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THE EVOLUTION OF ENGRAVING IN THE design groups (Fig. 3). In the upper layers signs are STONE AGE.

engraved which M. Piette considers to be of the nature

of inscriptions. W E have at various times directed the attention of

Thanks to the rigid stratigraphical method emour readers to this interesting subject, but new discoveries are continually being made. M. Ed.

| ployed by M. Piette, he has been enabled to upset the Pietie, whose name is so well known in connection with his investigation of the famous cave of Masd'Azil, has given in lAnthropologie (xv., 1904, p. 129) a classification of the deposits formed in caves during the age of the reindeer; starting as a geologist, he was firmly impressed with the fact that stratigraphy is at the root of fruitful advance in prehistory, and this end he has kept steadily in view. He gives the following table of relative chronology of the epochs which form part of the age of the reindeer :Epochs of Epochs of

Epochs of Lartet and Christy G. de Mortillet E Piette Madelaine and 1 Magdalénienne Gourdanienne Laugerie-haule í Solutréenne Papalienne Moustier

Moustérienne Mostérienne
The following is his cultural sequence, in which the
epoch or Moustier does not take part, “as at that
time the fine arts were not yet born":-
Age or
Epoch or stage

of engravings and harpoons of

reindeer antler
Of engraving of engravings without haipoons
(Gourdanienne) or with very lew harpoons

of engravings with cut-out con

Of sculpture 1 Of sculptures in low relief

(Papalienne) of sculptures in the round
The sculptors in the round used their flint tools for
many purposes, including carving, chiselling, scrap-
ing, engraving, and burnishing; they certainly
sketched their statuettes before modelling them, and
they polished them. The sculptors in low relief
scraped and burnished. Their works were not child's
play, but the product of a real artistic sense. They
studied and drew heads, limbs, and feet (Fig. 1). The
sculptors in the round figured the flayed animal and
even the skeleton. When mammoth ivory became
rare reindeer antlers were employed for carving, and
this appears to have led the way to the next artistic

Many of the figures in this copiously illustrated paper are from the laver of sculptures in low relief; it was in this layer that several pieces were found decorated with circles and bold spirals (Fig. 2). At first these designs were carved deeply, they gradually became less deep, until in the Gourdanienne epoch they were merely lines. M. Piette believes the spirals were symbolic, and suggests that they had reference to snakes. Plant forms were rarely drawn, and of the very numerous animals engraved by far the most frequent were those upon the flesh of which the men

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As the relief in the designs became less and less, the artist had to employ the graver. At the end of the Papalienne epoch the artists undertook to execute very low reliefs on plates of bone not more than two millimetres in thickness. They made silhouettes, modelling the contours on both sides; but the great difficulty of carving such thin objects soon led to its

Fig. 2.- Portion of rein. abandonment. They replaced this style by cutting out

deer antler decorated Fig. 1.-Bone Throwing-stick

with circles and other contours and engraving the surface. This technique (Mas-d'Azil). Layer of sculp

signs (Lourdes). Layer was common in the region of the Pyrenees, but rare tures in the round. Less than

of sculptures in low natural size,

relief. to the north of the Garonne; being a transitional form it did not last long, whereas sculptures in low relief persisted into later layers.

a priori argument that sculpture was a later form of At first, following the traditions of the sculptor, the pictorial art than engraving, and has established that engraver represented isolated animals, but the artists the reverse is the case. of Laugerie-basse appear to have been the earliest to ' In a subsequent paper, entitled “Les Ecritures de



ON Friday, May 12, in the

presence of a large and representative company, Lord Avebury, on behalf of his fellow trustees, received from Mr. Andrew Carnegie the gift of the full-sized model of the skeleton of the gigantic American dinosaur known as Diplodocus car

negii, which has been mounted in Fig. 3.-Engraving on bone (Lorthet). Layer of engravings without harpoons.

