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June 7 of this year. Weather and locality have been against my (5) That a material standard, constructed in sal seeing clear sunsets until to-day, when no unusual effects were metal, should be adopted as the standard ohm, z noticeable ; but Mr. Bishop's letter makes it possible that in should from time to time be verified by comparisoft other places similar effects may be observable.

a column of mercury of known dimensions. GRENVILLE A. J. COLE.

(6) That for the purpose of replacing the standard Royal College of Science for Ireland, Dublin, December 4.

lost, destroyed, or damaged, and for ordinary use limited number of copies should be constructed

should be periodically compared with the standard Cohen ELECTRICAL STANDARDS.

(7) That resistances constructed in solid metal she THE following supplementary report has been pre- be adopted as Board of Trade standards for make

1 sented to the President of the Board of Trade by and submultiples of the obm. . the Electrical Standards Committee :

(8) That the value of the standard of resistance. To the Right Hon. A. 1. Mundella. M.P., President of structed by a Committee of the British Associate: 4

the Advancement of Science in the years 1863 and 14 the Board of Trade.

and known as the British Association unit, may be te Subsequently to the presentation of our former report

as '9866 of the ohm. to Sir Michael Hicks-Beach in July, 1891, we were in:

(9) That the standard of electrical current shoes 1 formed that it was probable that the German Government

denominated the ampere, and should have the value ? would shortly take steps to establish legal standards for

tenth (0-1) in terms of the centimetre, gramme, use in connection with electrical supply, and that, with a

second. view to secure complete agreement between the proposed

(10) That an unvarying current which, when 3 standards in Germany and England, the Director of the Physico-Technical Imperial Institute at Berlin, Prof. von

through a solution of nitrate of silver in water, in acco

ance with the specification attached to this report, der Helinholtz, with certain of his assistants, proposed to

silver at the rate of o'o01118 of a gramme per ca visit England for the purpose of making exact com

may be taken as a current of one ampere. parisons between the units in use in the two countries,

(1) That an alternating current of one ampere ! and of attending the meeting of the British Association

mean a current such that the square root of the which was to take place in August in Edinburgh.

average of the square of its strength at each inte Having regard to the importance of this communica

amperes is unity, tion, it appeared desirable that the Board of Trade should

(12) That instruments constructed on the prime me postpone the action recommended in our previous report

the balance, in which, by the proper disposition 11 until alter Prof. Helmholtz's visit.

conductors, forces of attraction and repulsion are 1 That visit took place early in August, and there was a

duced, which depend upon the amount of current om very full discussion of the whole subject at the meeting

and are balanced by known weights, should be 327 of the British Association in Edinburgh, at which several

as the Board of Trade standards for the measurem-:| of our number were present. The meeting was also

current whether unvarying or alternating. attended by Dr. Guillaume, of the Bureau International

(13) That the standard of electrical pressure sy des Poids et Mesures, and Prof. Carhart, of the Uni

be denominated the volt, being the pressure versity of Michigan, U.S.A., who were well qualified by

steadily applied to a conductor whose resistance their scientific attainments to represent the opinion of

ohm, will produce a current of one ampere. their respective countries.

(14) That the electrical pressure at a tempera:It appeared from the discussion that a few compara

15 centigrade between the poles or electrodes 31 tively slight modifications of the resolutions included in

voltaic cell known as Clark's cell, prepared in accu our previous report would tend to secure international

with the specification attached to this report, :3 agreement.

taken as not differing from a pressure of 1-434 An extract from the report of the Electrical Standards

more than one part in 1000. Committee of the British Association, embodying the

(15) That an alternating pressure of one vois results of this discussion, was communicated to us by the Secretary, and will be found in the appendix to this report.

mean a pressure such that the square root of the Having carefully reconsidered the whole question in

average of the square of its value at each instan:

is unity. view of this communication, and having received the

(16) That instruments constructed on the prin report of the sub-committee mentioned in resolution 14

+ | Lord Kelvin's quadrant electrometer used idiosta". of our previous report, we now desire, for the resolutions

and, for high-pressures, instrument on the prica contained in that report, to substitute the following:

the balance, electrostatic forces being balanced RESOLUTIONS.

a known weight, should be adopted as Board o (1) That it is desirable that new denominations of standards for the measurement of pressure, wbt standards for the measurement of electricity should be varying or alternating. made and approved by Her Majesty in Council as Board

COURTENAY BOYLE. G. CAREY FOST of Trade standards.


