Mr. Sidney A. Houghton contributed a note on the when it is remembered that this iron shows by analysis | failure of an iron plate through fatigue. The plate was from the boiler of a portable engine about twenty years metal ; these facts may cause the hysteresis loss to be lower uld. Microscopic examination showed that the effect of in basic than in acid steel. latigue stresses on the plate had been to form cracks com Mr. J. C. Gardner dealt with the effects caused by the iencing as a rule from irregularities on the inner surface, reversal of stresses in steel, and Mr. F. Rogers submitted which cracks were due to weakness in the cleavage planes memoirs on troostite and on the heat treatment of steel. of the crystals from continual slipping, and to a less It was announced that Andrew Carnegie research degree to some loss of adhesion between the crystals. scholarships for this year, of sol. each, were awarded to Some of the crystals appeared to have been broken up, and P. Breuil (Paris), Dr. H. C. H. Carpenter (National the slag flaws seemed to have a restraining effect on the Physical Laboratory), E. G. L. Roberts and E. A. Wraight progress of the cracks.

(London), and W. Rosenhain (Birmingham), and that Mr. 8. H. Thwaite (London) directed attention to scholarships, each of the value of 1001., were awarded to acidents due to the asphyxiation of blast-furnace work H. C. Boynton (Cambridge, U.S.A.), L. A. Guillet (Paris), men, and described an apparatus for the rapid detection and W. H. Hatfield (Sheffield). of the presence of carbon monoxide in air.

The council carefully examined the reports of the reProf. F. Wüst and Mr. F. Wolff (Aachen) submitted a search work carried out by the holders of the Carnegie paper on the behaviour of sulphur in the blast furnace. research scholarships during the past year, and decided They showed that, contrary to the generally held opinion, that the report prepared by Dr. H. C. H. Carpenter the sulphur in the coke does not reach the level of the (National Physical Laboratory) was deserving of the gold tuyeres of the blast furnace without undergoing alteration, medal. The council also decided that special silver medals but a great portion of it is previously volatilised by the should be awarded for the research carried out conjointly uscending gases. It is then largely absorbed from the | by Mr. Gunnar Dillner and Mr. A. F. Enström (Stockgases by the descending charge, and in this condition holm). The researches submitted by Mr. Gardner and arrives in front of the tuyeres. Up to 800° the sulphur Mr. Rogers were highly commended. The medals were is principally absorbed by the oxides of iron from the presented by Mr. Carnegie at the banquet on May 12 at sulphur-laden gases, while from 800° upwards the position the Hotel Cecil, when 500 gentlemen were present. is reversed, and the lime becomes the chief absorbent of During the meeting it was announced that Mr. Carnegie the sulphur.

would give to the institute a further suin of 5000l. to cover Reports of research work carried out during the past the cost of printing the reports submitted by the Carnegie tear by Dr. H. C. H. Carpenter (National Physical research scholars. Laboratory). by Mr. J. C. Gardner (Birmingham). by Mr.

--- -- F. Rogers (Cambridge), and by Mr. Gunnar Dillner and Mi. A. F. Enström (Stockholm), holders of the Carnegie

HIGHER EDUCATION IN LONDON. research scholarships, were submitted. Dr. Carpenter RECENT events inspire hope in the future of higher dealt with the types of structure and the critical ranges education in London. The report presented by Sir og heating and cooling high-speed tool steels under vary- | Arthur Rücker, F.R.S., principal of the University of ing thermal treatment.

