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its stead. The simple method of manufacture employed by which it rested were doubtful, but it has since been copied natives is as follows:

without the note. Recent experiments show that "003 is The tree is felled to the earth and cut into small pieces, or, probably more correct, but with such a varying element as the pre properly speaking, into chips.

wind, any factor is of little use in deducing extreme pressures A large metal pot is partially filled with water and placed from velocity anemometers. Instruments of different sizes give er a slow fire. A wooden tub is fitted to the top of the pot, different results, and those calibrated by indoor trials give more d the chips of camphor wood are placed in this. The bottom wind than those tested out of doors. In some respects it is the tub is perforated so as to permit the steam to pass up more desirable to register the pressure than the velocity, but a pong the chips.

pressure plate which is to register 30lb. per square foot is hardly A steam-tight cover is fitted on the tub. From this tub a suitable to record so small a force as one ounce, so that on many mboo pipe leads to another tub, through which the enclosed days no sign of motion is given. The author concludes from am, the generated camphor and oil Aow. This second tub is many careful experiments that the tube form of anemometer is nnected in like manner with a third. The third tub is divided most likely to give satisfactory results, as, apart from electricity, to two compartments, one above the other, the dividing floor it is the only kind in which the motion or pressure can be transing persorated with small holes, to allow the water and oil to | mitted to a distance without loss by friction. In this instrument iss to the lower compartment. The upper compartment is the registering apparatus is placed away from the part exposed pplied with a layer of straw, which catches and holds the to the wind – The storms of India, by S. M. Ballou. In this mphor in crystal in deposit as it passes to the cooling process. article, which is a continuation of previous papers, the author he camphor is then separated from the straw, packed in treats of the storms which accompany the winter and summer ooden tubs of 133 lbs. each, and is ready for market.

rains.—The first aerial voyage across the English Channel, by After each boiling the water runs off through a faucet, leaving R. de C. Ward. This voyage was successfully carried out by le oil, which is used by the natives for illuminating and other Dr. Jeffries and M. Blanchard on January 7, 1785. The balloon urposes.

left Dover at ih. p.m., and descended a few minutes before 4h. p.m., not far from Ardres. On the production of rain, by Prof.

C. Abbe. The author reviews the natural process of the forUNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

ination of rain, viz. saturation by aqueous vapour, condensation

into visible particles, and the agglomeration of these into drops INTELLIGENCE.

large enough to be precipitated. The problem of artificial forCAMBRIDGE. -Mr. W. Ridgeway, late Professor at Queen's mation of rain will be partially solved if some method is invented ollege, Cork, has been elected to the Disney Professorship of to bring about a sudden formation of large drops out of the urchæology for the customary period of five years. Prof. Ridge. moist air that exists between the small particles of every cloud. ay's recent work on the origins of weights and measures have lade him well known as a scientific archæologist. Mr. R. T. Glazebrook, F.R.S., Assistant Director of the

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. avendish Laboratory, has been appointed a member of the

PARIS. financial Board ; Mr. Lewis, Professor of Mineralogy, and Dr. Academy of Sciences, November 28.-M. d'Abbadie in laskell, F.R.S., have been elected members of the General the chair.-Note accompanying the presentation of a work on loard of Studies ; and Mr. E. W. MacBride, Scholar of St. | the new methods of the à Mécanique Céleste," by M. Poincaré. ohn's College, has been appointed Demonstrator in Animal - On the existence of distinct nervous centres for the perception lorphology, in the place of Mr. J. J. Lister, of the same Coll of the fundamental colours of the spectrum, by M. A. Chauveau. Ege.