R. T. GLAZE (2) That the magnitudes of these standards should be


J. HOPKINS determined on the electro-magnetic system of measure

W. H. PREECE. W. E. AYRIN ment with reference to the centimentre as unit of length,

RAYLEIGH the gramme as unit of mass, and the second as unit of

T. W. P. BLOMEFIELD, Secre:: time, and that by the terms centimetre and gramme are

November 29. meant the standards of those denominations deposited

- - -

---- ----with the Board of Trade.

(3) That the standard of electrical resistance should ON THE PHYSIOLOGY OF GRAFTI. be denominated the ohm, and should have the value

THE volume before us contains the record 6:24 1,000,000,000 in terms of the centime:re and second. (4) That the resistance offered to an unvarying electric

1 years of research upon the effects of differen current by a column of mercury at the temperature of

of grafts (using the term in its widest signifcant 1 melting ice 14'4521 grammes in mass of a constant cross

vegetable kingdom. sectional area, and of a length of 106-3 centimetres may

I "Ueber Transplantation am Pfanzenkörper. Later

Physiologie und Pathologie " Von Dr. Hermann Vichting be adopted as one ohm.

graphierten Tafeln und 14 Figuren im Texte. (Tübingen:

pening with an historical introduction which deals difficulties arise in the accomplishment of a complete fly with the development of the art from classical union, and these difficulties are further increased to a es down to the present day, the author proceeds to maximum when the tissue is put in upside-down, so to cate the general scope of his own investigations, and speak, that is with its own poles presented to similar escribe the methods of experiment which he employed. poles in the stock. A great number of experiments were : immediate problems which he sets himself to solve instituted to investigate these reactions, but space forbids contained in two questions which occur on an early any attempt to do more than briefly summarize the most e of his book, namely-Is it possible to remove parts important points. In the case of Cydonin japonica a given plant and transplant them to any other position ring of rind was cut out of a twig and replaced in the he same or a similar plant? And upon this question reversed direction. In many cases the twigs behaved as ws the second - What is the nature of the reaction if the tissue had not been restored at all, simply dying, ch occurs between the newly-introduced portion and whilst in others a subsequent healing took place. This surrounding tissues ?

healing was accompanied by a swelling at the upper ut although these form the proximate questions which junction, together with the appearance of a ridge of tissue to be answered by means of a large number of well which was formed along the longitudinal suture of the ducted experiments, it soon becomes clear to the ring from above downwards and was derived from the camler that the chief interest which attaches to the results bium of the ring, and not by an ingrowth of callus from ained depends on their application to the theory of the uninjured cortex of the twig, as might perhaps be supIrity of cells and tissues which Prof. Vöchting has al posed. In this way connection between the interrupted ly put forward elsewhere.

rind was re-established, and growth recommenced. But 'he plants chiefly (but by no means exclusively) used in both at the edges of the tissue-ridge, and also between it

investigations were Beta vulgaris and Cydonia japo and the original underlying xylem, the cell elements were ! The former is of a fleshy and succulent character, found to be disposed in a remarkable manner, forming Ist the latter is a woody plant which happens to be curved unions with the cells of the healthy tissues. cially adapted to the various operations of grasting, | For the histological details the reader is referred to the , as it is a perennial, it admits of the results of the original treatise ; suffice it to say that Prof. Vöchting beeriments being watched for a considerable period of lieves that he has found in the appearances thus pre2. Prof. Vöchting distinguishes in every part of the sented, additional evidence for the validity of his theory it between a “shoot-pole" and a “root-pole," and of the polarized condition of living tissues. He conceives e he considers to be always present, however small of these polarities as properties which are the expression plant member, or piece of excised tissue, may be of the innermost reiationships existing between the con: polarity manifests itself at the free surfaces, much as stituents of which cells are built up. He further regards effects of the magnetism of a bar magnet are visible | the polarity of any tissue as irreversible when once the sends; and moreover, just as the pieces of a broken direction has been imparted to it, and he finds justificanet are themselves duly polarized, so also fragments tion for this view not only in the details of his own exssue exhibit relations of polarity identical with those periments on grafting, but also in the results of investigaacteristic of the organism from which they were tions conducted by Koy and others, on the effects of ved