London, at the celebration of presentation day on May 10, In the light of the author's experiments the rationale of and the speech of Lord Londonderry in proposing " The the advantageous presence of tungsten and molybdenum in Institution of Mining and Metallurgyat the annual high-speed tool steels appears fairly evident. The action dinner of its members, are both highly encouraging and of either of these elements consists in hindering, under indicative of the growing importance attached in the retain conditions, and in altogether preventing, under metropolis to education of university standing, especially suitably chosen conditions, changes in iron carbon alloys in science and technology. which would have for their result the softening of the Sir Arthur Rücker, in the course of his report, dealt in moatcrial and its consequent unfitness for tool steel use. | detail with the operations of the University of London, Ry suitable heat treatment it is possible to arrest the and was able to show that some of the preliminary work softening process at any desired stage, and thus obtain an done since the re-organisation of the university has begun alloy of any desired hardness. The metallographical to bear fruit in the academic year now approaching its results of the investigation are extremely interesting. termination, and that the activity of the university has They show that in spite of comparatively large percentages been extended in several directions. The question of the --up to 17 per cent. or 18 per cent.-of special elements, conditions of entrance to universities has been prominently iron and carbon still remain as the all-important factors in before the public during the year, and a very important determining the types of structure of high-speed tool steels. step has been taken by the Universities of Oxford, CamExcept that the polyhedral or " austenitic" type of struc bridge, and London, which have agreed upon a scheme ture has never been obtained alone in a pure carbon steel, for the mutual recognition of the certificates given for the types of the high-speed tool steels might all be obtained their respective entrance examinations. Already twentyfrom pure iron carbon steels by appropriate thermal treat five persons have been matriculated as students of London ment. The austenitic structure appears to be that of the University under this agreement. Considerable progress Dose of the tool in actual use. Put briefly, the hardening has been made, also, with the project for the concentration nf rapid tool steels at the present time appears to involve of the teaching of the preliminary and intermediate studies two factors, viz. (1) the widening, splitting, or lowering of medical students in a few centres under the control of of the critical ranges by the special alloy element, and the university. Arrangements are in progress under the (2) the complete, or practically complete, suppression of the auspices of the university for establishing centres at Uniwidened, split, or lowered range by a mild quenching, e.g. versity and King's Colleges, and Mr. Alfred Beit has in an air-blast.

given a munificent donation of 25,00ol. in aid of the Mr. G. Dillner and Mr. A. F. Enström dealt with the scheme for the establishment of a third centre on the magnetic and electric properties of sheet steel and steel | South Kensington site. It is much to be hoped that this rastings. The results obtained have rendered it possible generous gift will be supported by other large subscripto make some comparisons as to the relative suitability tions. It is a matter of vital interest to the public that of the different methods for producing a soft steel for the unique opportunities for medical education afforded by plectrotechnical purposes (sheet material). It has appeared the great metropolitan hospitals shall not be wasted, and, that Bessemer steel has a lower magnetic quality than if they are to be utilised, it is essential that the whole open-hearth steel. On comparing basic and acid open curriculum of medical education shall be easily accessible hearth steel, the basic steel has been found to be preferable to London. It is necessary, continued Sir Arthur Rücker, and scarcely inferior to Lancashire iron. The reason why that medical education shall receive public help similar to the Bessemer material is inferior in quality to the open that which is ungrudgingly given to engineering. It is hearth sheets may possibly be that the Bessemer steel has not too much to say that medical men do more unpaid

greater opportunity of dissolving gases when the air is work for the public than do the members of any other passed through the bath of molten metal. In general, basic profession, and that, in return, less help has been given steel does not contain such large quantities of silicon and by the public to medical education, in London at all manganese as acid steel, and at the same time it is possible events, than to any other of the principal branches of to get a lower percentage of carbon in the first mentioned applied science. Large as the gifts to the university are, it is unfortunately true that much money is needed to Cambridge. Concurrently it took up the question of the make up for the neglect of university teaching in London housing of cattle, the sterilisation of milk, the methods in the past. Though the increase in the Government of storage and distribution of milk, and the question of grant to university colleges will be of great value, the what milk should be refused by the colleges and by private equipment of both University and King's Colleges needs purchasers. All these points were considered, not only improvement, and the salaries of the professors are quite with regard to tuberculosis, but also in connection with inadequate. The whole question of retiring pensions, to other infectious diseases, e.g. diphtheria, scarlet fever, and which a private donor has just devoted 2,000,oool. in typhoid fever. The Cambridge Town Council undertoo America, is untouched in London.