the reptile gallery of the Natural

History Branch of the British similar markings in prehistoric Europe and in Egypt. ? Museum under the superintendence of Dr. Holland, of The lozenge is stated to be “ certainly a symbol,” ! Pittsburg, who has charge of the original specimens and other signs are similarly believed to be symbols on which the complete restoration is based. Although or hieroglyphs. “The spiral,” for example, “has the gigantic four-footed dinosaurs constituting the held a large place in primitive symbolism." This is group Sauropoda were first made known to the world possibly true, but spirals may mean many things in on the evidence of detached bones and teeth described the art of existing backward peoples, and may be by Mantell (Pelorosaurus) and Owen (Cardiodon and conventional symbols or more or less realistic repre | Ceteosaurus), it has been reserved for American palæsentations; but it is extremely hazardous to make ontologists, working in the rich Upper Jurassic beds guesses as to what any given spiral may be intended of Wyoming and Colorado, to give to the world an to represent; the probability is that all such guesses adequate conception of the huge proportions and exwill be incorrect, and the same remark applies to other traordinary form of these strange reptiles. Strangest elementary designs. Several spirals and concentric of all is perhaps Diplodocus (so named on account of

the double chevron-bones, which were at first thought markable oneness in language of the Bantu tribes in to be peculiar to this form, although now known to be the southern half of Africa from the Equator to Natal common to the entire group), which appears to be and Cape Colony, and he was therefore puzzled to find distinguished from all its relatives by the weakness of in the Masai a race intruding into Bantu East Africa its dentition, the teeth being reduced to a small num- which spoke a language absolutely different from the ber, of the size and form of lead pencils, confined to the Bantu type. front of the jaws. Another remarkable feature, which At this period let us say about 1850—the Masai had may, however, have been common to other members of forced themselves on the attention of the Arab rulers the group, is the position of the nasal aperture at the of East Africa by their raids on the cattle of the Bantu top of the skull, this being not improbably indicative tribes, raids which brought them occasionally to within of partially aquatic habits, an inference confirmed by sight of the island-town of Mombasa. In the fifties the nature of the dentition of Diplodocus, which can of the last century, nevertheless, the Masai had not scarcely have been adapted for anything else than a diet established that reign of terror which during the 'sixof soft and luscious water-plants.

ties, 'seventies, and 'eighties did so much to obstruct Diplodocus was apparently one of the largest repre- the exploration of eastern equatorial Africa, and so sentatives of the group, the length of the skeleton, as long prevented the white man from travelling direct mounted, being about 75 feet, while if the vertebral from the Mombasa coast to the eastern shores of the column were placed in a straight line the length would be some to feet more. The height at the shoulder is about 14 feet. The only rival to such bulk at the present day is presented by the skeleton of Sibbald's rorqual. That such a monster should have a skull considerably smaller than that of a large crocodile is one of the most remarkable facts made apparent by this restoration ; while scarcely less noteworthy are the ex

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treme elongation of the neck and tail (the latter for several feet of its length being comparable to a huge whip-lash), and the shortness of the trunk. With the exception of the bones regarded as the clavicles, of which only one original specimen was found, and the position of which in the skeleton may be doubtful, there is full authority for every bone in the model; so that we are now practically as well acquainted with the | Fig. 1.-Masai girls, showing ornaments. From Hollis's "The Masai Osteology of these monsters as we are with that of crocodiles.

