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e success of this comparatively new industry bas been so and it has been sought to explain the appearance of the ed, that, as a natural result, competitors with rival pro star by means of a conjunction of the planets-the Creator s have come forward. Some of these met with failure at employing celestial phenomena to proclaim'the good rly stage of their career, but others are supplying oxygen tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.' e public. This is by no means a state of things to be “The illustrious Kepler was the first to suggest that the vred from the consumer's point of view, if the product from
star of the wise men might be explained by means of a ne source is as good as the other, for benefit generally arises healthy competition. But when the rival product turns out
conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn, and he not oxygen, but a half and half mixture of oxygen and
even undertook to calculate the times when such convith a slight excess of the latter, the competition is of a
junctions took place. Much has been said and written edly unhealthy character, and is correspondingly bad for on the subject of the star of the wise men during the onsumer. I recently obtained a sample of gas from a past few years ; but no important contribution to the r, which on testing (with a Hempel absorption pipette, natural history of the star has been made since the days red with metallic copper and ammonia) I found to be a of Kepler, nearly three hundred years ago. But the are containing only 60 6 of oxygen. I next tested the supernatural history and functions of such a star have inating value of this highly diluted oxygen with a limelight
been discussed in a very able and interesting manner by nd for sake of comparison, placed by its side a precisely
many writers in theological, literary, and semi-scientific ar jet supplied with Brin's oxygen, and, as might have been
periodicals during the past twenty years, and perhaps cted, the light given by the former was little more than oneis intense as that afforded by the latter. With the good
nothing of interest and importance can now be added to
what has already been published on that subject. en the lime cylinder was quickly pitted, whilst the cther red no symptom of destruction. It is also to be remarked
“I find, however, that Kepler overlooked one important the consumption of the diluted gas was, for a given period,
element of the problem in his calculations, and conseit one-third more--striving with both jets to get the best quently left the natural history of the problem in an inible light-than that of good oxygen. On the same principle complete and unsatisfactory condition. I shall therefore yuntaineer at a high altitude will pass more (rarefied) air here attempt to complete more fully what Kepler began, ugh his lungs than he will when he is in the valley breathing and show that the Biblical narrative concerning the which contains the normal quantity of oxygen.
star in the east' is better satisfied by a conjunction s this matter is of great importance to many workers, I of Venus and Jupiter than by any of the conjunctions that you may be able to find room in your valued publica
computed by Kepler. for these words of necessary caution.
T. C. HEPWORTH.
“We have already seen that the death of Herod took s, St. Augustine's Road, Camden Square, N.W.,
place early in the year B.C. 4, and if we can now show December 6.
that there was a very conspicuous conjunction of two bright planets, visible only in the east, within two years preceding that date, the hypothesis that such conjunction
was the event referred to in the Biblical narrative will at THE STAR OF BETHLEHEM.
least be rendered plausible, if not entirely legitimate ; the Astronomical Journal of November 26 we
and for this purpose I have here undertaken the calculafind the second of two very interesting articles written
tion of all the conjunctions of the planets which took Ir. J. H. Stockwell, bearing on the chronology of
place near that epoch. I shall first enquire whether there ain ancient events. In the introduction the author
was a conjunction of the planets Jupiter and Saturn about usses and sums up some of the more important and!
that period of time which would satisfy the required conorical dates which he has determined by calculations
ditions. The mean interval between two heliocentric ncient eclipses. He next refers to the help which may
conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn is 7253-4638 days; btained in the same direction by means of calculations
and they were in mean conjunction B.c. 6, January 30. onjunctions of the planets, and quite appropriately
Now the time of true heliocentric conjunction may differ le present season points out that the appearance of
from the time of mean heliocentric conjunction by 241 star of Bethlehem may have been due to the conjunc
days, on account of the inequalities in their elliptic of the planets Venus and Jupiter, instead of Saturn
motions, and by 23 days more by reason of the great Jupiter, as was suggested on incomplete data by
inequalities of long period in their mean motions. But ler nearly three hundred years ago. We cannot do
the time of geocentric conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn er than lay this part of Mr. Stockwell's communica
may differ from the time of heliocentric conjunction by before our readers.