to pay the expenses of a veterinary surgeon, and the followAfter the presentation for degrees at the University of ing colleges undertook to consider the matter favourably, London, there was a reception at Bedford College. The and in most cases offered a certain annual subvenoccasion is always one for the assembling of the friends tion :-Gonville and Caius, Trinity Hall, King's, Christ's, of the higher education of women in London, and about Sidney, Emmanuel, Downing, and Girton, but the larger five hundred guests were received by the principal, Mrs. colleges stood out, and the scheme fell through. James Bryce, and Mrs. Leonard Darwin. The students Prof. Woodhead, in an interesting article in the Camwho were presented at the university included eight for bridge Review of last week, raises the question whether science degrees. The college authorities are contemplating some such scheme should not be revived. and points to a great re-building scheme, for the lease of the present the recent outbreak of scarlet fever, which was especially premises in Baker Street is almost on the point of ex- prevalent in one or two colleges, as an instance of a piring, and an appeal is being made for a quarter of a disease which might easily have been avoided if the commillion sterling, of which 100,oool, would be devoted to munity had taken proper precautions, endowing a college capable of accommodating five hundred It is proposed to erect a building containing examination students.

rooms on a site on the north-east corner of the museum Lord Londonderry, in his speech at the annual dinner grounds. At present the university is put to great cost of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, referred to in hiring rooms which, apart from their expense, are not the work of the committee appointed by the Government well adapted for examinations. The syndicate appointed to consider the coordination of the Royal College of Science to consider this question estimates that for a sum of at South Kensington with other institutions for higher 7500l. it could provide for all examinations held in the scientific and technological instruction in London. An university throughout the year, except, perhaps, for a wee's interim report has been presented by the committee. The or two in June and December. Government has definitely informed the committee that, The Vice-Chancellor announces the generous offer of the provided satisfactory arrangements can be arrived at for Drapers' Company to find the sum of 3000l. towards the the due coordination of the work of the various higher cost of a building for the department of agriculture proscientific teaching institutions in London and elsewhere, vided that a further sum of 3oool. is raised by voluntary and provided that guarantees are obtained for the adequate subscriptions by the end of the current year. management of what will practically be a congeries of the long vacation course in pathology, public health, highly organised technical courses, and for the provision and pharmacology will begin on Monday, July 3. Special of a thoroughly satisfactory annual income for the upkeep courses of lectures have been arranged on phagocytosis. of a great centre for this higher work, the Government by Prof. Woodhead, with the assistance of Mr. W. Malden; is prepared to entrust the management of the Royal on illness caused by unsound food, by Mr. H. E. Durham; College of Science, including the Royal School of Mines, on diphtheria, agglutinins, precipitins and hæmolysins, by to a committee to be newly established for the purpose. Mr. G. S. Graham-Smith; and on protozoa and protozoal This procedure, it is expected, will bring the work of the diseases, by Dr. Nuttall. Further information about these Royal College and School of Mines into the closest possible courses may be obtained by writing to Prof. Woodhead, relations with that of the other higher teaching institu The Museums, Cambridge. tions, so that a higher degree of cooperation and coordin Special courses on physiology, osteology, human ation may be attained in this important portion of the anatomy, and histology will be given during the long educational field. Lord Londonderry announced that he vacation by Mr. Barcroft and Mr. Cole, Dr. Barclay-Smith, has good grounds for believing that the Chancellor of the Dr. A. Hill, and Mr. Manners-Smith. These will begin Exchequer has been considering the financial aspect of the on July 5. new condition of things that will be brought about in regard to the Royal College of Science if the changes outlined actually take effect, and that a reasonable increase

The jubilee of Cheltenham Ladies' College was iplein the sums at present annually devoted towards the ex

brated on Saturday last, and a new science wing was penses of the Royal College of Science will be made. Thus

declared open. The new laboratories and lecture-rooms the Royal College, in its immensely enhanced possibilities

have been erected at a cost of 18,000l., and include rooms of usefulness owing to its large new buildings will be able | well equipped for the teaching of physics, chemistry, and to bring to the common aim, not only its fabric and its

botany. excellent equipment, and, of course, its good will and The following resolution was carried at a meeting of prestige, but also a satisfactory annual income as a sub the council of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, stantial contribution to what must be the heavy annual held on Thursday last :-" That it be referred to the Comexpenditure involved in the great work to be carried on mittee of Management to consider and report as to the for higher scientific and technological education in the desirability of treating chemistry, physics, and biology 16 metropolis.

subjects of preliminary education, and of requiring that As Mr. Haldane, the chairman of the committee referred an examination in them should be passed before the reto by Lord Londonderry, said on the same occasion, there cognition of the commencement of medical studies, and to is now a prospect of the establishment of such a school report further as to the desirability of the two colleges of mining and metallurgy as will make London the first approaching the Universities and other examining bodies city of the Empire in point of education in these matters. with the view of adopting a five years' curriculum of pro

fessional study from the date of passing the Preliminar

Science Examination.'
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL
INTELLIGENCE.

