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Technology, Boston, Mass., before December 31, 1906. Macmillan Company, Dr. J. A. Allan gives a list of The prize will be awarded at the annual meeting in April, | mammals from Beaver county, Utah, several of which are 1907

described as new. The mammals of this elevated region At the meeting of the Pathological Society of London

are stated to differ considerably from their representatives on May 16, Mr. C. Walker gave a demonstration which

in the adjacent foot-hills. In No. 6 of the same serial seems to solve the nature of the so-called “ cancer bodies "

Mr. C. Schæfer describes new American beetles, and in (Ruffer's bodies) of malignant tumours, which have been the third paper (from the Proceedings of the U.S. Museum) believed by many to be parasitic protozoa. He showed

Mr. W. D. Kearfoot diagnoses new tortricine moths from specimens of the normal reproductive cells of the testis

Carolina. containing bodies which are apparently identical with the

In the April issue (vol. i., part iv.) of the Records of " cancer bodies," but are really the archoplastic vesicles of

the Albany Museum Dr. R. Broom discusses the proper those cells.

signification of the Owenian term “ Anomodontia,” and In the Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital for April comes to the conclusion that it is applicable only to the (xvi., No. 169) the most interesting and important com- i dicynodonts. He also describes certain new fossil reptiles munication is by Dr. Clowes on the immunisation of mice from Aliwal North, and contributes some important notes against cancer. In certain mice which had been inoculated on the localities of type specimens of other South African with mouse cancer, the disease underwent an unexpected reptiles, especially those in the British Museum. In the and spontaneous retrogression, and it was found that the course of these remarks, it is pointed out that Anthodon serum of these animals produced a marked curative effect is of Wealden age, and probably, therefore, a dinosaur on the cancerous tumours in other mice suffering from the | instead of a pariasaurian, and that the limb-bones dedisease.

scribed by Owen as Platypodosaurus are almost certainly Dr. W. B. WHerry records some interesting observations

referable to Udenodon. on the biology of the cholera spirillum (Bull. Bureau of In the issue of Biologisches Centralblatt of May 1 the Gov. Laboratories, Manila, No. 19), in which he shows

Rev. Father Wasmann brings to a close his important that the slight variations in cultural and other characters

series of articles as to the origin of slavery among ants, so often met with in different strains of this micro

and formulates the conclusions at which he has arrived, organism are largely due to slight differences in the culture

which are too long to be recapitulated in our columns at media employed, particularly in their reaction, and sugges

length. It may be mentioned, however, that, in the tions are given for the more accurate preparation of author's opinion, this system of slavery had indepenstandard media.

dent origins at different dates respectively in the formicine The Journal of the Royal Sanitary Institute (xxvi., and the myrmecine sections of the ant family, and that it No. 4) contains a report of a discussion on the aërial dis has also been independently acquired in different genera semination of small-pox round small-pox hospitals, in the and species of these two subfamilies at different times. course of which Dr. H. E. Armstrong, Dr. T. M. Clayton, In general, it seems to have been of later origin in the and others adduce a good deal of evidence against the Formicinæ than in the Myrmecinæ. Moreover, the phenocommonly accepted view of the danger of aërial infection menon affords confirmation of the biological doctrine that in the neighbourhood of such hospitals. Municipal milk the ontogeny of a group constitutes a brief recapitulation depôts and milk sterilisation is the subject of another paper | of its phylogeny. In another article in the same issue by Dr. G. F. McCleary.

Dr. O. Zacharias emphasises the importance of modern

methods of studying “hydrobiology” in relation to fishDr. CHARLES CREIGHTON, who recently paid a special visit to India for the purpose of inquiring on the spot

culture and fisheries. into some of the circumstances connected with the pre

Part jii. of vol. xlvii. of the quarterly issue of Smithvalence of plague, read a paper on this disease before the

sonian Miscellaneous Contributions contains an article by Society of Arts on May 18. Dr. Creighton first criticised Mr. C. D. Sherborn on the species of birds described as the composition of the British Plague Commission of