Victoria Nyanza. Therefore, in the fifties of the Mr. Carnegie's gift, which is due to the initiation of the King, is not only of immense value and interest to

nineteenth century, Swahili, Arab or Baluch traders the man of science, but will likewise prove a great

managed to reach the east and north-east coasts of the

Victoria Nyanza from Mombasa or Lamu. The stories attraction to the ordinary visitor to the Museum. It is

they told to Krapf and other missionaries gave to almost an appalling thought that the skeleton of a creature which lived at least several million years ago

Europeans the first hint of the existence beyond the should have come down in such marvellous preservation

Masai of tribes allied in speech and physical character

istics and habits. During the 'seventies the Masai to our own day.

pushed their raids further and further south, until

they were almost heard of-so to speak-in the regions THE MASAI OF EAST AFRICA,

immediately to the north of Lake Nyasa. In this THE Masai (the word should be pronounced with a direction they were ultimately checked by the sturdy stress on the first syllable --Másai) were first dis

resistance of the Bantu Hehe people, a vigorous race tinguished and described as an East African people by

that long resisted German dominion in the same the missionary Krapf, who, with Rebmann, was the

territory, a race made more warlike and coherent by discoverer of Mounts Kenia and Kilimanjaro, Krapf,

a slight infusion of Zulu immigrants from the south. who commenced the exploration of equatorial East

To the south-west the Masai were checked by the warAfrica in 1848, had begun dimly to perceive the re

like Wagogo, to the west by the distantly allied tribes "The Masai, their Language and Folklore." By A C. Hollis. With

of Lumbwa and Ja-luo, and to the north by the Galas an introduction by Sir Charles Elliot. Pp. xxviii + 356. (Oxford: Claren.

and Somalis. It is possible, however, that but for the doo Press, 1905.) Price sus. net.

eventual interposition of the European they might have

subdued the Bantu coast people and the Arab half may be grouped with the Lotuka, Elgumi or Wamia, breeds to the shores of the Indian Ocean.

Bari (on the White Nile), Karamojo, and Turkana, is, All observers of the Masai have noted their superiority together with the nearly allied group of the Nandi. in physical appearance to the pure-blooded negro. Dorobo, distinctly, though distantly, related to the well There has evidently been a good deal of intermixture, marked Nilotic family of negro languages which in. especially during the last three decades, with women cludes the Dinka, Shiluk, Dyur, Acholi, &c., and of Bantu race, and the original Masai stock itself is links on to the negro languages stretching away to only one of the many hybrids between the Caucasian Wadai and Lake Chad. In the Masai language, as in and the negro; but still the average man or woman of the kindred tongues of the Masai group, there is distinct Masai race is a negroid rather than a negro, with a evidence of Somali or Gala influence. This may be skin of coppery-brown, not black,' with a more defined | due to the ancient intermixture of blood between the bridge to the nose and a better developed chin than the Gala and the Nilotic negro which formed the Masai, ordinary negro possesses. They are, however, far more and also to the contiguity of the Masai in some of negro in appearance than, for example, the Hamitic their wanderings with outlying groups of Hamitic (Hima) aristocracy of the lands lying to the north, people. west and south of the Victoria Nyanza; yet they retain For the first time the civilised world has been pre. a larger infusion of Caucasian blood (due, of course, to sented with an authoritative work on the Masai lanHamitic intermixture) than the pure type of Nilotic guage, customs, and folklore, by Mr. A. C. Hollis, of negro, to which in other respects they are nearest allied the British East Africa Protectorate. Nothing of the in origin, language, and, above all, in habits and kind worth serious notice has appeared since the works customs.

of Krapf and Erhardt. Though a Masai dictionary

remains to be composed which shall give a full vocabulary of this interesting language, the book under review can scarcely be bettered in fulness or correctness as a grammatical study. Equally admirable is the collection of Masai legends. These are not given in the form of generalised “ stories" with a Hans Andersen flavour; but the original is first of all presented in the Masai with an interlinear translation, and then follows a correct but more readable version in colloquial English. Of neces. sity, a work like this is more interesting to students than to the general public (though it is admirably illustrated with appropriate photographs). But for the students of African ethnology and languages it is a work of permanent value; it is the authoritative study of the Masai people; and it is satisfactory to record that the author confines himself mainly to facts and not to theories,

and that Sir Charles Eliot in FIG. 2.- Masai warriors of various "ages" and "districts," each with the shield of his "age" and his introduction does not trace "district." From Hollis's "The Masai."