As entrance scholarship in science, value 481. for three

years, will be awarded by the council of Bedford College CAMBRIDGE.—Some five or six years ago a special com for Women (University of London) on the result of an mittee was called together at Cambridge, and an effort examination to be held June 28-30. Full particulars can was made to obtain the cooperation of the colleges and be obtained from the principal, and forms of entry must be the town and county councils in a scheme for the improve received by June 12. The council, on the recommendation ment of the milk supply of Cambridge. The committee of the Reid trustees, will award the Reid fellowship in had as its primary object the eradication of tuberculosis, June to a graduate of the University of London who is beginning with bovine tuberculosis, from the county of also an associate of Bedford College. Applications should

be received by the hon. secretary of the Reid trustees by their appearance, have on more than one occasion been May 30. Miss Alice Ravenhill is to begin a course of mistaken for endoglobular hematozoa, a detailed account, lectures on May 18, at 4-30 p.m., on the “* Teaching of with diagrams, is given of some of the more common cases Hygiene."

leading to this error.-On the magnetic hysteresis produced by an Oscillating field superimposed on a constant field :

P. Duhem. I theoretical investigation completing a SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

former paper on the same subject.-Geodesic and magnetic

work in the neighbourhood of Tananarive: P. Colin. LONDON.

The triangulation of the rectangular section between the Chemical Society, May 4.-Prof. R. Meldola, F.R.S., i south and west of Tananarive has been completed at sixtypresident, in the chair.-Notes on sodium alum : J. M. | seven points. At the same time magnetic observations Wadmore. The author has confirmed the observations of have been carried out at twenty-six stations, a tabular Augé, Zellner, and Dumont as to the existence and certain

| view of the results being given.--The oscillations of railof the properties of sodium alum.-Camphoryl-pseudo

way carriages on entering and leaving a curve : Georges semicarbazide : M. O. Forster and H. E. Fierz. This Marié. Observations of the Giacobini comet (1905 a) compound was obtained by reducing camphorylnitroso-made with the large equatorial of the Observatory of Pseudo-carbamide with zinc dust in dilute acetic acid ; it | Bordeaux : Ernest Esclangon.-On Voss surfaces and condenses readily with aldehydes and ketones, yielding non-Euclidean geometry : Alphonse Demoulin.-On the inproducts characterised by high specific rotatory powers.-- | determinate equation xo + ya=bga: Ed. Maillet.-On some Some derivatives of anhydracetonebenzil : F. R. Japp and points in the theory of numbers and the theory of funcĮ. Knox. Descriptions of the condensation products of tions : Georges Rémoundos.-On a new spectrum benzil with certain unsaturated ketones are given.- The observed in gadolinium ; G. Urbain. The author, having dihydrocyanides of benzil and phenanthraquinone, part ii.: obtained a specimen of gadolina of such purity that twenty F R Japp and J. Knox.-A condensation product of successive fractions gave the same value for the atomic mandelonitrile : F. R. Japp and J. Knox. It is shown weight, has examined the spectrum. There is no absorpthat Minovici's compound, CH,ON, (Ber., 1899, xxxii., tion spectrum in the visible region, but there are some 2200), obtained by saturating mandelonitrile in dry ether strong absorption lines in the ultra-violet. The ultra-violet with hydrogen chloride, is identical with the substance phosphorescence given by this gadolinium in the kathode obtained by Japp and Miller by the action of hydrogen rays proved to be the same as that attributed by Sir W. chloride on a solution of benzil in alcoholic hydrocyanic Crookes in 1898 to a new element named by him acid (Trans. Chem. Soc., 1887, li., 29).—Action of hydra victorium. The author proposes to submit the question zine on unsaturated g-diketones : F. R. Japp and J. as to the identity of gadolinium and victorium to further Wood. The authors have used Paal and Schulze's re experiment.-On the triboluminescence of potassium action to distinguish the configurations of certain analogous sulphate : D. Gernez. The experiments of the author are unsaturated diketones. By this means they have obtained not in accord with those of Bandrowski on the same subconfirmatory evidence for the configuration assigned by ject. The emission of light appears to be the result of Japp and Klingemann to the two modifications of breaking up of crystals already formed, and if due preaB-dibenzoylstyrene and of dibenzoylstilbene.-The syn- | cautions against shock be taken, the phenomenon is not these of substances allied to adrenaline : H. D. Dakin. observed at the moment of separation of the crystals from -Methylation of p-aminobenzoic acid by means of methyl their mother liquor. The specific volume of a liquid in sulphate: J. Johnston.—The atomic weight of nitrogen :/ a capillary space : M. Ponsot.-On the electrical resistR. W, Gray. By the examination of (1) the relative densi-ance of metallic wires for high-frequency currents : André tirs and compressibilities of nitric oxide and oxygen, and Broca and M. Turchini. The authors have compared the (2) the decomposition of nitric oxide with finely divided | resistances obtained experimentally with those calculated nickel, a mean value of 14.006 (which is regarded as from Lord Kelvin's formula. For non-magnetic metals, possibly too low) was found for this constant.-The methyl copper and platinum, the deviations from the law calcustion of gallotannic acid : O. Rosenheim. A penia lated by Lord Kelvin are small for moderate frequencies. methyl-derivative was obtained, by methylation with methyl These deviations, however, are greater than the experisulphate, and this on hydrolysis furnished a mixture of mental error, and follow a definite law.-A new method of trimethyl- and dimethyl-gallic acids. The interaction of calculating the exact molecular weights of liquefiable gases hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide : W. R. Lang and from the experimental determination of their densities : C. Carson. An investigation of Wackenroder's solution Philippe A. Guye. The method described, the detailed showed that the action of hydrogen sulphide produces first proof of which is reserved for a later paper, has been bulphur and water, and that by the further action of applied to the cases of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide on sulphur polythionic acids are produced. sulphur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, and acetylene. The