new in Vroeg's catalogue, published in 1764. P. S. 1898, complaining that there was no epidemiologist upon | Pallas is believed to be the real author of the names. it. He next gave a somewhat detailed account of the The only copy of this work that has come under the geographical distribution of plague, and directed attention author's notice is in the library of the Linnean Society, to the difference of incidence of the disease in the villages

where it might have been left in well merited obscurity. of the district of Ratnagiri and those of the adjoining Social spiders (Stegodyphus sarasinorum) form the subject district of Satara. In the former all the buildings, road- of another article, by Mr. N. S. Jambunathan, in the same ways, &c., are of stone, and plague occurs little or not at serial. The spiders of this species, which was discovered all; in the latter the villages are plague-stricken, and the by the author at Saidapet, Madras, in 1898, live in a crowded dwellings are of mud, the floors, &c., being sponge-like nest formed of branching net-work with comsaturated with offal. Dr. Creighton believes that crowded / municating canals and a number of external openings. sites too long inhabited and without drainage are the cause These nests, which may be attached either to the tips of of the trouble, which is explicable on the laws of soil- branches of trees or to leaves of the prickly pear, are infection enunciated by Pettenkofer and his school.

ashy-grey in colour, and constructed of leaves and refuse

from the spiders' food. Externally is a coat of stout A PRICED catalogue of pinned specimens of Lepidoptera, issued by Mr. H. Fruhstorfer, of Turmstrasse, Berlin,

sticky threads of the same colour as the spiders themfrom whom we have received a copy, should prove useful

selves, and sheet-like webs spread in all directions from

the nests. Five or six nests are often found together, each to collectors.

of which may be the home of from 40 to 100 spiders, AMONG our weekly budget are included three papers on usually in the proportion of seven males to one female. North American zoology. In the first, from the Bulletin | A number of spiders will cooperate to overpower a single of the Brockly Institute (vol. i., No. 5), published by the large insect.

Derixg the last few days paragraphs have appeared in keeping the soil thoroughly moist after planting. The the newspapers stating that a plague of flies has invaded teak forests of Burma form the subject of another article, Cardiff Docks, causing much inconvenience. The flies are in which Mr. R. S. Troup comes to the conclusion that said to have made their appearance with a southerly wind useful as fire protection may be in most forests, annual on Sunday, May 14. Mr. Ernest E. Austen, of the British burning in moist mixed forests of teak and bamboos is Museum (Natural History), informs us that specimens for-decidedly efficacious. warded to the museum show that the trouble has been

The appearance of a Nature-study Review, edited and caused by the Ay known as Dilophus febrilis, Linn., a

| published by Mr. M. A. Bigelow in Lancaster, Pennsyl. very common British species of the family Bibionidæ, met

vania, indicates that the subject is making progress in the with from April to September, but especially abundant in United States. A discussion in the first number as to the Mar. In colour the flies are black, with a shining thorax,

scope of nature-study has led to a general expression of and measure about 5 millimetres, or rather less than a

opinion that it differs from natural science in so far as it quarter of an inch, in length. As in all Bibionidæ, the

| lacks the characteristic organisation of science, and that it males are distinguished from the females by the large size

should be confined to elementary schools ; further articles of the head, which in the former sex appears from above

on the subject appear in the March number, which is the to be entirely composed of the eyes. Of five specimens

second of a bi-monthly issue. Amongst the articles giving sent to the British Museum, all were males. Dilophus

the experiences of teachers one by Dr. E. A. Bigelow febrilis breeds in horse and cattle droppings, in which the directs attention to the convenience of putting up the salts larvt-white footless grubs measuring half an inch in

| required for plant food solutions in tabloid form. length, with a dark brown head capsule at the anterior t'stremity-are found in small masses. This fly is quite

IN Spelunca (Bull. de la Soc. de Spéléologie, tome v., incapable of biting, as are also all the other species of

Nos. 39 and 40) there are interesting articles on the the same family, so far as at present known, though the

caverns and subterranean water-courses of the Mendip possession of an elongated proboscis by two Mexican

Hills, by Mr. H. E. Balch, and on those of the Jura representatives of the genus Plecia suggests that there may