compelling parts of plants to grow in a reversed position. he first precaution necessary to secure success in After discussing some of the objections to his theory, ting is to respect the existences of the shoot- and root- without, however, disposing of them all, the author cons, and to insert the scion in such a way as to bring | cludes by stating, with considerable reserve, some of the oles into due correspondence with those of the stock. wider applications of his theory in explaining geotropism ng upon this principle it is found that, generally and other allied phenomena. king, any member may be grasted on any other The book certainly forms one of the most important of iber unless there is some special reason to the con the recent contributions to plant physiology, and the ex1, such as may be connected, for example, with nu- || perimental details are well illustrated in the eleven plates in or water-supply. The leat of the beet will "take" | which accompany the text, whilst the diagrams in the body afted on a root, and vice versa, and it was also sound of the work serve to render the author's theoretical views it was possible, in the case of roots with diarch more intelligible.

J. B. F. lles, to effect a union even when the xylem planes e two portions were made to cross each other at angles; analogous results were also obtained with

NOTES is. Hence the author concludes that there is no ent fixity in the organization of plants which pre

A GOLD MEDAL is to be presented to M. Pasteur on December mines a definite sequence of the chief members of | 27, his seventieth birthday. 1 they are composed.

On Monday Lord Durham laid the foundation stone of a new periments were made with the object of determining wing of the College of Science, Newcastle, which, like the Col. utual reactions between the stock and the scion, and

lege of Medicine in the same city, is a branch of the Durham onclusion arrived at is that beyond such changes as

University. The College of Science was established at Westbe referred to nutritional and similar causes, the

gate-hill, Newcastle, in 1871. Lord Armstrong laid the founemain unaltered, at least in so far as their specific cters are concerned. Prof. Vöchting criticises un

dation stone of the present premises at Barras Bridge in 1887, rably the various alleged cases of the so-called

and in the following year the existing wing was opened by the t-bybrids," and points out that even in one of the

Marquis and Marchioness of Lorne. The success of the institu. luthenticated examples, that of Cytisus Adami, all tion is strikingly indicated by the fact that the increase in the pts to produce the hybrid afresh have resulted in | number of students has rendered a new wing absolutely neces.

sary. most interesting part of the book is occupied with

Dr. Werner SIEMENS, the well-known electrical engineer, count of researches into the behaviour of trans

died at Berlin on Tuesday. He was seventy-six years of age. d portions of tissue, the direction of whose " podoes not coincide with that of the parts into which

MR. W. H. PREECE, F.R.S., has been appointed a member re introduced. When the inserted portion of tissue of the Royal Commission on Electrical Communication with ed on its longitudinal axis so that its own tangential | Lighthouses, &c., in the place of Mr. Edward Graves, de:s are applied to the radial ones of its new host, ceased.

Mr. W. MATTIEU WILLIAMS, who had a considerable Surveyor. Mr. Carne entered the service of the New ye reputation as a metallurgist and a popular writer on scientific | Wales Government in 1879. subjects, died at his residence, near Willesden, on November

The French Association for the Advancement of Science 28. He was in his seventy-fourth year. Among his writings

received from an anonymous donor the sum of 600 francs, : * are his well-known books on “The Fuel of the Sun,"

given in two prizes (of 400 and 200 francs), to the anthors “Science in Short Chapters," and " Through Norway with a

the best memoirs containing an investigation, according to be Knapsack.”

documents, of the frequency of rabies, and the prophyla:We have to record the death of two distinguished Continental

measures in operation in a department of France, s cryptogamists, Dr. F. v. Thümen, the well-known mycologist, excepted, or in a region (two or three departments) of Frax formerly Director of the Chemico-Physiological Experiment of Algeria. The statistical figures must relate to ten yers Station at Klosternenberg ; and Dr, C. M. Gottsche, of Altona, least, and comprise the results of 1892. Manuscripts to be one of the authors of the Synopsis Hepaticarum, and one of the to the secretary in Paris before March 31, 1893. The fois leading authorities on Mosses and Hepaticæ, in the eighty-fourth points are noted for investigation :- The number of r year of his age.