102 days ; so that a geocentric conjunction may occur
one whole year before or after the time of mean helioAlthough the heliocentric conjunctions of the planets centric conjunction. In the present instance I find that r with a considerable degree of regularity, and are the true heliocentric conjunction took place B.C. 7, Sepvery easily calculated, the geocentric conjunctions tember 23, which is 129 days before the mean helioubject to many inequalities in the periods of their centric conjunction ; and that there were three geocentric ssive occurrences; so that it requires somewhat conjunctions during the year B.C. 7, which took place as rate computations to determine accurately the follows:cter of any geocentric conjunction of two planets “ The first conjunction took place June 7, in which i occurred in ancient times. On account of the Saturn passed 1° 4' to the south of Jupiter ; the second ency of planetary conjunctions, and the indefinite conjunction took place September 18, in which Saturn er in which they are usually described, it becomes passed 1° 2' to the south of Jupiter ; and the third conter of very great difficulty to identify any particular junction occurred on December 15, in which Saturn nction unless it is associated with some other event passed 1° 8' to the south of Jupiter.
data can be independently determined. A re "In the first conjunction the planets would have an able case of this character is given in the Bible, for elongation of about 73° to the westward of the sun, and lew informs us in the days of Herod the King would be seen during four or five hours in the east in the
came wise men from the East to Jerusalem say morning. The second conjunction took place near the Where is he that is born King of the Jews ? for we time of opposition with the sun, and would be visible seen his star in the East, and are come to worship during the whole night, so that it could not properly be
From the subsequent inquiries and mandates of designated as a star in the east any more than a star in | the King concerning the time when the star the west. In the third conjunction the planets would red, we are led to infer that its appearance took have an elongation of about 84o to the eastward of the within two years preceding the death of Herod, | sun, and could therefore appear only as evening stars.
in the west. Moreover, Saturn is not an especially bright the spirit and other conditions of the narrative, for planet, and consequently no one of these three con- | is probable that the mandate for the slaughter of the junctions could have been very conspicuous in the children of two years old and under was issued see heavens. The first conjunction was the only one that months before his decease, and the limit of two yes was visible in the east, but it occurred nearly three years would leave an ample margin for any uncertainty 28). before the death of Herod; it could hardly be said to the time of the appearance of the star as related by the satisfy the conditions required by the narrative. No other | Magi. conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn could possibly occur “There were no other conjunctions of Venus and Jupts till about twenty years later, so that we may conclude until the year B.C. 2, or nearly two years after the deas with a light degree of probability that the phenomenon of Herod, when there were two conjunctions, one of tid alluded to in the Bible was not occasioned by a con- occurred on August 31 and the other on October 4 Te junction of Jupiter and Saturn. Since the planet Mars first of these was invisible on account of being too it is a conspicuous object when near its opposition with the the sun ; but the second took place when Venus sun, it may be well to inquire whether a conjunction of nearly at her largest elongation to the westward of the Mars and Jupiter might not occasion the phenomenon sun. referred to. But since Mars is conspicuous only near “If the preceding calculations, and the references base its opposition with the sun, it is evident that any con- on them, are correct, it follows that Christ was bom 2 junction when in that direction would appear as a star early as May in the year Bc. 6; and if He was cruche in the west as much as in the east, and consequently it at the time of the paschal full moon, which occurred se would not fulfil the required conditions. There was, a Friday, it must have taken place on April 3, in de however, a conjunction of Mars and Jupiter on March 5, 1 year A.D. 33. And since any given phase of the mage 15 B.C. 6; but at that the planet's elongation was only 18° | repeated on the same day of the week, and also with to the eastward of the sun, and consequently could have two days of the same time of the year, at intervals been visible only in the west. But Mars was then so far | 334 lunations, or 27 years, it follows there was no pasta from the earth, and so nearly in conjunction with the full moon on a Friday between the years A. D. 6 and a sun, that the conjunction would be wholly invisible. At 60, except the one on April 3, A.D. 33; whence it will the same time Saturn was not very far from Jupiter, and seem to follow that Christ was thirty-eight years old a hence it was said there was a triple conjunction of the the time of His crucifixion and death, and this vous planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn in the spring of B.C. 6. vindicate the sagacity of the Jewish doctors, who had
“It is evident without calculation there could be no recently affirmed that He (Jesus) was not then fifty forty conspicuous conjunction of Venus and Mars at any time ; years old.” because Mars is not a conspicuous planet unless its elongation from the sun be greater than the greatest elongation ever attained by Venus, so that it would be a waste of time and labour to enter into the computations
FUJISAN. of any such conjunctions.