Mountains by M. E. Fournier. be forms that suck blood. The occasional occurrence of Mr. E. C. Davey, who in 1874 contributed to the Bibionidae and other Diptera in immense numbers is well Transactions of the Newbury District Field Club an essay known, and notes on the subject have already appeared

on the sponge-gravel beds near Faringdon, with photoin these columns (cf. NATURE, vol. xlviii., 1893, pp. 103, graphs of some of the fossil sponges, has revised and 127. 170). With regard to Dilophus febrilis, Mr. J. W. amplified his article under the title “ The Neocomian Douglas, writing in the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine Sponges, Bryozoa, Foraminifera, and other Fossils of the for 880 (p. 142), describes a swarm of this species at sea Sponge-gravel Beds at Little Coxwell, near Faringdon." of the Norfolk coast on September 2 of that year. It is | This is now published by Messrs. Dulau and Co., price stated that the air was obscured by the flies as by a cloud, 55. net, and it contains five photographic plates of sponges, and that a schooner sailing at about a cable's length from Echini, and Foraminifera. The nomenclature of the the shore was so covered with them that for five hours sponges is revised in accordance with the researches of persons were unable to remain on deck; the air cleared | Dr. G. J. Hinde, but the author does not wholly agree at about 4 p.m. The cause of these phenomenal swarms with the determinations made by that palæontologist, and is still uncertain, but it is probably to be found in ex adds other species, one new species being figured and ceptionally favourable climatic conditions, which, by briefly described. Under the heading “ Bivalves,” the accelerating the growth of the larvæ and shortening the author includes brachiopods and lamellibranchs; he makes pupal stage, cause myriads of flies to appear at practically no reference to the occurrence of Belemnites, to which Mr. the same time.

G. W. Lamplugh directed special attention in 1903 (Geol, In the Biological Bulletin (February) Mr. R. S. Lillie

Mag., p. 32). discusses the conditions determining the disposition of the

Basing his conclusions largely on the capacity of the chromatic filaments and chromosomes in mitosis, and

cranium, but also taking into account other characters, advances a physicochemical theory, based upon mutual

Mr. A. da Costa Ferreira has attempted to dissect out, as repulsions of the particles of a colloid solution, to explain

it were, the probable racial constituents of the Portuguese, the sequence of the stages in nuclear division.

and has set forth his results in the Bulletin de la Société

d'Anthropologie de Paris (5e. sér., tome v., p. 473). He A REVISION by Mr. B. Hayata of the Euphorbiaceæ and finds a short, mesorhine dolichocephalic type with a Buxacea of Japan, as represented in the herbarium of the small head which he thinks belongs to the Cro-Magnon l'niversity of Tokio, forms article ii. in vol. xx. of the race, and a tall, leptorhine dolichocephalic type with a Journal of the College of Science in that university. The | large head. The mesaticephals are partly attributed to a number of genera is limited to twenty-four under brachycephalic mixture; those of short stature, leptorhine, Euphorbiacea and two under Buxaceæ, and seven new and with a large head, are thought to belong to the race sprcies are recorded. The author has provided figures of of Grenelle or to a Celtic invasion. The small headed, the powers for most of the species.

leptorhine mesaticephals are probably of Semitic origin,

while the mesorhines may be of Berber extraction. A BRIEF survey of the progress of the Nilambur Teak Plantations, Madras, from its inception by Mr. Conolly

In order to make more widely known and more easily in 1840 to its present condition, when the receipts more accessible to American students the results of important than balance the cost, is contributed by Mr. R. McIntosh researches on the Maya hieroglyphs, printed in the German to the Indian Forester (March). The harvest time is still language, the Peabody Museum Committee on Central thirty-five years ahead, when the fellings are expected to American Research has begun a series of translations of produce a revenue of 40,0001. a year. The difficulty ex- | which the first, on the representation of deities of the perienced at first in getting the secd to germinate was Maya manuscripts, by Dr. P. Schellhas, has been pubover time by soaking the seeds before planting, and by lished as vol. iv., No. 1, of the Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University. In this valuable enumer- / In connection with inverse operations, Prof. Ross introation Dr. Schellhas is very careful not to theorise or to go duces the notation of a double fraction or solidus line as a beyond the warrant of the manuscripts themselves. In distinction from the ordinary division symbol; thus, accordseveral cases he refers to diverse views concerning the ing to his notation, we should have names of the gods in question ; but, as he truly observes,


f+ 162 - 400) “ these different opinions show on what uncertain grounds

(aB? + 18+]

