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this as an excuse for merging into a single genus those in which the differences are well marked and easily appreciable.
The second chapter contains a synoptic table of the THE AXOPHELES MOSQUITOES OF INDIA. Indian species of Anophelines, based upon the author's + Monograph of the Anopheles Mosquitoes of India.
classification according to palpal bandings, wing By S. P. James and Dr. W. G. Liston. Pp. 132
spots, and leg markings; the chapter concludes with
a description of the method of identifying Anopheline and plates. (Calcutta and London : Thacker and
larvæ. The essential points are very clearly set forth, Co.) Price 245. net.
and there follows a classification --a modification of "HERE is one feature in which this book far
that originally constructed by Stephens and Christosurpasses any other devoted to mosquitoes, viz.
phers. One point noticeable as showing that even the coloured plates. The authors and their artist,
all the Indian Anopheline larvæ are as yet unknown Dr. Turkhud, are to be congratulated on the excel
is that the table only contains eighteen species, lence of these pictures. It will be now possible to
whereas the table of imagines contains twenty-four. compare an Indian Anopheline with a plate, and with
This table should be of great assistance in helping practical certainty to be sure of its identity. The
actual workers in identifying their catch of larvæ same could not be said of any representations of
from any source. mosquitoes hitherto produced. These plates are
The third chapter is devoted to the habits of beautifully executed, and depict faithfully the bands
Anophelines. These most interesting questions are, on the palpi, the spots on the wings, and the leg
as the authors admit, only beginning to be studied, markings. It is a pity that some few Anophelines
and now that a book of this kind enables observers are not represented, but of these we have, of course,
to identify their mosquitoes, we may expect much the systematic description.
light on these questions-questions of vital importThe book is divided into two parts : (1) general,
ance, but to which many pay no attention. One of 12) systematic. The first chapter gives a general
the most interesting problems is the distance of flight account of mosquitoes, egg, larva, nymph, and ex
of Anophelines. Christophers and myself found in ternal anatomy of the imago. The description is clear
Africa instances which proved conclusively that nor
Africa instances u and adequate for medical men, for whom the book is
mally the flight of Anophelines was quite a restricted primarily written. We think perhaps a short account
one, to be counted in yards and not in miles, as was of the internal anatomy might have been added, as a
not uncommonly stated. A striking example of this know ledge of this is so important. The chapter ends
we found in the central portion of Freetown, Sierra with a short account of Theobald's classification of
Leone. Although we lived there for several months mosquitoes, which the authors are unable to accept.
during the dry and rainy seasons, we never discovered Instead of dividing the subfamily Anophelina into
Anophelines in our rooms, yet a quarter of a mile twelve genera as Theobald has done, they place them
away they existed in myriads in the native huts; and all (at least the Indian ones) in the old genus many other similar instances were observed by us. Inopheles. We cannot help thinking that this, in
Yet in Mian Mir observations are quoted to show spite of some of the difficulties of Mr. Theobald's | that P. fuliginosus will on occasions fly two and a classification which they point out, is a retrograde
quarter iniles, and M. rossii three-quarters of a mile. step. The authors deal with a total of twenty-four But, of course, the conditions at Mian Mir are very Indian species; the total number of Anophelines, how- different-in one case an open plain, in the other a ever, now amounts to nearly a hundred, and, to say the crowded town. Closely bound up with this problem least, it would be very inconvenient, if not impossible, is the question of dispersal of Anophelines. Two of to deal with these if we placed them all in a single the most important means are (1) by flight, (2)“ by genus. In some of these, e.g. Lophoscelomyia, a gradual spreading, by short stages, from areas in Christya, the difference in scale structure is so marked which they are abundant." This latter method is, it from, for example, a typical Myzomyia that we prefer seems to us, one of the most important and overto follow Mr, Theobald and put them in separate looked by those who have no intimate knowledge of genera. Again, we do not know whether the authors
| mosquito habits, but who readily draw up schemes would propose, ignoring scale structure, to arrange for their wholesale destruction. We agree with the the rest of the Culicidæ in a single genus, Culex, and authors when they state,“ observers who consider take no notice of the obvious differences in scale that Anopheles can be materially reduced in numbers structure, e.g. between Mucidus and Culex, or be- by the obliteration of all breeding places in the immetween Stegomvia and Culex. We think, to be logical, diate vicinity of dwellings, rely chiefly upon the supthey should do so, and try to classify them by palpal positions that the range of flight of these insects is bands and leg markings; but this would be well-nigh very limited and that they do not disperse any impossible. We think the authors would have made considerable distance from their breeding grounds. their position more secure if they had been content | It would appear from the observations just recorded with placing in the same genus only those in which that such suppositions are incorrect, and if this is so, they failed to recognise the differences in scale struc- the task of materially reducing the number of ture defined by Mr. Theobald. It may be granted Anopheles in any place will undoubtedly be one of that doubts sometimes arise, but we cannot regard | great magnitude."