• It now remains to inquire whether the two brightest ALL who remember the beautiful plates illustrating the planets of the solar systein, Venus and Jupiter, might not
h volume on “ The Great Earthquake of Japan, 1Boi, have been in conjunction within a short time before the
which was issued by the same authors a few inonths 2. death of Herod, and constitute the phenomenon alluded
will welcome the first instalment of a work whict to in the biblical narrative ; for it was the beautiful phe
promises to illustrate, in a manner worthy of the nomenon presented by these two planets when in con
subject, the magnificent volcanic phenomena of Japan junction last February that suggested this investigation.
The present part contains ten plates, and is devoted » Now the conjunctions of Venus with the sun occur with
the illustration of the most famous and beautiful of all great regularity at intervals of about 584 days, while those
the Japanese volcanoes - Fujisan. The number of parts of Jupiter at intervals of 399 days. Moreover, it may
that the authors will publish will depend partly, we are easily be shown that all geocentric conjunctions of Venus
told, on the encouragement they receive, and party or and jupiter must take place within about 60 days before
the number of photographs that they have been able : or after Jupiter's conjunction with the sun. Therefore, by
secure during the past summer. tabulating the times of Jupiter's conjunction with the sun,
The photographs in the present part, which are all rt we have only to investigate the longitude of Venus for a
produced as permanent collotypes, 11 inches by 8 inches period of 60 days before or after that event in order to
in size, are exquisite examples of what can be accor determine whether a conjunction of those planets will
plished by this method of illustration, and show that lapa! then take place. Now I find Jupiter was in near con
is certainly not behind any country in the world so far as junction with the sun B.C. 6, March 29, while Venus was
the resources of the publisher go. Where all are so a. in conjunction on the preceding November 5, or 144
cellent, it is difficult to select any particular plate for days earlier than Jupiter. Venus was therefore past her
especial praise, but one of the most remarkable is cogreatest western elongation, and was moving towards her
| tainly Plate II., which gives a view over the great cloud superior conjunction, and she would overtake Jupiter on
banks as seen from the summit of Fuji. Nothing can be May 8, when their mutual elongations from the sun
more striking than the manner in which the effect of the would be 27' 44' to the west. At that time the heliocentric
great fleecy masses of vapour are reproduced, and here latitude of Venus and Jupiter were 3° 21' and i' 20' south,
nothing whatever is lost from want of colour. The plate while their geocentric latitudes were 1° 40' and 1° 8' south
of greatest scientific interest is perhaps the last, which respectively. It therefore follows that at the time of their
shows the interior of the crater of Fuji-a great pit 600 geocentric conjunction Jupiter was only 32', or about the
to 700 feet deep, with perpendicular walls. The sides art angular breadth of the moon to the northward of Venus ;
built up of rings of variously-coloured rocks, while snow and as they were then to the westward of the sun, they
rests in the sheltered hollows. The remaining picture, would be visible only as a star in the east a couple of
illustrate the sacred mountain as seen from different hours before sunrise. These two brightest planets in the
points of view, the graceful curves of its outline, the variasky would therefore at the time of conjunction, B.C. 6,
tion in the distribution of snow on its flanks, and the May 8, be apparently very close together and produce 1 ** The Volcanoes of Japan. Part I, Fujisan." By John Milne, F.R.S a striking and beautiful appearance. The date also at Professor of Mining and Geology, Imperial University of Japan and which it took place being about 50 days less than two
K. Burton, C.E., Professor of Sanitary Engineering, Imperial Uaivering
of Japan. Plates by K, Ogawa (Yokohama, Shanghai, Hongkong, an years before the death of Herod, harmonizes well with
Singapore: Kelly and Walsh, Limited, 189».)
racter of the foreground, giving rise to great diversity “ In the foreground, looking like a river, is the Lake o hese eight pictures.
| Hakone, at the back of which are hills some 4000 feet is an example of these beautiful views, Plate IV.- | high. At the lowest gap in these hills is the Otoine pass.
jisan from above Hakone”-has been reproduced, | In the background, overlooking both lake and mountains, ugh necessarily much of the delicacy of the original is the upper part of Fuji. This portion of the mountain been lost in the process by which it has been copied. I is particularly conical, with sides sloping at an angle of 30°, its logarithmic sweep being lost behind the interven The authors are to be congratulated on the excello ing mountains. The almost triangular notch in the of this first instalment of a work which promises sam snow-cap may possibly represent the scarp that is sup one of great scientific value.