the origin of the Masai to the

ten lost tribes of Israel. A Now that our knowledge of eastern equatorial / recrudescence of this irritating mania having recently Africa is so extensive, we realise that the Masai are appeared amongst German writers on Africa who no isolated phenomenon in racial distribution, but are ought to have known better, it is a relief to find that simply a southward extension of the Nilotic peoples. English authorities on African questions can still reThey probably originated several hundred years ago in tain their sanity on the subject of the proper place in the northern part of the present Uganda Protectorate, history and ethnology of that mixed Armenian, in the mountainous country between the present abode | Dravidian, and Semitic people which we call by the of the Lotuka tribe (the nearest allies of the Masai in racial name of Jew.

H. H. JOHNSTON, language) and the Turkana peoples to the east. In this region they were simply one of the many blends between the Hamitic (Gala) invaders of equatorial Africa

NOTES. and the Nile negroes. The writer of this review, in The anniversary dinner of the Royal Geographical his work on the Uganda Protectorate (p. 841), has Society on Monday was really a complimentary banquet to computed that the proportion of Caucasian intermix

Sir Clements Markham, the popular and active president ture in the case of the Masai is from one-quarter to one-eighth. Their language, which for classification

of the society, who has just retired from office after twelve

years of zealous service. During this period Sir Clements 1 Owing to their habit of smearing their bodies with a red clay, they

| Markham has watched over the affairs of the society, and strike the casual observer as being a red-skinned rather than a brown race' has guarded the interests of geography, with a devotion and untiring energy which it is easier to admire than to our hospitals had become institutions in which the most emulate. But his influence has not only been exerted beneficent treatment is carried out with scientific thoroughwhile directing the affairs of the society as president, for ness; and in the sphere of public hygiene nothing short of he was honorary secretary of the society from 1863 to a revolution had been effected. Among the guests were the 1888, and the Founder's medal awarded to him upon his Duke of Northumberland, Lord Strathcona, Lord Alverretirement was a mark of appreciation of his work for the stone, Sir W. Huggins, P.R.S., Mr. John Tweedy, P.R.C.S., promotion of geography, both in connection with the Surgeon-General Keogh, Prof. Ray Lankester, Sir W. society and otherwise. It is, indeed, difficult to think of Ramsay, Sir F. Treves, Sir P. Manson, Prof. Christian the Royal Geographical Society apart from the personality Bohr, Prof. Pierre Marie, and many others. Last night of Sir Clements Markham, for in all the affairs of the the Fellows and their friends and other guests were enter society he has long been ubiquitous. Wherever and when tained at a soirée at the Natural History Museum. As ever geographical interests could be advanced, he has a fitting supplement to the centenary festivities, it may be championed them with a strength of view and courage mentioned that the society recently invited delegates of conviction which have commanded the admiration even from the other medical societies to confer on the practicof those who have differed from him. He has always been ability of an amalgamation between the various societies jealous of the honour of his charge ; and only those who and the foundation of an “ Academy of Medicine," such as have been closely associated with him can appreciate | exists in Paris and other cities. adequately how carefully he has cherished the society's welfare. At the banquet on Monday, the chairman, Sir


In connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the Société George D. T. Goldie, who has succeeded Sir Clements

des Sciences naturelles de Lucerne, which takes place this Markham in the presidential chair, referred in eloquent

year, the Société helvétique des Sciences naturelles will terms to Sir Clements' work as explorer and author, and

hold its eighty-eighth annual meeting at Lucerne on his great achievement in the introduction of the cultivation

September 10 to 13 inclusive. The business of the meetof the Cinchona plant from South America into India.

ing will be carried on in seven sections, dealing respectively Messages of regret upon the retirement of Sir Clements

with mineralogy and geology, botany, zoology, chemistry, Markham were read from the King and the Prince of

physics and mathematics, medicine, and civil engineering. Wales. After Sir Clements had replied to the toast of his

