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A WEEKLY ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

To the solid ground
Of Nature trusts the mind which builds for aye." _WORDSWORTH.

No. 1857, VOL. 72]

THURSDAY, JUNE 1, 1905. Registered as a Newspaper at the General Post Office.)

[PRICE 15 CENTS (All Rights are Reserved.

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VERLAG VON CUSTAV FISCHER IN JENA.

Soeben erschien :
ZELLEN-STUDIEN
Von Dr. THEODOR BOVERI,
Prof. a. d. Universität Würzburg.

HIEFT 5.
Ueber die Abhangigkeit der Kerngrösse und Zellenzahl
der Seeigel-Larven von der Chromosomenzahl der

Ausgangszellen.
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DIE INLANDSTÄMME
DER MALAYISCHEN HALBINSEL.
Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse einer Reise durch die

Vereinigten Malayischen Staaten,

Von Dr. RUDOLF MARTIN,
Prof. der Anthropologie und Direktor des Anthropologischen

Institutes der Universität Zürich.
Mit 137 TEXTABBILDUNGEN, 26 TAFELN 0.1 KARTE.

Preis: 60 Mark.

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NOTICE.

NATURE

NORTHERN POLYTECHNIC

INSTITUTE,

HOLLOWAY, LONDON, N. (Close to Holloway Stn., G.N.R., and Highbury Stn., N.L.R.) LONDON UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

DEGREES. Of THURSDAY Next, JUNE 8, will contain the

Day and Evening Courses in the above under recognised teachers inINDEX TO VOL. LXXI.

MATHEMATICS,

PHYSICS, ITS PRICE WILL BE ONE SHILLING.

CHEMISTRY,

ENGINEERING. * * Advertisements intended for this number should reach Separate Laboratories for Elementary, Advanced and Honours studenis

exceptionally large and well equipped. the Publishers by Tuesday, June 6.

RESEARCH.

Accommodation and apparatus provided for research in either Pure or OFFICE OF “NATURE,”

Applied Chemistry and Physics, and Engineering, in rooms specially

adapted for this purpose. ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON, WC. Full particulars at the Institute or sent on receipt of postcard.

REG S. CLAY, D.Sc., Principal BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL.

NORTHERN POLYTECHNIC

INSTITUTE,
India Office,
Whitehall, S.W.,

HOLLOWAY, LONDON, N.
May 23, 1905.

REG. S. CLAY, D.Sc., Principal,
WANTED, for service at the India Store Depot, Belvedere Road, The Governors of the above Institute invite applications for the following
Lambeth, London, S.E.. au ASSISTANT INSPECTOR OF SCIEN.

appointments to date from September 1, 1005 TIFIC SUPPLIES.

(1) CHIEF ASSISTANT in the Mechanical Engineering Department. Candidates must have a knowledge of optical work as applied to survey. Drawing office and hop experience essential Salary, 150 per annum. ing and similar instruments, and of balances as used for chemical, assay, (2) CHIEF ASSISTANT in the Architectural and Building 'Irades and mint purposes. They must also have a thorough knowledge of physics Departinent. Salary, 6125 per annum. and be acquainted with the general principles of electricity.

Applications to be made on special forms, which must be returned not Age, 25 to 30. Salary, 6200 per annum, rising by annual increments of later than June 10, to be obtained from 610, on satisfactory report, to £350 per annum. Pension under Civil

W. M. MACBETH, Secretary. Service Regulations.

The selected candidate will be examined by the Medical Board at the India Office, and will only be appointed if passed by the Board.

. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. Forms of application can be obtained by writing to the Director General of Stores, India Office, Whitehall, London, S.W., not later than June 5,

GOLDSMITHS' COLLEGE, 1905.

NEW CROSS.
E. GRANT BURLS,
Director General of Stores.

DEPARTMENT FOR THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS.
In view of the opening of The above Department in the latter part of

September next, TEACHERS (Men and Women) of the various subjects BEDFORD COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. included in the Scheme of Studies will shortly be appointed.

The Scheme includes both General Education and Professional Instruc(UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.)

tion.

The majority of the salaries will he between £150 and £250 a year, but YORK PLACE, BAKER STREET, LONDON, W. higher or lower salaries may be paid in exceptional cases.

Applications must be received not later than Saturday, June 17. 1905. A Reid Scholarship in Arts, annual value 631 ros. first year, £28 75. ! Particulars may be obtained from the WARDEN, Goldsmiths' College, second and third years, and an Arnott Scholarship in Science, annual value New Cross, S.E. 648, both tenable for three years, will be awarded on the results of an examination to be held at the College on June 28 and 29. For further information apply to the PRINCIPAL.