J. W. ) posed to have been formed by the great earthquake of 1891, causing a strip of ground in unstable equilibrium to
THE GALILEO CELEBRATION AT PADLA slip downwards." The reader should compare this view with that given in Plate IX., which shows the lake, with THE celebration of the three hundredth annivere: the reflection of the mountains behind, and the snow
of the day on which Galileo began his labours 131 covered Fuji rising in ihe background. This plate, and Professor at the University of Padua was even mor: the view, Lake Kawaguchi, given on Plate V., are so deli successful than had been anticipated. Its success 77 cate and faithful in their portrayal of water and atmos. in every way worthy of the large number of scient pheric effects as to defy reproduction.
men who assembled to do honour to Galileo's memon, No attempt has been made by the authors to produce and of the great institution with which, as it remember a scientific treatise, the information contained in the text with veneration and pride, he was so intimate being of a popular character, and the reader is referred associated. to the Transactions of the Seismological Society of Japan On December 6 the Rector, Prof. C, J. Feram for more detailed information on the subjects treated of received in one of the courts of the old (niverst It is nevertheless true that the text published with these adorned everywhere with portraits of the inost illustrios plates contains, as the authors claim for it, information professors, delegates from the Universities, the pa not readily obtainable from other sources. The intro technic schools, and Italian and foreign Academie duction gives a sketch of the volcanic phenomena of the amounting to nearly a hundred, and amongst them my, Japan and Kurile Islands, in which we are informed that of those who shed most lustre on contemporary science the number of volcanoes still preserving their form, and The University of Cambridge was represented by Pry with distinct craters, is one hundred, distributed as fol- George Howard Darwin, F.R.S., who also represented the lows :- In the Kuriles 23, in Yezo 28, in Honshiu 36, and | Royal Society as Mr. Norman Lockver, its delegate, he in Kiushiu and the Southern Islands 13. Of these no been prevented from attending. The University of Oxford less than 50 emit steam, while 39 are distinguished by by Prof. E. J. Stone; the Royal College of Physician their beautiful and graceful outlines. The number of London, by Sir Joseph Fayrer, F.R.S. ; the Chemie. great eruptions of which there is any published record is Society and British Association by Prof. Ludwig Moom 233, the greater frequency, as with earthquakes, having | F.RS.; the Harvard University, Cambridge, U.S.A been during the colder months of the year. One line of by Prof. William James, and the Princeton University op vents, which is more than 2000 miles long, begins in Prof. Allan Marquand ; the University of Lund by Pro Kamsatka, passes through the Kuriles, Yezo, and down by R. A. V. Holmgren; the Astronomical Observatory Honshiu to the ever-smoking Asama. Here it is joined | Paris by its Director, Prof. F. Tisserand ; that of Berlin by a line branching away to the south-west, which runs by Prof. W. Foerster; the Polytechnic Schools of Berlit through the great Fujisan and Oshima, till it reaches the Karlsruhe, Monaco, Brunswick, Stuttgart, by Prots, Ladrones, a distance of 1200 miles. The last line begins Lampe, Keller, Sohncke, Blasing, Lemcke; the Univer at, or near, the gigantic crater of Mount Aso, and extends sity of Göttingen by Prof. Voigt; that of Budapest by 1300 miles through Formosa to the Philippines. Ex Prof. Lanczy ; that of Dorpat by Prof. Schmourlo; thu tremely basic rocks are rare, but so far as observations of Lausanne by its Rector, Prof. Favey ; the Academ have gone, it may be said that the lava poured out from of Paris by Prof. Gariel ; the Faculty of Letters :: the northern vents is more acid in composition than the Grenoble by Prof. de Croyals ; the General Coana! southern. All are magnetic, and lavas that will turn a of the Faculty at Nancy by Prof. Molk, &c., &c. There compass-needle through 180° are not rare. By their were also delegates from the towns of Florence, Pia decomposition, the soil of the country is in many places Venice, and representatives from the foremost Italian so filled with grains of magnetite, that a magnetized knife | Universities, Academies, and Technical Schools. passed over the gravel of a garden path will be covered The great academical celebration took place on with a brush of this unoxidizable material.