animals, of dogs, of persons bitten, and dead throagbr The Master and Fellows of Gonville and Caius College, Cam. also of those vaccinated at the Pasteur Institute ; separate : bridge, have elected as Honorary Fellows the following graduates cases of rabies in large towns from those in the reta: of the college :- Alexander Henry Green, F.R.S., bracketed | department ; measures of sanitary police, their effect ani i sixth Wrangler, 1855, formerly a Fellow of the College, late culty of application ; causes of more or less frequency of ae Professor of Mathematics, Yorkshire College of Science, now and of vaccination ; measures taken in frontier departmects. Prosessor of Geology, Oxford ; Arthur Ransome, M.D., F.R.S.,

Dr. B. PASQUALE has undertaken a study of the phezo First-class Natural Sciences Tripos, 1856, Physician to the Man

and causes of the very destructive disease of the vine Enost : chester Hospital for Consumption and Diseases of the Throat ;

“mal nero," his observations having been made chiefly in S. and George John Romanes, F.R.S., Sir Robert Rede's lecturer,

The disease makes its appearance in the form of black : 1 1883, late Professor of Physiology in the Royal Institution of Great Britain.

and streaks on the leaves. Dr. Pasquale finds it to be 1897"

accompanied by a Schizomycete, which he believes also : 1 An important conserence on technical education was held at its cause, and which is parasitic, especially on the tissues tic Newcastle on Saturday. It was summoned by the Technical protoplasm and in other plastic substances, such as the cambra Education Committee of the Northumberland County Council. the medullary rays, the cortical parenchyma, and the soft bes. Sir M. White Ridley, the Chairman of the Council, said that the axile organs. the scheme of the Technical Education Committee, generally speaking, had opened out two progressive educational roads from

The Bolanical Gazette states that, in a report to the Cz the elementary day school onward-first, for day scholars, by

University, Prof. L. H. Bailey firmly establishes the conte. means of scholarships ; and secondly, for evening students by a

value of the electric light for certain winter crops, especial graduated system of classes. The work in progress under that

lettuce. Certain kinds of plants, which are injured by the treat scheme had already been very extensive. As regarded agricul.

rays of the light, are not injured, but may even be bere ture, there had been courses of lectures on manuring land,

| when the light passes through a clear glass globe or those poultry-keeping, farm stock, dairy work, &c. Educational

glass roof. Auxanometric records appear to show that the courses had been given in mining, mechanics, electricity, engi.

accelerates growth, but does not change its normal periode

This is in harmony with the observations of Prof. G. Boone: 1 neering, ship building, &c. As regarded the fishermen also, a very successful method had been adopted of teaching the men a

corded in the Comptes rendus, who finds that the elec:ri sew plain scientific facts with regard to coastal navigation, the

promotes the formation of chlorophyll in all kinds of habits of fishes, and so on. Aster the delivery of the Chairman's

both woody and herbaceous. speech the Committee's scheme was carefully discussed.

The third appendix, 1892, of the Kew Bulletin bass PRIZES and certificates in connection with the City and Guilds

| issued. It consists of a list of the staffs of the Royal Gr of London Institute will be presented on Monday, December 12,

Kew, and of botanical departments and establishinents a: at Merchant Taylors' Hall, Threadneedle-street, by Mr. William

and in India and the colonies, in correspondence with her Anderson, F.R.S The Lord Mayor will preside.

M. EDOUARD BRANLY, Professor of Physics at tte: At the General Monthly Meeting of the Royal Institution on

Libre des hautes études, Paris, writes to us to complı 1 Monday, the special thanks of the members were returned to

experiments made by him are attributed to Mr. Dawson 11 Mr. Ludwig Mond for a donation to the fund for carrying on

in our account of " Physics at the British Association (XA! | investigations on liquid oxygen.

August 18, p. 384). We learu that in Mr. Turner's page

in the condensed report furnished by him for publicar: MR. STREETER held a reception on Saturday at 18 New

justice was done to Prof. Branly's work. The refereace to Bond Street for the first display of sapphires from the Montana

Branly was unintentionally omitted when the report was a mines. At the same time an assortment of chrysoprase jewels

cut down for NATURE. was exhibited, and also a black diamond, said to be the largest yet discovered. Mr. Streeter also showed, among other things,

MESSRS. MACMILLAN & Co. will publish immedia:el. a collection of different specimens of pearl-bearing oyster shell,

book by Professor Oliver Lodge, entitled "The Pios and some curious formations of pearls in shell and loose, and in

Science.” In this volume, which will be fully illustras a variety of natural colours.