21 such attempts at interpretation stand, and that it is best

as the symbolical enunciation of the expressions for the to be satisfied with designating the deities by letters and collecting material for their purely descriptive designation.

roots of a quadratic equation. In vol. iii. of the same Papers are illustrated accounts of

Tue peculiar magnetic properties of the so-called the Cahokia and surrounding mound groups, by Mr. D. I. |

Heusler's bronzes, consisting of copper, manganese, and Bushnell, and of the exploration of mounds in Coahoma,

aluminium, are the subject of a paper by E. Take in

the Verhandlungen of the German co. Mississippi, by C. Peabody. In vol. i. Mrs. Zelia

Physical Society Nuttall gives a very interesting account of a penitential

(vol. vii., 133). The “ transformation points ” of a number rite of the ancient Mexicans mainly derived from Spanish of samples of the bronze were determined, as well as the sources. Blood was drawn from cuts in various parts of

effect of heating and re-heating upon them. The results the body, including the tongue and ears; the rite of

are shown in a series of striking curves. voluntarily drawing blood, principally from the ear, was

REFERENCE has already been made in these notes a feature of every-day life in ancient Mexico, and was per (NATURE, vol. lxx. p. 583) to the simple form of telescope formed by young and old. It constituted an act of pyrometer invented by M. Féry for measuring high humility, thanksgiving, penitence, or propitiation.

temperatures. This instrument is now being sold by the

Cambridge Scientific Instrument Co., Ltd., who have been The Survey Department of Egypt has published an appointed sole agents for its sale in the United Kingdom, important paper on the rainfall of the Nile basin in 1904, the British colonies, and in the United States; it is made by Captain H. G. Lyons, director-general of the service. in two forms, a mirror pyrometer, recording temperatures Five years ago there were only six or eight places where between 500° C. and 1100° C., and a lens pyrometer, readthe rainfall was being measured regularly; now, thanks ing between 900° C. and 3500° C. chiefly to the efforts of Captain Lyons, there are more Prof. Moissan has published, in the form of a pamphlet than forty, of which thirty-two lie to the south of Berber having the title “ La Chimie minérale, ses Relations avec (lat. 18° N.). He points out that to understand the les autres Sciences," an address delivered last September seasonal variation of the rainfall the relative positions of

at the Congress of Arts and Sciences at St. Louis. Prof. the equatorial low-pressure belt, and the high-pressure

Moissan, who by his own researches and those of his areas to the north and south of it at different seasons, colleagues has so widely enlarged the domains of inorganic must be taken into consideration. In the low-pressure area chemistry, whilst regretting that this branch of science there is an ascensional movement of the air, so that its

is still systematically imperfect as compared with organic moisture is condensed to form clouds and rain. This

chemistry, emphasises the fact that during the past few ascensional movement depends upon the heating effect of

years its study has again resumed a place of honour. the sun, and it is shown month by month how the low

This has been due largely to the discovery of the gases of pressure area varies with respect to the sun's position

the atmosphere, to research at high and low temperatures, from south to north, and back to south again. The care-l the investigation of the rare earths, and to the increasing fully prepared tables and diagrams show, as a general

tendency to the fusion of chemical and physical methods. result, that the rainfall of 1904 in the Nile basin was

“Many important investigations still remain to be made below the average; in the equatorial regions it was some

! in inorganic chemistry, but for success very refined methods what deficient in the earlier part of the year, and above

and a high degree of accuracy will be required. Chemical the average in the autumn.

research must acquire the precision of physics." Finally, A SOMEWHAT striking paper has been published by Prof.