Again, granted that Anophelines have been dimin- lent as it is, issued by the museum authorities has ished in numbers in a certain area, it by no means not had this result. The majority of medical men follows that the malaria will be diminished. We could in the tropics can ill afford the time or inclination to furnish many instances observed by us in Africa where read these detailed descriptions. We think if the Anophelines were extremely scanty (but present) yet museum authorities would issue concise but adequate the malarial index was high. In fact, it is not accounts of, say, the Anophelinæ only, medical men always possible to trace any relation between the would be greatly helped. For a few shillings the number of Anophelines and the value of the malarial United States authorities publish excellent bulletins index, although on the contrary it often is so. on various subjects, e.g. the ticks, the flukes, and so Finally, we may point out that we have at our dis | forth, but if a medical man in British possessions posal an accurate and easily applied method of wants to identify the species of tsetse-fly he is determining whether anti-mosquito measures have working with he must buy a monograph issued by diminished malaria. It is now universally accepted the museum costing fifteen shillings. If he wants to by medical men, but not generally known to the lay- | know anything about ticks, the museum leaves him man, that the great source of malaria in the tropics in the dark. Seeing what medical men have done lies in the native children, who to the outward eye recently in elucidating malaria, sleeping sickness, show no signs of ill-health, though they contain in and, most recently of all, tick fever, we think they their blood malarial parasites. The malarial index might reasonably expect some help in return. We or endemicity is the percentage of children under ten would point out finally one small matter which might years of age that harbour parasites. It is not be corrected in a future edition. In the list of illustrauncommonly 100 per cent.
tions only i-x are mentioned, though these number xv If, then, the anti-malarial measures have reduced at least. The arrangement of the plates is erratic, malaria, this figure must decrease. If malaria has e.g. v, xi, vi, xiv, vii, &c., so that they are very been abolished it must be zero. (It is hardly difficult to find. The proofs have evidently been care. necessary to state that, in determining this index, fully read, and we have detected no error of any children of the same age must be selected for com importance. parison, and the comparison must be made at the The authors have had the great advantage of same time of the year before and after operations; describing species caught on the spot and studied such precautions are obvious, and are, of course, under their natural surroundings. We trust somealways taken by those engaged in such observations.) body will be found in Africa to write an equally good To sum up, no facts are convincing where this proof text-book of African Anophelines. is not adduced. If the malarial endemicity is reduced | We think that all medical men in India will feel to zero, then anti-mosquito measures have been grateful to the authors for this excellent work. completely successful--but not until then.
J. W. W. STEPHENS. Let us return, however, to the book. We think it would have been advantageous, considering the great importance of the subject, if the authors had compiled
EXERCISES IN PHYSICS. a tabular statement of those species that are known Notes and Questions in Physics. By Prof. John S. to transmit malaria in nature, though the data on this Shearer. Pp. vii + 284; illustrated. (New York : point can be found by search. At present, then, out The Macmillan Company; London: Macmillan and of twenty-four Indian Anophelinæ it has only been | Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 7s. 60. net. shown that three convey malaria in nature, viz. : THE present volume has been written to take the M. culicifacies, by Stephens, Christophers, and James; 1 place of a similar book prepared several years M. listoni, by Stephens, Christophers, and James; ago by Prof. C. P. Matthews and the author. Actual P. fuliginosus, by Adie; and we know with practical experience in the class-room indicated the desirability certainty that M. rossii does not. The third chapter of certain extensions and changes in the text, and also contains many interesting details of larval life, but it of many explanatory notes and solutions. is to be hoped that many observers, using this book. The book is, in reality, a collection of problemsas their guide, will study the subject further and fill many of which have been selected from examination up the many lacunæ.
papers—together with occasional hints with regard to Chapter iv. is devoted again to the vexed question solving them, and very brief introductory paragraphs of classification. Then follows part ii., containing to each section which explain the principal technical the systematic description of each species. The de- terms referred to therein. It will be easily underscriptions are excellently done, clear, and sufficient, stood, therefore, that the book is not intended to take and not overloaded with details which terrify the the place of regular text-books, lectures, or of laboraalready overburdened medical man in the tropics. Intory practice. It is designed, indeed, to accompany fact, this book admirably fulfils the object of enabling these. The supply of problems in many text-books is “medical men engaged in tracing the connection exceedingly scanty—the present volume amplifies the between mosquitoes and human disease to identify supply. It will be found of great service to the teacher and speak with precision of the species implicated." in suggesting problems to set as class work. As no These words are attributed to Prof. Ray Lankester, answers are given, there will be less temptation to the and if they represent his words we cannot but think teacher merely to quote the selected problems; anyone that the elaborate monograph of the Culicidæ, excel- who is alive in his subject will modify them to suit his
own preferences. The absence of answers makes the
MATHEMATICAL METAPHYSICS. . book of no use to the private student who requires
Principien der Metaphysik. By Dr. Branislav some check on the work he does. On the whole,
Petronievics. Vol. i., part i. Pp. xxxi+ 444. we think that the utility of the book would be
(Heidelberg : Carl Winter, 1904.) Price 15 marks. increased by the addition of these; or, if this is not
THIS is the first instalment of a new work on favoured, then by their publication in a separate
1 metaphysics. It discusses only general ontology volume.