December 7 in the large hall of the University, in the The twelve pages devoted to the description of Fujisan presence of the Hon. Ferdinando Martini, Minister of are replete with interesting information. The word Fuji | Public Instruction, who represented the King of Italy. is said (on the authority of the Rev. John Batchelor, of The ceremony was begun with a discourse prepare Sapporo) to be a corruption of the Ainu word Huchi, for the occasion by the Rector Magnifico, and devoted which is the name of the “ Goddess of Fire.” Professor principally to a cordial expression of thanks to the kir: Milne ascended the mountain in 1880, and found that it and to the Minister who represented him; to the was not quite extinct, as is usually supposed, for small foreign and Italian delegates; and to the ladies quantities of steam were detected by him issuing through | Padua, who had given the University a mos the ashes on the eastern side of the mountain just outside | beautiful banner, on which were various emblems indthe lip of the crater. Von Fritsch and Ludecke have cating the history of the University, the genealogica shown the lavas composing Fuji to be dolerites, and tree of the Galileo family, and the ancient inscription analyses by several chemists are given in this work. The above the door of the University-Gymnasium ORI** beautiful and symmetrical outlines of the mountain are disciplinarum. well known, but on the south side of the mountain there
Next came the commemoration of Galileo by Prol is an excrescence, at a height of 9000 feet, which was pro- Antonio Favaro, who has for nearly fifteen years devots: duced by the last great eruption in 1707. The recorded himself almost exclusively to the study of the life and eruptions of the mountain are as follows:--B.C. 301, works of Galileo, and to whom was confided by the 294, or 286, and A.D. 799, 802, 864, 937, 1021, 1082, 1329, Government the care of the national edition of the 1560, 1627, 1649, 1700, and 1707. Professor Milne records philosopher's works, under the auspices of the King u the interesting observations made by him with a tro- Italy. The orator kept his discourse within the limits mometer or tremor-measure during a stay of five days on marked out for him, speaking chiefly of Galileo at Padun the top of Fuji. These observations tend to prove that | Constrained to leave the University of Pisa, Galileo had the great mass of the mountain actually yields to force of been welcomed in that of Padua, where he found the wind playing around its summit. The height of Fujisan “natural home of his mind,” a “theatre worthy of his is proved by various observations to lie between 12,400 talents." The conditions at Padua at that time were and 12,450 feet.
eminently favourable to Galileo's work, for the Venetian
Senate granted the lecturers the utmost liberty, and experi was the house inhabited by Galileo and the place in mental methods, which could not be learned from books, which he made his astronomical observations. The had been practised at the University for more than a ancient Academy of Padua, among whose founders century. Galileo had many opportunities for the develop Galileo is numbered, has issued a publication in which ment of his genius, both in the lecture-room and in the are collected several works dedicated to his memory; and home, in the preparation of scientific publications, and in the students of the University have sought to perpetuate the workshops of scientific instrument-makers both in the remembrance of this festival by the publication of a Padua and Venice. To Venice he frequently went, attracted “unique number," bringing together all the documents thither by the means it afforded him for study ; by that relating to the sojourn of Galileo in Padua, collected from grand arsenal which had already been sung by Dante, all quarters. These publications will serve as suitable and which in his reputed Dialogues is spoken of by memorials of a great and most interesting celebration. Galileo with admiration ; but above all by the advantages
ANTONIO FAVARO. be derived from scientific intercourse with eminent men who resided in the dominion. The culminating point of the discourse was naturally reached
SIR RICHARD OWEN. when the orator had to deal with the invention IT is with great regret that we record the death of Sir of the telescope, and with the astronomical dis 1 Richard Owen He died on Sunday, after a lingering coveries made by means of it, the immediate result of illness, at Sheen Lodge, Richmond Park, in his eightywhich was the recall of Galileo to Tuscany. This did ninth year. In publishing his portrait in the series of not aid Galileo in his glorious career, or help to protect “Scientific Worthies "(NATURE, vol. xxii. p. 577) we have him from the attacks which were for a long time made on already presented an estimate of his work and of his him by invidious adversaries. Even some of his own place in the history of science. It is only necessary now, servants changed at once to implacable and dangerous therefore, to recall some of the leading facts of his enemies, and at last he was involved in all the miseries career. which sprang from the memorable lawsuit. This led the He was born at Lancaster on July 20, 1804, and received orator to recall the fact that when the clouds 'assumed his early education at the grammar school of his native their most threatening aspect, the Venetian Republic, place. Afterwards he matriculated at the University of forgetting with real magnanimity whatever resentment it Edinburgh as a medical student. In 1825 he joined the might have felt at Galileo's abandonment of his chair at medical school of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, Padua, offered to re-appoint him, and to print at Venice and in 1826 he took his diploma at the Royal College of the work which had brought upon him so much trouble. Surgeons. His professional studies having been comHe said also that a pleasant memory of Padua must have pleted, he began to practise in Serle Street, Lincoln's Inn passed through the mind of the prisoner of the Holy Fields ; but the bent of his mind was towards purely scienOffice, when there came to him his only comfort, the tific investigation, and he soon had a good opportunity of message from the favourite of his childhood, the nun who exercising his powers. Dr. Abernethy, with whom he had in Padua had tenderly cared for him during the first ten acted at St. Bartholomew's as a dissector, had recognized years of his youth.