If one goes to sleep on a seat placed obliquely in front of a The Museums and Lecture Rooms Syndicate propose to intro window which allows the light from white clouds to fall equally uce the electric light into the dissecting-room of the Anatomy on both eyes, the coloured objects in the room appear illuminated chool, the lecture room, and histology class-room of the De by a bright green light during a very short interval when the artment of Physiology, and the Philosophical Library, at an eyelids are opened at the moment of awakening. The phenoxpense not exceeding £100.

menon is not observed except at the moment of awakening from By the death, on November 30, of Dr. F. J. A. Hort, Lady a profound sleep. From this it is concluded that there are dislargaret Professor of Divinity, the University has lost not only tinct perceptive centres for the green, and probably also for the great theologian, but a distinguished student of science. Dr. violet and the red. Of these, the green centres are those which lort was second to Prof. Liveing in the Natural Sciences Tripos first regain their activity on awakening.–Note on the obserf 1851, the first ever held. He received the mark of distinction vatory of Mont Blanc, by M. J. Janssen.-On the laws a Physiology and in Botany. In 1856, and again in 1871, he was of expansion of liquids, their comparison with the laws n examiner for Honours in this Tripos. Throughout his life his relating to gases, and the form of the isothermals of pterest in the scientific progress of ihe University was deep and liquids and gases, by E. H. Amagat. The substances earty.

examined were water, ether, alcohol, carbon bisulphide, A Syndicate has been appointed to consider the whole ques.

n appointed to consider the whole ques. | hydrogen, nitrogen, air, oxygen, ethylene, and carbonic acid, ion of the times of holding Tripos examinations, and the the pressures ranging from 50 to 3000 almospheres, and the hanges that would follow if these were altered. The disadvant. | temperatures from oo to 200°. For both liquids and gases, the ges of the present system, by which much of the benefit of the isothermals present a slight curvature turned towards the axis of aster term and of the Long Vacation are lost to students and abscissæ. The angular coefficient increases with the tempera. achers alike, have of late been forcibly brought before the ture. This effect is specially pronounced in the liquids, where enate. It is to be hoped that, by bringing about a rational | it corresponds to a widening out of the network, well exempliEaster " or otherwise, the Syndicate's efforts may lead to a fied in carbonic acid, in the part corresponding to the lower formation.

temperatures. This widening-out gradually disappears as the

temperature rises ; in the lighter gases, the variation with the - - -

temperature is very small. - Observations of Holmes's comel SCIENTIFIC SERIALS.

(f1892), made at the Paris Observatory (west equatorial),

by M. O. Callandreau.-On a remarkable solar protuberance American Meteorological Journal, November, 1892.-Wind observed at Rome on November 16, 1892, by M. P. Tacchini.easurement by H. W. Dines. The two instruments generally On universal invariants, by M. Rabut.-On straight-line con.

use, viz. the Robinson cup anemometer and the pressure gruences, by M. E. Cosserat.-On the passage of a wave ate, are both more or less unsatisfactory in obtaining the ex. through a focus, by M. P. Joubin. An apparatus for showing me pressure. The wind never blows uniformly, whereas the the complementary character of transmitted and reflected struments are calibrated on the supposition that it does so. | Newton's rings is mounted vertically, and illuminated by a ad the method of exposure is often unsatisfactory; any obstacle small bright point placed at a distance of 1.20m. along the the free circulation of the wind either at the side or even behind axis of symmetry. On moving a microscope along the axis of below the anemometer, vitiates the results. The usual factor reflection the rings first appear with a black centre, which or conversion of velocity to pressure in the equation P = kv? | changes into white at the first focus of reflection, and again into oo high. The value *005 was given originally in a book on black at the second.-On the depression of the zero, observed zineering, with a footnote stating that the experiments on in boiled thermometers, by M. L. C. Baudin. The secular depression of the zero, brought into prominence by heating to exbibited a torpedo recently born in Berlin, in which he has 100°, may be greatly reduced by keeping the thermometers for detected an active electric organ immediately after birth. several days immersed in a liquid boiling at 400° or 500°.-On means of a nerve-muscle preparation and a galvanomes the fusion of carbonate of lime, by M. A. Joannis.-Action of This observation was first made in 1831 by Davy, but had or antimony on hydrociloric acid,' by. MM. A. Ditte and R. since then been repeated. Metzner. - On the zincates of the alkaline earths, by M. G. Bertrand.-On anhydrous and crystallized Auorides of iron, by M. C. Poulenc.- Preparation of metallic chromium by electrolysis, BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, and SERIAL RECEIVED by M. Em. Placet. An aqueous solution of chrome alum, 10 Books.– The Scenery of the Heavens : G. E. Gore. 2nd edition (Som which is added an alkaline sulphate and a small quantity -Johnston's Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry, from the Editica bę * of sulphuric or other acid, is electrolyzed. Pure chromium C. A. Cameron, revised and enlarged by C. M Aikman (Blackwood)