Lectures to the general assemblies have been promised by health, a testimonial was presented to him

Profs. F. Zschokke, A. Heim, and H. Bachmann. Five

from the relatives of the officers and members of the scientific staff

scientific societies will hold their annual meetings at of the Discovery in recognition of his courtesy in keeping

Lucerne on the same occasion, namely, the Swiss societies up communication with them. This souvenir consisted of

of geology, botany, zoology, and chemistry, and the Zurich a reproduction of the Cashel cup. and bore a suitable in

Physical Society. Full particulars can be obtained by scription.

writing There was also a gold pin studded with jewels

to the president of the meeting, Dr. E. for Lady Markham.

Schumacher-Kopp, Adligenschwylerstr., 24, Lucerne.

IN commemoration of the first admission of women to MM. METSCHNIKOFF and Roux, who have recently shown the full fellowship of the Linnean Society, a dinner was that syphilis is inoculable on the higher apes, at a meeting

given to the lady fellows of the society on May 18, at the of the French Academy of Medicine on May 16 announced invitation of the treasurer, Mr. F. Crisp.

, that they have at last detected the microorganism of this disease. The microbe appears to be a long, delicate, spiril- MR. A. HOWARD has been appointed by the Secretary lar form, difficult to observe, and readily destroved by any of State for India economic botanist to the Imperial manipulations. It seems to have been seen first by MM.

Department of Agriculture of India. He will be stationed Bordet and Gengou, of the Pasteur Institute, three years at the experiment station at Pusa, Behar, Bengal. ago, and subsequently by Herren Schaudinn and Hoffmann, by whom it was named Spirochaete pallida. It measures

A COURSE of instruction in oceanic research will be held 4-14 H in length by i u in breadth, and though resembling

at Bergen, during the university vacation, from August 8 similar organisms in mucus, &c., is readily distinguished

to October 14. The course, as in previous years, will from these. The spirochæte has been found in four out of

consist of lectures, practical instruction and assistance in six human cases of the disease, and also in the ireculated

laboratory work; excursions will also be made, during monkeys, and Dr. Levaditi also exhibited preparations of

which the use of various appliances and instruments will it obtained from a child suffering from hereditary syphilis.

be practically demonstrated. The work will be in charge

of Dr. A. Appellöf, Dr. D. Damas, Dr. H. H. Gran, Mr. TRE Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society celebrated

B. Helland-Hansen, Dr. Johan Hjort, and Mr. C. F. the centenary of its foundation by a dinner on May 22,

Kolderup. Further particulars can be obtained from the which was attended by the Prince of Wales and a large and

Oceanographical Institute of Bergen Museum, Bergen, distinguished company, the president, Sir Douglas Powell,

Norway. Bart., presiding. In responding to the loyal toasts, the Tue association which maintains an American woman's Prince of Wales (who is an honorary Fellow of the Society) table in Dr. Dohrn's marine laboratory at Naples also expressed his pleasure at being present. He regarded his offers at stated times a cash prize of 200l. for the best position as president of King Edward's Hospital Fund as thesis presented by a woman of any nationality embodya presious trust, and he watched with keen interest and ing original laboratcry research. This prize was awarded satisfaction the gradual but steady development of medical at the annual meeting in Boston, on April 29, to Miss science. He congratulated the Society on celebrating the X. M. Stevers for a paper on the germ cells of Aphis 1ooth anniversary of its foundation, a period which had | rosea and Iphis oenothera. The theses offered in combeen prolific in advances in medicine and surgery. Fhysi. petition for the next prize should be presented to the ologs had become established as a precise branch of learn. executive committee of th

executive committee of the association, and must be in ing: barteriology had laid bare the foundations of disease: the hands of the chairman of the committee on the antiseptics and the clinical thermometer had been invented; prize, Mrs. Ellen H. Richards, Massachusetts Institute of

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