his ability; and, in accordance with the advice of this After Prof. Favaro's oration discourses were delivered famous surgeon, he was invited in 1828 to undertake the by the foreign delegates, Holmgren, Fayrer, Darwin, task of cataloguing the Hunterian collection at the Royal Tisserand, Lampe, Keller, Foerster, Sohncke, Blasing, College of Surgeons. The invitation was accepted, and Lemcke, Farey, Lanczy, Schmourlo, and by Italian | in 1830 the first catalogue of the invertebrate animals in delegates, Nardi-Dei, Mantovani-Orsetti, and Del Lungo. spirits was published. In the same year Owen read at Then followed the conferring of University honours, of the first meeting of the Zoological Society's committee of which seven had been set apart by the Council Science a valuable paper on the anatomy of the orangfor seven men of science, one for each nation, all utan, and afterwards he made many important contridistinguished for their devotion to the studies in butions to the Society's Transactions and Proceedings. which Galileo excelled, viz. Schiaparelli, Helmholtz, He was also well known as a reader of papers before the Thomson, Newcomb, Tisserand, Bredichir, and Gylden. Medical Society of St. Bartholomew's and the Medical The degree of philosophy and letters was given to the and Chirurgical Society of London. In 1832 appeared Minister Martini; of natural philosophy, and philosophy | his well-known essay on the Pearly Nautilus (Nautilus and letters, to the leading delegates. The ceremony was Pompilius), in which he gave most striking proof of his closed by the inauguration of a commemorative tablet in power of interpreting the facts of natural history in a the large hall
thoroughly philosophical spirit. Of the other festivals connected with the celebration it Before he was thirty years of age Owen had achieved would be out of place to speak here, and it will be better so good a reputation that in 1834 he was appointed to to add a list of the publications which have been issued the newly-established chair of comparative anatomy at on the occasion. The oration read in the Great Hall by St. Bartholomew's Hospital. Two years afterwards he Prof. Favaro has been published, with the addition of succeeded Sir Charles Bell as professor of anatomy and twenty-five facsimiles of documents containing the vari- physiology at the Royal College of Surgeons, and he was ous decrees of the Senate concerning Galileo, the date of elected to the newly-established Hunterian professorship the early prelections given by him at regular intervals, at the Hunterian Museum. He also became conservator several autographic records of Galileo, chosen in order of the Hunterian Museum on the death of Mr. Clift, to give a more exact idea of what are the most precious whose daughter he had married. He had gradually been materials for his biography, the frontispieces of the vari- withdrawing from the practice of his profession, and ous publications issued by Galileo, or relating to the ended by devoting the whole of his time and energy to time of his sojourn in Padua, the geometric and mili scientific work. tary compass, the writing presenting the telescope to His connection with the Royal College of Surgeons the Doge, and the first observations of the satellites | lasted for twenty years, and during this period he of Jupiter. A portrait of the great philosopher, from achieved results which placed him in the front rank of a painting which represents him at the age of forty, taken original investigators. In the article to which we have in 1604, is prefixed.
referred we have already indicated the nature and importBy favour of the University there have also been pub. ance of these results, and need not go over the same lished two other works, one containing all the notices of ground again. It must suffice to mention the complethe studies at Padua in 1592, the other proving which tion, in five volumes, of his catalogue of the Hunterian