Pits and Pitmen: R. N. Boyd (Whittaker).- Practical Electricas is deposited at the negative pole. It is very hard,

Fitting : T. C. Allsop (Whittaker). -Suund and Music : Rev. J. A. Za and of a fine bluish-white colour. It resists atmospheric (Chicago, McClurg).- Results of Meteorological Obrervations made in Ses influences, and is not attacked by concentrated sulphuric South Wales, 1880, 1881, 1882, 1883, and 1884 (Sydney, Potter).-Me acid, by nitric acid, or by concentrated potash solution.

Resources of the United States, 1889-9ɔ: D. 7. Day (Washington)

ceedings of the American Association held at Washington (D.C.) - Meter Articles made of brass, copper, or iron may be coa'ed with

logical Observations and Results at the U.S. Naval Observatory, 1888 (W chromium, thus giving them a metallic lustre resembling oxidized ington D.C.). -- Magnetic Observations at the U.S. Naval Observatory, silver. Large quantities of the metal can be prepared without

(D.C.).-The Building of the British Isles : A. J. Jukes-Browne. 2nd edam

(Bell).-Poems in Petroleum: J. C. Grant (E. W. Allen).--Electric Lights difficulty.—On the preparation of hydrobromic acid, by M. E.

and Power Distribution. Part 1: W. P. Maycock (Whittaker-Old zodle Léger. - Reply to M. Friedel's observations on the rotatory Astronomy : R. A. Proctor, completed by A. C. Ranyard (Longmarspower of the diamine salts, by M. Alb. Colson.- Point of Painters' Colours, Oils, and Varnishes : G. H. Hurst (Griffia) - Elemes fusion of solvents as the inferior' limit of solubilities, by M. A.

Mechanics of Solids and Fluids : A. L. Selby (Oxford, Clarendon Pree

The Chemistry of Life and Health: C. W. Kimmins (MethuenlEtard.—Action of the chlorides of dibasic acids on cyanacetic Mechanics of Architecture ; E. W. Tarn (Lockwood).- Electrical Paper sodium ether; succinodicyanacetic ether, by M. Th. Muller. - 2 vols.: O. Heaviside (Macmillan). On the functions of hydurilic acid ; preparation of potassium

PAMPHLETS.- Notes de Géographie Litterale : J. Girard (Parial hydurilates, by M. C. Matignon.-Researches on the colours of

Physical Geography and Climate of New South Wales: H. C. Russell.

edition (Sydney, Potter). - La Grandissima Macchia Solare del Febbras some insects, by M. A. B. Griffiths.-Microbicidal action of

1892: A. Ricco (Rome). --Fumo di Vulcano : A Ricco (Rome) --Sopra carbonic acid in milk, by M. CI. Nourry and C. Michel.-On a Periodo Eruttivo dello Stromboli : A. Ricco. G. Mercalli (Romel-UE

Heterogene Induktion versucheines Beitrags zur Kenntnis der Reizersche nervous ganglion of the feet of Phalangium opilio, by M.

ungen der Pflanzen : Dr. F. Noll (Leipzig, Engelmann)-Observations Gaubert. - Myxosporidia of ihe bile duct of the Fishes ; new