and the formal categories (in other words, the general The whole ground of physics is covered, including mechanics.
ontological and the quantitative problem). The second The general difficulty is only slight. By
part of the same volume, we are informed, will deal far the largest number of the problems could be tackled
with the qualitative and hyper-metaphysical problems, by a first-year university student. In mechanics very
and the second volume will then go on to cosmology many are even of matriculation standard ; thus, “ The
and psychology. Washington Monument is 169 metres high. In what
The author's guiding principle is expressed in the time will a stone fall from top to bottom?" Mingled
motto, “ Correct mathematical ideas are the key for with these are a few requiring the calculus. Many re
the solution of the riddle of the universe.” We doubt quire only a qualitative answer; thus, ' Explain why it
if this will command the acceptance of any metais difficult to walk up an icy hill." These remarks are
physicians whose interests are not primarily mathequally true of the other sections; thus, in electricity,
matical. Mr. Balfour, in a well-known passage, has the following is a commonly occurring type of ques
pointed out how often the battles of theology are tion :-"Two copper wires are of the same cross-section,
decided beyond the borders of that study; it is a little but one is twice as long as the other. Compare their
hard if the metaphysician, who contemplates all time resistances." Indeed, this question illustrates the
and all existence, is to be fettered by the geometrical general character of the book very well. Take each
views of his age, and before he makes any headway clause of an ordinary text-book and express it in ques
in prima philosophia must study closely the hundredtion form-that seems to have been the mode of
page account of the new geometry “with 3 tables formation. We miss the bright sparkle of genius which
containing 56 geometrical figures.” flashes out from the examination papers of many of
We doubt in particular whether ordinary metathe examiners that we know. Still, we think, and we
physicians will ever accept the “ discrete” or atomic have said, that many will find it a very useful book.
view of space here given, however fashionable it may Turning next to the hints, which, we think, might
be among modern mathematicians. That view goes be multiplied with advantage, these are not always
back to the Arabic school of the Mutakallimun. Dr. above criticism. Take, for example, the following :
Petronievics adopts, with some slight differences, the "Prove that a gun free to move backward and the
development of the theory advocated by Giordano bullet fired from it have the same momentum when the
Bruno. He distinguishes two kinds of “ point,” bullet leaves the gun. Note: Action and reaction are Mittelpunkt (der reale mit Inhalt erfüllte Punkt) and equal and opposite. Force on gun = force on bullet. Zwischenpunkt (der irreale die leere nichtseiende
Lücke darstellende Punkt). The discussion of time M,A,=M,A, [A = acceleration]
follows the same atomic lines. The plain man wonMultiply by +
ders in what fashion precisely his old friend “ Achilles M,V,=M,V."
and the tortoise " is to be dealt with on these
principles. (That fallacy, it is true, appeals in the first We are of opinion that equality of the two momenta instance to those who combine an atomic view of is the fundamental fact which can be proved only by Time with a non-atomic view of Space, but it has experiment. The operation of changing from a variable surely its difficulties for any who regard either Time acceleration to the change in velocity is inadequately or Space as discrete.) The same guileless innorepresented by a multiplication by the time.
cent, while understanding readily the general data The arrangement of the problems seems to have been which enable a Kelvin to calculate the approximate imperfectly attended to; very many questions are to size of “atoms” of water, does not see quite so be found in sections with which they have nothing to readily how we can ever hope to reach the data for do. For example, under the head “ Colour" occur a determining the size of atoms of impalpable Time or series of questions such as “ Why does an object appear | Space. Nor, again, does he see the special benefit equally bright at all distances from the eye?"
of abolishing the old Euclidean point in favour of the A series of useful tables completes the volume. The new one endowed with both position and magnitude, numerical constants given are not always scrupulously when to all intents he is compelled, a moment later, exact. For example, log r=0.497150 and not 0.497149 to revive in the term Zwischenpunkt the “ point” of las given) when only six figures are to be retained his earliest geometrical affections—" that which has Again, why should a student (or teacher) be misled into position but not magnitude"; and he recalls the taking log , as 0.994299 when the much simpler num. | Horatian tag, “ Expelles furca, tamen usque reber 0.994300 is more exact? There are two other curret.' examples of this on the same page. This is the kind Still, the discussion contained in this volume is of number which, if quoted at all, ought to be checked stimulating, and considerable dialectic power is disand re-checked until the author is sure that he has it played. One will watch with interest in the later right.
volumes whether the author succeeds in dealing with