it must be recognised that experiment is the sole guide to Ronald Ross, F.R.S., of Liverpool University, on verb !

truth, and that Faraday's saying still holds true that functions, with notes on the solution of equations by

chemistry is essentially an experimental science. operative division (Proceedings of the Royal Irish The recent researches of M. Berthelot on the per

Academy, XXV., A, 3). The writer points out that whereas meability of fused quartz vessels to gases at high temperasymbols such as f and $ are used to denote functions in tures have led him to study glass from the same point of general, no notation exists which can explicitly represent | view, with very interesting results. In many analytical the operation of forming any particular function of any processes, and more especially in the analysis of organic argument, apart from the argument itself, except in certain compounds, it is tacitly assumed that at temperatures simple cases as exemplified by the prefixes log. sin, &c. ! below its melting point glass is impermeable to oxygen, The notation proposed by Prof. Ross meets this want. nitrogen, and carbon monoxide and dioxide. In the current It depends on the use of a purely symbolical letter B to i number of the Comptes rendus, M. Berthelot gives an denote the base of a given operation, this symbol occurring account of some experiments on glass, the mode of work. in the “verb function" or operator. When this verb ing being the same as that used for the quartz tubes (see function operates on a subject x, it produces the result NATURE, April 13. p. 508) with the exception that the obtained by writing x for B in the operator. For example, tubes were necessarily slowly cooled, and finds that at [Bm/"](ab)=(ab)m/, [Blog B-1]r=x log x-1, [eß cos B]r=e* cos x,

temperatures between 550° C. and 800° C. glass tubes

are permeable to gases. He compares the passage of gases and so on. Another peculiarity is the use of square

through slightly softened glass to the gaseous exchanges brackets to enclose each separate operation, the necessity

taking place at the ordinary temperature through the walls of which may be illustrated by the following example :

of indiarubber tubing, and emphasises the importance of [(a+b)].< represents (a + x)?, whereas

this property of glass, hitherto unsuspected, in many la+B]'x=[a+bla+B]r=[a+b]a + x)= a +(a + x)=2a+x. chemical and physical investigations at high temperatures,

MESSRS. CROSBY LOCKWOOD AND Son will publish shortly OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. a work on * Modern Lightning Conductors," by Mr. Kil Newly DiscoverED NEBULÆ.-In No. 4013 of the lingworth Wedges, honorary secretary of the Lightning Astronomische Nachrichten Prof. Max Wolf announces the Research Committee.

discovery of a small, but beautiful, nebula the position

of which, referred to the equator of 1900-0, is as follows :Ax appendix to Mr. R. L. Taylor's “Student's a=13h. 58m. 33.445., 8=-9° 39' 36". This object was Chemistry * has been published by Mr. John Heywood, discovered on a plate exposed during a search for minor It consists of two sections; the first part deals with the

planet (126), Velleda, and is of a spiral form, of the un

usual S-shaped variety, the nucleus being of the fourteenth radio-active elements, and the second is an introduction to

magnitude. Its diameter in R.A. is about o':75, and in the study of organic chemistry.

dec. about 1'.0. We have received from the Art. Institut Orell Füssli, of

A second nebula of especial interest was found in the

position (1900-0) R.A. = 13h. 58m. 15.175., 0= -9° 40' 10". Zurich, Sos. 177, 178, and 179 of their “ Illustrated This object is i in length along its major axis, which has Europe ** series of handbooks. The three parts are bound a position angle of about 120°, and is of the Andromeda together in a convenient little volume with the title nebula form. * Grisons Oberland." The guide book is by Dr. Chr. | The BRUCE TELESCOPE REFERENCE PHOTOGRAPHS.-When Tarnuzzer, and a historical sketch has been contributed the 24-inch Bruce telescope of the Harvard College Observtis Prof. J. C. Muoth. The translation into English was

atory was being planned it was expected that the instru

ment might be useful in assisting in the discoveries of done by Dr. and Mrs. Spöndly-Blakiston. Visitors to this

new satellites, and this expectation was realised in the interesting part of Switzerland will find interesting scien discovery of Phæbe. A number of plates of each planet tific, historical, and topographical information in this have been taken since 1893, and of these Prof. Pickering guide book. The book may be obtained in this country

now gives the details as to object photographed, exposure, from Messrs. Hachette and Co.