BIRKBECK COLLEGE. DEPARTMENT FOR PROFESSIONAL TRAINING IN

The Council invite applications for the appointment of ASSISTANT TEACHING

LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS. Commencing Salary £175, to date

from September I next. Applications, stating age, degree and qualificaStudents are admitted to the Training Course in October and January

tions, teaching experience, and enclosing testimonials, inust reach the Two Scholarships, each of the value of £10, will be awarded for the

PRINCIPAL not later than Tuesday, June 20. course of Secondary Training beginning in October, 1905. Applications should reach the HEAD OF THE TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Birkbeck College, not later than July 7, 1905.

Breams Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.
THE VICTORIA

BOROUGH OF LEICESTER-EDUCATION

COMMITTEE. UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER.

MUNICIPAL TECHNICAL SCHOOL. VULCAN FELLOWSHIP IV ENGINEERING.

ASSISTANT INSTRUCTOR in ENGINEERING wanted for Sep. (FOUNDED BY THE VULCAN Boiler COMPANY.)

tember 1, to teach chiefly Applied Mechanics and Machine Construction

and Drawing-Day and Evening Classes. Salary, 150 per annum. The first award of this Fellowship, which is open to graduates of the Applications, accompanied by copies of recent testimonials, to be sent to University of Manchester or of other Universities who can furnish satisfactory evidence of being able to pursue original research, will be

Education Department,

T. GROVES, Secretary. made shortly.

Town Hall, Leicester, The Fellowship is of the value of £120.

May 24, 1905. Applications should be forwarded to the REGISTRAR on or before July

TO SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICAL next, from whom detailed conditions may be obtained.

MASTERS.-September (1995) Vacancies.- Graduates and other well

qualified Masters seeking posts in Public and other Schools for next HARTLEY UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, term should apply at once, giving full details as to qualifications &c..

to Messrs. GRIFFITHS, SMITH, POWELL & SMITH, Tutorial Agen's SOUTHAMPTON.

(Est. 1833), 34 Bedford Street, Strand, London. Immediate notice

of all the best vacancies will be sent. Principal-S. W. RICHARDSON, D.Sc., B.A. A SUMMER COURSE OF BOTANY, for Teachers and others, will

MEERUT COLLEGE. be held at the above College, July 31 to August 13, 1905. This course, which will consist chiefly of practical work in the Botanical Laboratory of

(NORTHERN INDIA.) the College with field-excursions, will be conducted by Professor CAVERS, 1 D.Sc. (Lond.), F.L.S.

Applications are invited for the FIKST (European) PROFESSORSHIP Fee for the course. 155.. payable in advance to the Registrar of the (PHYSICS). Salary, 320 per annum (Lso passage money). Candidate College, Mr. D. KIDDIE, from whom full particulars may be obtained on

hould be l'niversity Graduate, der nyears of age, and unmarried

COACHING PRACTICE)

THE VICTORIA

(THEORY AND UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER

In BIOLOGY, BOTANY, CHEMISTRY and PHYSIOLOGY for AND . . .

MEDICAL EXAMS.

Especial Course of Instruction in THERAPEUTICS, PHARMA. MANCHESTER ROYAL INFIRMARY.

COLOGY and MICROSCOPY for INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY

EXAM.
ENTRANCE MEDICAL SCHOLARSHIPS.

Mr. FREDERICK DAVIS, The Laboratories,
Two Scholarships will be offered, one for proficiency in Arts and one for
proficiency in Science,

(Registered in Column B (Advanced Education), Teachers Registration Each Scholarship is of the value of kroo, and the successful candidates will be required to enter for the full medical curriculum both in the

Council, Board of Education, S.W.), University and in the Manchester Royal Infirmary.

49 and 51 IMPERIAL BUILDINGS, LÙDGATE CIRCUS, E.c. The Scholarships will be awarded only to candidates who give evidence of a high standard of proficiency in Arts and Science respectively..

Applications should be sent in on or before July 1, 1905, to the REGISTRAX, from whom further particulars may be obtained.

To SCIENCE & MATHL, MIŞTRESSES.

--Required (1). Mistress for Advanced Physics, some Maths. and

Chemistry. Salary, £120, non-res. High school, (2) Elem. Physics, ARMSTRONG COLLEGE,.. Chemistry, Botany, and Maths. $110. Important school in London.

(3) Graduate for Botany and Chemistry. 60, resident. (4) Botany NEWCASTLE-UPONTYNE.

and Elem. Physics. 265. resident. County school. (5) Science

Mistress for important Girls' Grammar School. Graduate preferred. ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT.