Dew and Frost: Hon. R. Russell (Stanford).- The Cry of the Children species, by M. P. Thèlohan.-On the modifications of absorp Free Lance (Williams and Norgate). tion and iranspiration which occur in plants under the influence SERIAL.- lasect Life, vol. 5, No. 2 (Washington). of frost, by M. A. Prunet. The rapid dessication of the young shoots of srozen plants is due to the substitution of an intense evaporation for the normal function of transpiration, and to an

CONTENTS. almost complete suspension of absorptive functioni -Æcidi. | The New University Question ... conium, a new genus of Uredinei, by M. Paul Vuillemin.-On In Savage Isles and Settled Lands. By H. O. F. . 123 the clasification and the parallelisms of the miocene system, by Property. By J. B. . . M. Ch. Depéret.-On the existence of micro-granulite and

Leaper's outlines of Organic Chemistry "

13 orthophyre in the primary formations of the French Alps, by Our Book Shelf: M. P. Termier.-On the mineralogical modifications of the Dendy and Lucas : “ An Introduction to the Study calcareous strata in the inferior Jurassic of Ariège due to lher

of Botany, with a Special Chapter on some Austra. zolite, and their bearing on the history of this eruptive rock,

lian Natural Orders."—W. B. H. ....... by M. A. Lacroix.-On the geographical distribution, the Jones : “A German Science Reader."—W .... origin, and the age of the ophites and Therzolites of Ariège, by Brightwen : “More about Wild Nature" ..... M. de Lacvivier.-Geological observations on the Creux de Letters to the Editor :Souci (Puy-de-Dôme), by M, Paul Gautier.

Arborescent Frost Patterns. (Illustrated.)— Prof. R.

Meldola, F.R.S. ..,
Berlin.

Ice Crystallites.-Rev. Dr. A. Irving .... Physiological Society, October 28.-Prof. du Bois Rey. The Volucella as Alleged Examples of Variation mond, President, in the chair. -- Prof. Gad spoke on the respira

“almost Unique among Animals.”—Edward B. tory centre on the basis of experiments made in his laboratory by Herr Marenescu. According to these, the centre for the "A Criticism on Darwin." - Dr. George 1. Roco-ordination of the respiratory muscles lies in the formatio

manes, F.R.S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. reticularis grisea and alba below the hypoglossal centre, on

Animals' Rights.-H. S. Salt . each side of the hypoglossal tract, whereas in the apex of the Induction and Deduction.—Edward T. Dixon .. calamus scriptorius there is an inhibitory centre (neud vital) The Present Comets, -T. W. Backhouse . . whose stimulation may cause death. It further appeared from The Afterglow.-Prof. Grenville A. J. Cole these experiments that the respiratory centre is not confined to

Electrical Standards. a limited area, but is diffuse and quite distinct from Flouren's On the Physiology of Grafting. By J. B. F.. “næud vital.”

Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . November 11.-Prof. du Bois Reymond, President, in the Our Astronomical columni-'. chair.-Dr. Ad. Loewy had investigated the influence on re

Comet Holmes (November 6, 1892). .... spiration of the upper tracts leading from the cerebrum to the A New Comet (Brooks, November 20) .. respiratory centre, an influence which is specially marked aster

A New Comet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . section of the vagi. He found that these tracts do not simply The Channels of Mars hand on to the centre impulses received from the periphery up Astronomy and Astrophysics .... the trigeminal nerve, but that they automatically maintain the A New Observatory . rhythm of the centre after the vagi have ceased to function. | Geographical Notes .. Dr. René du Bois Reymond spoke on the sensation of warmth The Anniversary Dinner of the Royal Society : which ensues on immersing the hand in a vessel of carbon Azoimide ....... dioxide. Sulphurous acid, bromine vapour, nitrogen peroxide. | The New Star in the Constellation of Auriga. ammonia and hydrochloric acid gas produce the same effect. W. J. Lockyer. ....... The i

e intensity of the sensation varies with the different gases. | Hints for Collectors of Mollusks. By William H. Thus carbon dioxide produces the same sensation as air warmed Dall .................... to 20°, while that of nitrogen peroxide is as of air at 30° and | Japanese Camphor ... that of ammonia and hydrochloric acid gas as of air above 40°. University and Educational Intelligence The phenomena do not as yet admit of a physical explanation, Scientific Serials .. but must be regarded rather as resulting from a chemical stimula Societies and Academies . tion of the sensory nerves for heat perception. The President Books, Pamphlets, and Serial Received

EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS.