date and region, in Circular No. 97 of the Harvard College

Observatory, hoping that the knowledge of their existence MESSRS. OLIVER AND BOYD have published the ninth

may assist other observers of possible satellites. The list volume of the “Reports from the Laboratory of the Royal

includes 12 plates exposed for Mercury, 2 for Mars, 6 for

Vesta, 21 for Jupiter, 12 for Uranus, and 3 for Neptune. ('ollege of Physicians, Edinburgh." The volume is edited

The Saturn plates were fully described when the manner of by Sir J. B. Tuke and Dr. Noël Paton. The papers in the discovery of Phæbe was related in a former publication. cluded tall under two categories; the first comprises four The limiting magnitude of the objects shown on these plates teen papers describing researches on the ductless glands may be taken as 17.0 or 17.5, and therefore the photounder the Mason fund, and the second consists of general

graphs may prove useful in the correction of the elements

of Jupiter's newly discovered satellites when more is pcrarches in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. known of the positions of these two objects. We have received from Mr. John Grant, of Edinburgh,

COMET 1904 II. (1904 d). A continuation of the a caralogue of scientific books, chiefly on botany, zoology,

ephemeris for comet 1904 d is given in No. 4012 of the

| Astronomische Vachrichten by Herr M. Ebell. and geology, and a catalogue of recent purchases—including

This comet is now only about one-sixth as bright as some well known works of science—all of which are offered when discovered, and is gradually becoming fainter. Its at greatls reduced prices.

position on May 26, according to the ephemeris, will be

ä (true)= 2h. 23m. 48., (true)= +64° 50', which is MR. W. BUTLER, Southport, has devised a new type of about 2° south of , Cassiopeia, and the object is travelling camera stand-called the Swingcam-to facilitate the slowly towards the constellation Camelus with a very photography of natural history subjects. The stand slightly increasing declination. enables a photographer to point the lens of a camera at TWELVE STARS WITH VARIABLE RADIAL VELOCITIES.any angle and fix it in that position, without the use of

| Further results of the spectrographic work performed by a swinging back or front or any other independent attach

the D. O. Mills expedition from Lick Observatory to the

southern hemisphere are published in Bulletin No. 75 of ment. The Swingcam tripod head can be fixed in a hori.

that observatory. zontal or vertical position, or at any angie, and is also Twelve stars have been found by Prof. Wright and Dr. capable of being inverted if desired. Naturalists and Palmer to be spectroscopic binaries, some of them, others who occasionally have to use cameras in awkward mentioned below, having features of especial interest. positions will no doubt find these devices a convenience.

a Phænicis has a period of about 190 days. The system

of Eridani has been found to be very similar to that New editions of two standard works already reviewed

of Mizar, the brightest component, 0,, having a composite

spectrum similar to that of the star named. a Puppis, in these columns have just been received from Mr. Gustav

a Volantis, a Carinæ, and * and p Velorum are amongst Fischer, Jena. One is the seventh edition of the “ Lehr

the other stars of which the radial velocities have been buch der Botanik" by Profs. Strasburger, Noll, Schenck found to be variable. and Karsten, and the other is the seventh edition of Dr.

DOUBLE “CANALS” ON MARS IN 1903.-In Bulletin R. Hertwig's “ Lehrbuch der Zoologie." Both works have No. 15 of the Lowell Observatory Mr. Lowell gives, and born revised, so that they will maintain their high position discusses in detail, the results of his observations of the among text-books of science.

Martian “ canals” during 1903. Before proceeding to

the account of the actual observations, he comments on We bave received from Messrs. Henry Sotheran and

the various theories which have been advanced in arguCO., 140 Strand, W.C., a copy of their latest catalogue

ment against the reality of the “ doubling ” phenomenon.