Fair Salary:-For particulars of the above, address, giving full details The Council invites applications for the post of DEMONSTRATOR in as to qualifications, &c., GRIFFITHS, SMITH, POWELL, & SMITH, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Duties to begin on October 1, 1905. Educational Agents (Estd. 1833), 34 Bedford Street, Strand. Many Stipend commencing at £150 per annum. Apply, with one set of testi. other vacancies for Science and other mistresses. monials, on or before June 8, 1905, to the undersigned, from whom full particulars may be obtained.

F. H. PRUEN, Secretary.

BATTERSEA POLYTECHNIC. ARMSTRONG COLLEGE,

The Governing Body invite applications for the following appointment

in connection with their Secondary Day School, dating from September NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE.

next :

SCIENCE MISTRESS-Physics, Chemistry, Botany and Elementary DAY TRAINING DEPARTMENT.

Mathematics. Commencing Salary, 2110. • The Council invites applications for the post of MISTRESS of For particulars send stamped addressed envelope to THE SECRETARY. METHOD and LECTURER in EDUCATION. Stipend commencing at £150 per annum. Applications, with one set of testimonials, must be sent to the undersigned not later than June 8, 1905, from whom full par. BRUNTS TECHNICAL SCHOOL, ticulars may be obtained. F. H. PRUEN, Secretary.

MANSFIELD. ARMSTRONG COLLEGE,

WANTED, after the Summer Holidays, FIRST ASSISTANT MIS.

TRESS in above Secondary Endowed School (mixed). Principal subjects
NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE.

English and Botany. Commencing salary, 6100 per annum.
DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS.

Further particulars on application to

W. N. SARLL, Clerk. The Council invite applications for the post of DEMONSTRATOR in PHYSICS. Salary, L100 per annum. Duties to commence on October 1, 1905. Apply, with one set of testimonials, on or before June 14, 1905, to Metallurgical Laboratory, well equipped for the undersigned, from wbom full particulars may be obtained.

experimental work, to let at low rent. One minute from Station. F. H. PRUEN, Secretary. Fifteen minutes to City. Apply MARSHALL & Co., Campbell Works,

Stoke Newington, N. (close to Station, G.E.R.). Tel., 79 Dalston. BATTERSEA POLYTECHNIC, S.W..

Partnership offered in a commercial research The Governing Body invite applications for the following appointments firm to physicist, preferably with some mechanical engineering experidating from September next :

ence and some capital, Send full particulars as to experience, HEAD of the DEPARTMENT of MATHEMATICS. Commencing qualifications, and capital available for investment in approved concern Salary, 250 per annum.

tu No. 1858, NATURE Office. WOMAN LECTURER in BOTANY for part time. Commencing Salary, 1120 per annum.

18-inch Apps-Newton Coil for sale, in perfect Por particulars send stamped addressed envelope to the Secretary, Battersea Polytechnic, S.W.

condition. *No trace of oxidation on the valcanite. G. BowRON,

57 Edgware Road, W. INDIAN GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Laboratory and Office to Let, Gracechurch DEPARTMENT.

Street. Good light, gas, water, electricity, lavatory. Rent, 634. Selection will be made on or before July 15 next for a vacancy in the Furniture and fittings, 440.-Apply No. 1857, NATURE Office. I erade of ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT. Candidates should addrex the UNDER SECRETARY OF STATE FOR INDIA, India Office,

For Photography, Unsurpassed for fine definition.
I ndon, S.W., from whom particulars can be obtained regarding qualifi.
cations and other conditions of appointment.

Preliminary notice is also given that in 1906 there will be at least one i
Ore vacancy, for which applications should be made in July, 1906.
India Office, London,
May 97, 1965.

Send a card merely quoting 2190.
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE,

JAYLOR TAYLORE HOBSON., LP
NOTTINGHAM.

THOUGHTON STweet wanna LEICESTER.
A LECTURER AND DEMONSTRATOR required in the Chemical
Department. Salary commencing at 6130, and rising by 410 per annum to
kita Applications to be sent in by June 30 addressed to the REGISTRAR,

CUTTELL'S ROCK CUTTING MACHINE from whom application forms and particulars as to duties, &c., may be

is the most simple and practical for section cutting, &c., 63 158.
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UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, BRISTOL.
The Council invite applications for the post of LECTURER in

NORWAY. - S.Y. "MIDNIGHT SUN." POTAXY Salary, £120 per annum. Applications and three copies of

3,178 Tons. Two Berth Cabins. All Berths throt recent testimonials to be sent in by June 16 to the undersigned, from won luarber particulars inay be obtained.

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ON APPLICATION

THURSDAY, JUNE 1, 1905.

duties, unsuspected pitfalls may lurk. It is doubtful whether bacteriological examinations should ever be

undertaken by any but a trained bacteriologist, at PUBLIC HEALTH AND SEWAGE

any rate where identification of a given species is PURIFICATION.

required.