portraits and diagrams, the author describes in popular is In the current number of the Geological Mazizine it is noted

the history and progress of Astronomy. His aim has a

state scientific facts and laws as simply as possible, to pre that Mr. Joseph E. Carne, Curator of the Mining and Geologi

turn a living figure of each Pioneer, and to trace his is cal Museum, Sydney, New South Wales, who so ably assisted the

on the progress of thought. late Mr. C. S. Wilkinson during the Mining and Metallurgical Exhibition at the Crystal Palace, Sydenham, in 1890, has been During the past week barometric depressions have appointed by the Minister of Mines to the post of Geological | our western coasts with considerable frequency. As the

rbances were passing away from our islands, sharp frosts particular kind more plentifully than usual. The sugar Mr. curred in the north, where the shade temperature sell as low | Holland uses is “Egyptian raw," a date sugar. This is very 13° in the north of Scotland on Thursday, December 1. The dark and strong stuff, sand-like, and free from lumps, and it les which accompanied the depressions were confined more mixes easily without boiling. He simply mixes it with beer, and rticularly to the north and west. On Saturday, the 3rd then adds a drop or two of essence of pears just before starting tant, a large cyclonic disturbance appeared from off the out. There is rum enough in good sugar, and to add more lantic, and in the rear of this cold north-westerly winds set is only to make the moths drop off before they can be bagged. with snow or hail showers generally ; in many parts of the “Jamaica foots" is a good sugar too, but it is lumpy and needs intry the snow was sufficiently heavy to interfere seriously boiling. Old black treacle will do fairly well as a bait. but th traffic. The temperature continued to decrease, the “golden syrup" Mr. Holland believes to be a fraud. Beethest daily maxima being generally below the average for the

root sugars, or refined sugars, are of course bad, and if he

root sugars le of year, and at places in the north and north-east of our

happens to be in a place where he can get only these, then, ands the maximum thermometer at times did not rise above

and then only, he adds rum. : freezing point. For the week ended the 3rd instant the

The second volume of the Transactions of the Leeds Naturalists' icial reports show that the rainfall was greatly in excess in

Club, to which we referred last week, includes an interesting otland, and rather so in the south of England and some of

paper on the structure and life-history of a fungus, by Mr. western districts; but in the eastern parts of Great Britain,

Harold Wager, assistant lecturer and demonstrator in biology, d in the north of Ireland, there was a deficiency. In the

in the Yorkshire College, Victoria University. The paper deals ath-west of England the deficiency, from the beginning of the

with a small microscopic sungus, Peronospora parasitica, as a ar, is still very great, being 22 per cent of the average

type of the fungi. Mr. Wager points out that, although in lount.

some respects this may not be the best type for the purpose, it has MR. H. C. Russell, in his presidential address to the Royal the advantage of having a comparatively simple structure and ciety of New South Wales, mentions a very curious drist of a method of development easy to understand, and serving as an current boltle" thrown from the Austrian man-of-war Saila, excellent introduction to the morphological study of the fungi. put hall-way between Sydney and New Zealand. This boltle This type is also the more interesting because many structural nd its way through twelve degrees of latitude and four of details, which are fully described by Mr. Wager, have been gitude to the coast of Australia, two miles north of Tweed more fully worked out in it than in any other. The paper is rer, where it was found just eleven months after it was carefully illustrated, and the author gives a uselul summary of own into the sea. Mr. Russell states that from what is the methods employed in the examination of the various >wn of the currents, which set strongly to the south along the structures he mentions. st of Australia, it seems impossible that it could have

A NOVEL utilization of aluminium is that for the construction velled direct, and that it was therefore probably carried east

of aluminium slate-pencils. Major von Sillich, of Meiningen, rd to the coast of New Zealand, and thence northward

found that aluminium gives a stroke on a slate, and a German yards New Caledonia, until it got into the current setting

company has undertaken the manufacture of pencils based on 1) there to the coast of Australia ; a journey of at least

that fact. They are 5mm. thick and 14mm. long. They need 00 miles in 335 days, and doubtless subject to many deviations

no pointing, and are well-nigh inexhaustible and unbreakable. ich made its course longer and all the more surprising.