The " diplopic" or out-of-focus theory is refuted for five of second-hand books, including numerous scientific works; !

reasons, the chief of which is that for any special epoch and from Messrs. Joho Wheldon and Co., 30 Great Queen the width of each individual double canal remains conStreet, W.C., a catalogue of a miscellaneous collection of stant, looks, comprising many dealing with biology, geology,

The "interference" theory is met by the statements

that in the case of these features there is no bright streak and mathematics.

such as would be necessary to produce the two dark MESSRS. DAWDARY AND WARD, LTD., have published a

streaks to give the idea of a double canal, and that the

width of each double canal does not vary with the apersecond revised edition of " Photographic Failures: Pre- ture emploved. Lastly, the “illusion," or, as Mr. vention and Cure," by " Scrutator " of the Photogram. Lowell refers to it, the " Small Boy," theory is considered, the chief argument against it being that the ambiguity leaving the glass white and transparent. The coloration of real and false effects only exists at the limit of vision, is not superficial. On immersing a piece of the coloured whereas most of the canals considered are, when well seen, glass in a liquid of about the same refractive index as far within this limit.

itself, the colour is seen to have penetrated throughout A number of interesting points concerning the canal the mass. Radium, acting for a few days, even through systems are deduced from the 1903 observations, but only quartz, will produce as intense a coloration in a piece of one or two of the more striking may be mentioned here. this glass as exposure to the sun on the Pampa has taken (1) The majority of the double canals do not exceed 3o.2 years to effect. Six pieces of glass from the greenhouses (degrees on the planet's surface) in width ; (2) at the time at Kew Gardens illustrated changes which took probably of maximum visibility the two members of each double about fifty years to complete in our climate. Purple spots are generally of equal strength, but as they wane one of were produced on two of these specimens by Sir William them usually becomes apparently stronger than the other ; | Crookes by the action of 15 milligrams of radium bromide (3) the double canals appear to congregate in special longi- | in a quartz tube in the course of ten days, the beginning tudes and latitudes, in the latter case especially favouring of change being well marked at the end of two days. In the equatorial regions, a fact which Mr. Lowell urges as a specimen of manganese glass exposed to light for forty an argument against the “ diplopic ” theory ; (4) the double years as a pane of a greenhouse, the ends of the glass canals are peculiar to the lighter regions of the planet's which had been protected from light by the window frame surface, although single canals are, apparently, just as

were colourless. In the expectation that radium might numerous in the darker as in the lighter regions; the have a reducing effect on the manganese compound, Mr. double canals, however, are always connected, directly, or

F. Soddy submitted a portion of the pane to the action through the inedium of similar objects, with the darker 1 of 30 milligrams of radium bromide for three days in

May, 1904. The colour, however, instead of areas.


diminished,' was intensified. Specimens were also shown CATALOGUE OF New DOUBLE STARS.-Prof. Hussey's

illustrating the coloration of glass, quartz, and fluorspar ninth catalogue of double stars, discovered with the 12-inch and 36-inch refractors of the Lick Observatory, and mostly

by the B rays of radium.

Action of actinjum or emanium emanation on a sensitive measured with the latter instrument, is contained in

screen : Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S. Actinium Bulletin No. 74 of that observatory. The preceding cata

or emanium are different names, adopted by Debierne logues have severally appeared in Nos. 480, 485, and 494

and Giesel respectively, for the same substance, separable of the Astronomical Journal, and Nos. 12, 21, 27, 57, and

from pitchblende, and accompanying lanthanum. It gives 65 of the Lick Observatory Bulletins.

off an emanation, of which the period of activity is very The present publication gives the catalogue and D.M.

short-a few seconds. When this emanation impinges numbers, the position and the distance and position-angle

on a sensitive zinc sulphide screen, the screen becomes determined at each observation for each of the double

luminous. The luminous patch can be blown away, and stars recorded. The catalogue numbers extend from Soi

in a second or two reappears.--Phosphorescence caused by to 1000 inclusive, and run consecutively.

the B rays of radium : Mr. G. T. Beilby. Phosphorescence

of calcspar and other substances-(1) during exposure to THE ROYAL SOCIETY CONVERSAZIONE.