In the section on disinfection a questionable Sanitary Law and Practice. A Handbook for

prominence is given to the use of sulphur. The Students. By W. Robertson, M.D. (Glas.), D.P.H.,

authors themselves, in a later paragraph, deprecate and Charles Porter, M.D., B.Sc. (Public Health),

the use of superheated steam as being “no better M.R.C.P. Edin. Pp. xiii + 756. (London : Sani

than a gas," and in view of the obvious disadvantages tary Publishing Co., Ltd., 1905.) Price jos. 6d.

in the use of sulphur, which have given rise to serious net.

complaint of destruction of fabrics and fittings, The Sewage Problem. A Review of the Evidence

especially on board ship, it can hardly be compared Collected by the Royal Commission on Sewage

with liquid disinfectants such as formalin. No referDisposal. By Arthur J. Martin, Assoc. M. Inst.C.E.,

ence is made to the use of hypochlorites, which in M.R.San.I. Pp. xvi + 363. (London : Sanitary |

certain circumstances have been found to give excelPublishing Co., Ltd.) Price 8s. 6d. net.

lent results. Simple Methods of Testing Sewage Effluents. For

A wise reserve is maintained on the vexed question Works Managers, Surveyors, &c. By George

of sewer ventilation, a qualified approval being given Thudicum, F.I.C. Pp. 60. (London : Sanitary to upcast shafts. It is unfortunate that a similar Publishing Co., Ltd., n.d.) Price 25. 6d. net.

| reserve has not been exercised in the chapter on THE official responsibility for the safeguarding of

sewage purification. In a book intended for students 1 the public health rests mainly with the repre- ' it is unwise to select, even for description, any form sentatives of four professions, viz. the medical officer, of patented appliance which is not thoroughly estabwith his colleague the sanitary inspector, the bacteri- lished. The choice for special commendation of one ologist, the engineer, and the chemist. A study of particular patented apparatus, concerning the merits the volumes under review has strengthened the belief of which competent opinion can at least be said to that it is desirable that members of each profession, be divided, is certainly to be deprecated. A clear exwhile working cordially together for a common end, position of general principles of sewage treatment should severally recognise their respective limitations.

would have been more valuable. The text-book on " Sanitary Law and Practice” by This leads to the consideration of the able conDrs. Robertson and Porter is written in sections, each densation of the bulky volumes of evidence given section referring to some special branch of public before the Royal Commission on Sewage Disposal health work. A considerable portion of each section which is to be found in Mr. Martin's book on the is occupied by a digest of the legal enactments affect-- Sewage Problem.” Mr. Martin has provided a ing the subject, this being followed by paragraphs book which will be eagerly sought after by members dealing, by description and advice, with the practical of sewage committees and others who are appalled duties of the health officer. The condensation of at the mass of matter in the numerous blue-books legal information, so far as can be estimated by published by the commission. He is to be congratureferences to special points coming under the ex-lated upon the impartial way in which he has marperience of the reviewer, is done with judgment, and shalled the evidence. Possibly because of this imconstitutes a feature of the book, of great value alike partiality the impression left upon the reader is that to the student and to the practitioner.

in spite of the great amount of work that has been Many useful hints from the wide experience of the done on the subject, sewage purification is still rather authors are to be found in the descriptive portions an art than a science. of the book. Their experience, however, is naturally The Royal Commission has been criticised for the not all-embracing, and it is not difficult to note where slowness of its methods. A more just criticism would their information is derived from the statements of be that it might have devoted more energy to ques. others.

tions affecting the theory of the processes in use. As The subject of destructors, although coming within it is, a mass of empirical and sometimes conflicting the province of the engineer, is evidently one with information has been accumulated, from which it is which the authors are familiar. The descriptions are extremely difficult to extract underlying certainties. clearly written, and the essential points in construc- | While fully realising that a large part of the sewage tion, choice of site, and proper management well problem is concerned with purely practical questions of brought out.

cost and local conditions, yet ultimately the economic In the section on food and drugs no attempt is solution must depend on a full knowledge of the made to instruct the medical officer in duties which changes taking place in the course of various methods properly belong to the public analyst. This is satis- of treatment; and these are as yet by no means perlactory in view of the attempt frequently made by | fectly understood. It is curious, e.g., that no witness ".00: II authorities to combine the offices of public deals in any detail with the purely physical effects analyst and medical officer. Even in such a com- produced by contact with the filtering medium, paratively simple matter as the analysis of a sample although many observers, especially on the Continent, of water, which in the chapter on water supply believe that these play a very large part in connection (p. 433) is referred to as part of the medical officer's with the changes produced. It is by no means

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