The writing, which is as clear as with ordinary pencils, requires 1. W. PRINZ, secretary of the Belgian Microscopical Society, a little more pressure. It can be erased with a wet sponge. published an interesting paper on filiform inclusions in the 1112 of St. Denis, Mons, which strangely simulate organic

A COLORIMETER for comparing the intensity of colour in a

solution with a standard solution has been constructed by ictures. He has at the same time discussed the origin of

Papasogli. It consists of two graduated cylindrical vessels of is-agates, and has repeated the experiments with colloid ial and certain salts by which very similar appearances are

equal diameter, through which light is transmitted from below. duced. The paper, which is illustrated with a plate, is a

A vertical telescope fixed above the tubes shows the two halves

of the field equally illuminated if the amounts of coloration are lable contribution to the literature of a very interesting

the same. If they are not, the heights of the liquids in the ect.

lubes can by a simple contrivance be so regulated that the colours 8. W. HOLLAND contributes to the December number of the have equal shades. Under these conditions, the concentration omologists' Monthly Magazine some good practical hints on of colouring matter is inversely proportional to the length of the ring. Moths, he says, often come more readily when sugar column of liquid tested. plied to the twigs and branches of the trees they feed upon,

The Trinidad Field Naturalists' Club has held its first vigs of something near their food-plant, than they will to r placed on the trunks of trees ; Xanthic citrago, for

annual meeting, and has evidently good reason to congratulate

itself on its success, which has surpassed the highest expectaace,' will hardly come at all to sugar put on the trunk of the

tions of the members. Mr. Caracciolo, the chairman, in his tree ; an occasional one only will be got in this way, but

presidential address, reminded the club that the gardens, garing below the tips of the outermost branches all round

plains, mountains, and rivers of Trinidad swarm with animal ree Mr. Holland generally finds about fifty on one tree, es other species. In the case of Xanthia aurago again,

forms, about a good many of which very little is yet known. cst place to sugar is along the outside of the beech wood The latest instalment of the Transactions of the Institution ith the ends of the overhanging branches, or on the of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland includes the address of the hedge below them. Mr. Holland has repeatedly by Mr. Robert Dundas, president, at the opening of the preabout 100 in a night in this way, when trunks sugared sent session. Speaking of railways, Mr. Dundas said that a and outside the wood have not yielded one specimen. | continual improvement in rolling stock generally can be noted. · things may be got in the same way by selecting the place Larger and more commodious carriages are gradually taking iing to the species wanted. Among other points to which the place of the smaller ones, and there is a marked increase Is attention is the necessity of recognizing early what is in the application of the bogie principle, which does well, to be a species of the year, for every year brings some and makes an easy running carriage when properly constructed. Long carriages,” said Mr. Dundas, “cannot be built to go design was to convert this gallic acid into galloflavine bo round ordinary curves without either a bogie or radial axle ; | usual method. A solution of the 51° extract was made siru and between the two experience leaves very little doubt as to alkaline with potash, and subjected to the action of a streaz which is the better. The radial axle is an awkward arrange air for about ten hours. The temperature, meantime, was it ment, and does not act with the same smoothness as a well below 50° F. At the end of the period of oxidation the pal constructed bogie with properly balanced springs to regulate was neutralized with acetic acid. The solution so obtained its motion, and a bogie of short wheel base is not so good as a tested for galloflavine by working therein cotton and wooly long one ; the whcel base should always be more than the with the addition of potash alum. While no yellow color gauge to produce good results. There is no better test to obtained, a clear, bright lilac was developed on both determine what is good or bad in rolling stock than the effect animal and the vegetable fibre. The body giving this colos: on the permanent way.”

not as yet been separated from the oxidized extract. A VALUABLE paper on the copper resources of the United A BOOK entitled "Mind and Matter : an Argume States, read by Mr. James Douglas before the Society of Arts Theism,” by the Rev. James Tait, of Montreal, has been on November 30, is printed in the current number of the Society's

well received that a third edition, revised and enlarged. journal. Mr. Douglas notes that though lor many years no new just been issued (London: C. Griffin and Co.). Whatever | copper mine has been opened, the larger and richer ones, which

be said of Mr. Tait's theology, he has a good deal to learn have been able to maintain existence in the face of depressed

to the temper in which the consideration of scientific prob/ prices, are directing their efforts, not so much towards increas.

should be approached. It seems a little foolish, at this tai ing their capacity for production as towards reducing the cost of day, to talk about the " horrible plaudits" which“ have reduction, saving, as far as possible, the precious metals asso

companied every effort to establish man's brutal descent" ciated with their ores, and securing for themselves the profits which bave heretofore been made by the refining companies, to

A PAPER embodying various suggestions to travellers : whom they sold their furnace material. “The effect of this

| read at the June meeting of the Queensland branch of the R change of policy,” said Mr. Douglas, "may tell upon the mar.