the rays; (2) after removal from the rays; and (3) revived

by heat after secondary phosphorescence has died down. M ANY instruments and devices of scientific interest were

The storage of phosphorescence and the coloration effects shown at the Royal Society's conversazione on are due to partial electrolysis of the calcium carbonate or Wednesday, May 17. As usual, the exhibits illustrated other substance by the stream of negative electrons. A methods and results of recent work in various branches of

proportion of the ions re-combine at once, others continue science, and the subjoined summary of the official cata to re-combine after the rays have ceased to act, and the logue contains a few particulars relating to them.

remainder only re-combine when the mobility of the crystal In the course of the evening lantern demonstrations were molecules is increased by heat.-Skiagrams of the hands given in the meeting-room by Dr. E. A. Wilson, Sir Oliver of Machnow, the Russian giant, and of O'Brien, the Irish Lodge, and Mr. Perceval Landon. Sir Oliver Lodge

giant : Mr. S. G. Shattock. demonstrated the use of electric valves for the production

Large echelon spectroscope : Prof. A. Schuster, F.R.S. of high-tension continuous current. Electric vacuum This echelon spectroscope, constructed by Messrs. Adam valves, which it is now found were suggested in a letter Hilger, Ltd., consists of 33 plates, and has a resolving by Sir George Stokes twenty years ago, have as their power equal to that of an ordinary grating of 329,000 function the entrapping of a portion of electricity by per lines in the first order.-A hand refractometer : Mr. G. F. mitting its passage in one direction and stopping its | Herbert Smith. By means of this form of refractometer return. They therefore can be employed to accumulate the refractive indices of any translucent substance, the electricity supplied from an intermittent or jerky source and refractive power of which lies within the effective range of to store it at a steady high potential ; so that it may there the instrument, 1.400 to 1.760 approximately, may be after maintain a current through a very high resistance, determined with ease and celerity, to units in the second as in electrostatics, and may produce X-rays, or point place of decimals if ordinary light, and to two or three discharge, or other continuous high-tension effects, and units in the third place of decimals if the monochromatic enable a small portable coil to imitate some of the light emitted by a volatilising sodium salt be the source effects of a much larger one by storage and accumulation of illumination.—The Ashe-Finlayson comparascope : Mr. of impulses. Among the applications contemplated are the D. Finlayson. This accessory to the microscope has been separation of metallic fume and the dissipation of fog. designed to enable the images of two different objects, Dr. Edward A. Wilson showed a number of Antarctic separately mounted, to be projected side by side into the views illustrating the life and work done on board the field of view, thereby enabling a thorough comparison to Discovery during the years 1902 to 1904, and views of the be made of their respective points of difference and reseals, penguins, and other birds met with in the Antarctic semblance. The apparatus consists of a prism placed circle; and Mr. Perceval Landon exhibited pictures of the above the primary objective which reflects to the ocular road to Lhasa.

the rays from a secondary objective placed at right angles The other exhibits are here grouped together according to the optic axis of the microscope.-(1) Torsion balance to subjects more or less closely related to one another. used in radiation pressure measurements, by Nichols and

Specimens illustrating the action of light and of radium | Hull; (2) vacuum tube, of Nichols and Hull, to illustrate upon glass : Sir William Crookes, F.R.S. (1) It is well the repulsion of comet tails by the sun : Prof. E. F. known that many samples of colourless glass containing | Nichols.-An optical appliance to facilitate visual percepmanganese slowly assume a violet tint when exposed to tion of ultra-microscopic particles : Mr. Carl Zeiss. The sunlight. In some specimens of glass exhibited the pieces apparatus consists of a projection table provided with an were of all depths of tint, from deep violet, almost black arc lamp, optical bench, two projection aplanats, and a in thick pieces, to pale amethyst. Analysis shows the precision slit. (The use of sunlight instead of the art glass to contain manganese. Heating the glass in a lamp is preferable.) Particles of far less than half covered crucible to its softening point discharges the colour, wave-length can be made visible with this apparatus.-

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