The formula of cvanomaclurin : A. G. Perkin. It is values for the atomic weights of carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, nu found that the formula C,H,O, is to be preferred and chlorine agree very closely with those determined by in place of C, H, O, formerly used.

chemical methods. The value for nitrogen (14.006) is lower

than the value deduced from chemical data (14:04), and Paris.

there is reason to suppose that the latter is too high.—The Academy of Sciences, May 8.-M. Trocst in the chair. - | action of potassammonium upon barium bromide : A. The increase of the rotatory power of fatty molecules in Joannis. The reaction has been found to be in accordpassing to the state of cyclic compounds : A. Haller and ance with the equation M. Desfontaines. A comparison is given of the rotatory powers of alkyl esters of B-methyladipic acid with the

BaBr + 2NH,K= 2K Br+H,+ Ba(NH2).. estrrs of the corresponding B-cyclopentanonecarboxylic -On the colloidal forms of ferric chloride : G. Malfitano. acids, the rotations of the latter being found to be about — The electrolytic reduction of the nitrocinnamic acids : chinty times those of the former. The densities and boil 1 C. Marie. Meta- and para-nitrocinnamic acids give by ing points of the various esters under examination are also electrolytic reduction in alkaline solution the correspondgiven-On a new synthesis of oxalic acid : H. Moissan. ing azoxy acids. The position of the nitro or the amino It has been shown in a previous paper that whilst per | group has a marked influence on the ease with which the fectly dry carbonic acid is without any action upon | hydrogen is added to the lateral chain. Para derivatives potassium hydride, in the presence of a minute trace of give hydrocinnamic compounds much more easily than the water the two substances react with the quantitative corresponding meta compounds.—The action of carbon formation of potassium formate. It is now shown that if monoxide upon silver oxide, and its application to the this reaction is allowed to take place at a higher tempera determination of small quantities of carbon monoxide in tuse, 80° C., a mixture of potassium formate and oxalate the atmosphere : Henri Dejust. Silver oxide, dissolved i. produced. The oxalic acid formed was separated, and in ammonia, is immediately reduced by traces of carbon its identity proved by analysis and numerous reactions. monoxide. The author proposes a colorimetric method Endoglobular pseudo-hematozoa : A. Laveran. As some based on this reaction for the estimation of minute traces of the normal elements of blood, more or less modified in / of carbon monoxide in the air.-On strontium ammonium :

appeamoisture and

Victor: Cavaliere W. P.JerUESDAY, MAY 23. Railway: Sir Charles

M. Ræderer. Strontium ammonium is prepared in a

SATURDAY, MAY 20. similar manner to the compounds of ammonia with barium ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.—The Evolution of the Kingship in Early