Geographical Society of Australasia by Mr. J. P. Thosi ket. It certainly will affect the copper refineries of this country

the honorary secretary of the Society. The paper, revise. and the continent. It would seem, therefore, that the era of

enlarged, has now been reprinted from the Society's "/ rapid expansion is drawing to its close, and a healthier one of ceedings and Transactions." economical treatment is being inaugurated. The demand for The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge has iss copper is so great, that, if this policy be pursued by the large new edition of “Sinai: from the Fourth Egyptian Dynas existing mines, there will be room for the appearance of new the Present Day," by the late Major H. S. Palmer. The il competitors, without imminent risk of over-production.” book has been revised throughout by Prof. Sayce.

Mr. W. J. L. ABBOTT contributes to the new instalment of Messrs. Newton & Co. have issued a catalogue of a the Proceedings of the Geologists' Association an interesting lanterns, magic lanterns, dissolving view apparatus, and lad note on the occurrence of walrus in the Thames valley. Triche. slides, manufactured and sold by them. The catalogue chus rosmarus, Linn., has been recorded from several places on

companied by a supplementary list for season 1892-93. the east coast, from the Dogger Bank, and from the peat near Ely. In the Thames valley it was discovered at a depth of 33

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens durix feet 2 inches during the excavations for the new London Docks.

past week include a Lesser White-nosed Monkey (Cercom It was, however, considered to have "tumbled down from

petaurista 8) from West Africa, presented by Mr. W above," and so was passed by. In 1888 Mr. Abbott saw a

Henniker ; two Great Kangaroos (Macropus giginteas? tusk taken out of the gravel in the course of excavations for a

from Australia, presented by Sir Francis Wyatt Tres wharf in Upper Thames-street: it was associated with bones of | J.P., F.Z. S. ; a Common Chameleon (Chameleon 02 pachyderms. Although he felt sure of its identity, he was

from North Africa, presented by Miss Truefitt ; a unable to procure the specimen, probably because his eagerness

Monkey (Cercopithecus albigularis ®) from West A to obtain it manifested itself to the workman, who immediately

deposited. affected that he would not part with it. Not long afterwards, in an excavation between Leadenhall and Fenchurch streets a number of bones were taken out of the gravel which underlies

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMA ! the peat, which in turn underlies the Roman layer. The upper

Comet HOLMES (NOVEMBER 6, 1892). --Computatioss part of the gravel is stained somewhat by the peal, as are the orbit of this comet show now that it is an elliptic one, the contained bones. Amongst the latter there was a large part of extending to 678 years, very nearly the same as that of the skull of a walrus, with one tooth still lest in silu, the others

Comet, 1884 I11.-1891 II. The time of perihelion 2017 having been destroyed in the rough usage to which it had been

| on June 20'7357 of this year, and the comet's orbit e

mentioned as lying wholly between those of the planets / submitted in bygone times. The state of preservation is seen

and Mars. to be exactly similar to that of the other bones found with The following elements and ephemeris are due to V: it; while its position, Mr. Abbott thinks, leaves no question Berberich, and are derived from observations made ca as to its Pleistocene age. He holds therefore that in su:ure ember 9 (Karlsruhe), November 18 (Hamburg), and Nort! Trichechus rosmarus should be added to the Thames valley

25 (Berlin):

Elements. fauna.

Epoch 1892, November 25'5 Berlin M.T. At the meeting of the chemical section of th: Franklin Institute on October 18, Mr. Palmer read a note on a lilac

M = 22 56 36 colour from extract of chestnut. He said that in experiment

7-8 = 18 12 14:8)

8 = 331 4 23'2 Mean Equator, 1892.0 ing with a commercial extract of chestnut wood, with the idea

i = 20 39 388) of making galloflavine therefrom, he had obtained an uniooked.

o = 23 906 for result. The extract was somewhat fermented; that is a

M = 523"-335 pa t of the tannin bad been changed into gallic acid ; and the

log a = 0'554151

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