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THURSDAY, DECEMBER 8. YAL SOCITY, at 4.10.-On the Phot graphic Spectra of some of the righter Stars: Prof. J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S.-Experiments in camination of the Peripheral Distribution of the Fibres of the Posterior toots of some Spinal Nerves : Dr. Sherrington.- Preliminary Account of he Nephridia and Body Cavity of the Larva of Palamonetes variads : dgar J. Allen. THEMATICAL SOCIETY, at 8.-Note on Cauchy's Condensation Test >r the Convergency of Series : Prof. M. J. M. Hill.–Additional Note n Secondary Tucker Circles : T. Griffiths.-Notes on Determinants: J. 1. Campbell.-A Geometrical Note: R. Tucker.-On a Theorem in Differentiation, and its Application to Spherical Harmonics : Dr. Hobson ND N INSTITUTION, al . A Plea for Catholicity of Taste in Music Illustrated): Sir Joseph Barnby. TITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.-Annual General Meeting. Leception of the Annual Report of the Council and Election of Council nd Officers for 1893. -Experimental Researches on Alternate Current Cransformers: Prof. J. A. Fleming, F.R.S. (Discussion.)

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FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 9. YSICAL SOCIETY, at 5.- On Colour Vision; W. B. Croft.-On Magic Mirrors: Prof. S. P. Thumpson. – Reflexion from Diffusing Surfaces : Or. Sumpner.

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TUESDAY, December 13. EMICAL SOCIETY, at 8 - Extra Meeting on the Anniversary of the Death of Stas.-Jean Servais Stas, and the Measurement of the Relative Masses of the Atoms of the Chemical Elements : Prof. J. W. Mallet, P.R.S. T 4*POLOGICAL INSTITUTE, at 8.30.-A Prehistoric Interment in the Cave of Barma Grande, near Mentone : A. J. Evans-Polynesian Mythoraply a Symbolism of Origin anl Descent: Dr. H. Colley March.Burial Customs in Modern Greece : Prof. Pulitis. TITUIN JP Civil ENGINEERS, at 8. The Manufacture of Small urms: John Rigby. (Discussion. - Gas Power for Electric Lighting: J. merson Dowson.

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Now ready, Crown 8vo, Cloth, 55. PERIMENTAL EVOLUTION. Lectures delivered in the “Summer School of Science and Art” in Edinburgh, August 1891. By HENRY DE VARIGNY, D.Sc., Assistant in the Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Member of the Société de Biologie.

(Nature Series. ... SECOND EDITION, REVISED.

Now ready, Crown 8vo, Cloth, 75. 6d. HT: A COURSE OF EXPERIMENTAL OPTICS, CHIEFLY WITH CHE LANTERN. By LEWIS WRIGHT, Author of “Optical Projection : a Treatise on the Use of the Lantern." second Edition. Revised and Enlarged.

present edition is somewhat enlarged and in some respects modi fied. Further consideration has led me to revise the method 'r of treatment as regards some of the phenomena of polarised light. Some allem pt has been made, though briefly, to show the relation and bearing of recent discoveries by Hertz, Lippmann, and others. Having also received many proofs of the delight truction afforded by the beautiful mica polarising preparations first described by Mr. C. J. Fox, and having carried the P and preparations of such illustrations very much further since the work originally appeared, I have added full details of ng of the kind devised to the present dale, and of the practical manipulation of mica films. These paragraphs will constitute The principal additions.

HI: A COURSE OF EXPERIMENTAL"Oʻrics

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