Society: Dr. J. G. Frazer. and calcium, and has the analogous formula Ba(NH).—

MONDAY, MAY 22. Osmosis through tubes of fused quartz : G. Belloc. The

SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-The Uses of Electricity in Mines: H W passage of gases through quartz tubes appears to be the Ravensbaw. result of a kind of devitrification caused by moisture and VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 4.30.- Minerals and Metals of the Old Testahigh temperature, the tendency to crystallisation being clearly made out under the microscope.-On a new osmium

SOCIETY OF Arts, at 4.30 -The Cape to Cairo Railway: Sir Charles compound and a new reaction for osmium : Piñerlla H. T. Metcalfe, Bart. Alvarez. The process is based on the formation of a ANTHROPOLOGICAL Institute, at 8.15.-The Great Zimbabwe: Franklin

White. green compound of hydriodic acid and osmium iodide of

WEDNESDAY, MAY 24. great tinctorial power -The action of alkalis on aqueous | LINNEAN SOCIETY, at 8.-Anniversary Meeting. solutions of acetol : André Kling. The behaviour of acetol | GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-On the Igneous Rocks occurring betweer.

St. David's Head and Strumble Head (Pembrokeshire): J. V. Elsdenon neutralisation with bases seemed to point to its being a

(1) The Rhætic and Contiguous Deposits of Glamorganshire ; (2) On the pseudo-acid, and this view was confirmed by a study of

Occurrence of Rhætic Rocks at Berrow Hill, near Tewkesbury the changes in its electrical conductivity.-On the (Gloucestershire) : L. Richardson saccharification by malt of artificial starch : Eug. Roux. SOCIETY OF Arts, at 8.-Modern Lightning Conductors: Killingworth.

Hedges. -The action of metal ammoniums on the halogen deri

THURSDAY, MAY 25. vatives of methane : E. Chablay. The equation

Royal Society, at 4.30.-Croonian Lecture on “The Globulins": W. B. NH,Na+ 2CII ,C! = NaC1+CH,+CH,.NH, + NH,

Hardy, F.R.S.
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.--Electro-magnetic Waves : Prof. J. A. Fler-

ing, F.R.S. was found to represent the reaction between methyl chloride

INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Wireless Telegraphy and sodium ammonium. The reactions with chloroform

Measurements: W. Duddell and J. E. Taylor. and iodoform were more complicated.--- On the use of metal

FRIDAY, MAY 26. ammoniums in organic chemistry: the formation of

Royal INSTITUTION, at 9.-The Development of Spectro-chemistry: primary amines : Paul Lebeau.-On a new method of Prof. J. W. Brühl. characterising the purity of milk based on the estimation

SATURDAY, MAY 27. of the ammonia : A, Trillat and M. Sauton. Ammonia

ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-The Evolution of the Kingship in Early

Society: Dr. J. G. Frazer. should not be present in normal pure milk; its presence is evidence of pollution.-On polymorphic transformations

-- by mechanical action : Fred. Wallerant.-On the state of preservation of minerals in arable earth : M. Cayeux. In

CONTENTS.

PAGE opposition to the views of MM. Delage and Lagatu, the

The Birds of Central America. By A. N. ...... author finds that minerals in an altered state are always

49 present in arable earth.-New species of endophytes of

Vector Mechanics. .......... ..... 31 orchids : Noël Bernard.---The (ulture of Morchella : Ch. Greater Austria. By G. A. J. C........... 51 Répin. The elective action of chloroform on the liver : Economic Science. ................ M. Doyon and J. Billet.--On the toxicity of the urinary

Our Book alkaloids : H. Guillemand and P. Vranceano.- The

“ Beiträge zur Physik der freien Atmosphäre."estimation of the sugar in the blood at the moment of

G. C. S. accouchement in the goat without udders : M. Porcher,

Roberts : “The Inventor's Guide to Patent Law and --The influence of sexuality on the nutrition of Bombix

the New Practice."-B. mori at the later stages of its evolution. The localisation

Ihlseng and Wilson : “A Manual of Mining” of the glycogen, fat, and soluble albumen in the course

...

“ The Practical Photographer” .......... of nymphosis : C. Vaney and F. Maignon.

Granderye: “Determination des Espèces minérales" --- - -

Letters to the Editor :

The Dynamical Theory of Gases and of Radiation.-
DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

Lord Rayleigh, o. M., F.R.S..
THURSDAY, MAY 18.

The Cleavage of Slates. -Rev. O. Fisher ....

A Relation between Spring and Summer. (With ROYAL SOCIETY, at 4.30.-On Lesage's Theory of Gravitation and the

Diagram.)-Alex. B. MacDowall . Repulsion of Light : Prof. G. H. Darwin, F.R.S.-The Atomic Weight of Chlorine : an Attempt to Determine the Equivalent of Chlorine by direct Fictitious Problems in Mathematics.-An Old Aver. burning with Hydrogen : Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S., and E. C. Edgar.

age College Don; The Reviewer .. ... 56 The Flow of the River Thames in Relation to British Pressure and

Scientific Results of the National Antarctic Expedi. Rainfall: Sir Norman Lockyer, K.C.B., F.R.S., and Dr. W. J. S. Lockyer.-Thoriapite, a New Mineral, from Ceylon: Prof W. R. tion. (Illustrated.) .

............ 57 Dunstan, F.R.S., and G. S. Blake.--A Modified Apparatus for the

The State and Higher Education Measurement of Colour, and its Application to the Determination of the Colour Sensations : Sir William Abney, K.C.B., F.RS.

Meeting of the British Association in South Africa Further Observations on the Germination of the Seed of the Castor Oil

Sir Bernhard Samuelson, P.C., Bart., F.R.S. . ... Plant (Ricinus communis): Prof. J. Reynolds Green, F.RS., and H. Jackson.-On the Efferent Relationship of the Optic Thalamus and Dr. Otto von Struve ............... Deiter's Nucleus to the Spinal Cord with Special Reference to the

Notes ....................... Cerebellar Influx Theory (Hughlings Jackson) and the Genesis of Decerebrate Rigidity (Sherrington): Dr. F. H. Thiele.-On Reciprocal Our Astronomical Column :Innervation of Antagonistic Muscles. Eighth Note: Prof. C S. Sher. rington, F.R.S.-The Structure and Function of Nerve Fibres. Pre

Orbit of Comet 1905 a. liminary Communication and Addendum: Prof. G. S. Macdonald.-On Provisional Elements for Jupiter's Sixth Satellite : : : The Occurrence of dinopheles (Mysomyia) Listoni in Calcutta: Major Winter Fireballs in 1905.. A. Alcock, C.I.E., F.R.S., and Major J. R. Adie.-On the Chemical Mechanism of Gastric Secretion : Dr. J. S. Edkins.-Contributions to

Observations and Light-curves of Several Variable the Physiology of Mammalian Reproduction. Part I. The (Estrous

Stars . ...
Cycle in the Dog. Part II The Ovary as an Organ of Internal Observations of “D,” in the Solar Spectrum .
Secretion : F. H. A. Marsball and W. A. Jolly.

Brightness of Jupiter's Satellites
ROYAL INSTITUTION, at *. - Flame : Sir James Dewar, F.R.S.
SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 4 30 - Plague in India : Dr. C. Creighton.

Variable Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud . FARADAY Society, at 8 --An Application to Electrolytes of the Hydrate Sanitation in the Tropics. (Illustrated.) By Prof. Theory of Solutions Dr. T. M. Lowry.

R. T. Hewlett . ....... .

. FRIDAY, MAY 19.

Iron and Steel Institute ...... . ..... ROYAL INSTITUTION, at ). - The Native Races of the British East Africa Higher Education in London ........

Protectorate : Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.MG.
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SO 'tery, at 8.30. -- Phthisis Rates ; their Significance University and Educational Intelligence. ..

and their Teaching : Dr. A Ransome, F.R.S. -Demonstration of a Societies and Academies ..
New Method for Recording the lo idence of Infectious Disease :
C. H. Cooper.

Diary of Societies ....

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