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----------- collection ; his “ Odontography"; his Lectures on Com- | Learning. The signatures cannot fail to command attentica parative Anatomy and Physiology ; his “ Archetype and The following learned Societies are represented by their Pres Homologies of the Vertebrate Skeleton"; his memoirs on

dents :- The Royal Society, the British Association for the “The Nature of Limbs” and on “ Parthenogenesis"; his

Advancement of Science, the Royal Dublin Society, the Rout monograph of British fossil reptiles ; and his papers on the fossil birds of New Zealand, and on some fossil

Society of Edinburgh, the Iron and Steel Institute, the Phyria. mammals of Australia. In 1856 he was appointed

Society, the Institution of Electrical Engineers, the Institnte c" Superintendent of the Department of Natural History in

Mechanical Engineers, the Chemical Society, the Royal Hor. the British Museum. How splendidly he fulfilled the

cultural Society, the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Brius duties of this position all the world knows. He fought and the Institute of Chemistry of Grea: Britain and Irelar: steadily and earnestly to obtain proper accommodation Eton College, Harrow School, Rugby School, and St. Pas for the magnificent collection placed under his charge, School are represented by their head-masters. There are ale. and to him, more than to any one, Great Britain owes representatives of the University of Oxford, Cambridge, Edi the fact that this particular set of her scientific treasures

burgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and St. Andrews, the Victorn is now so securely preserved and so finely displayed.

University, the British (Natural History) Museum, the Rosa The practical duties of his office were not allowed to interrupt his scientific researches, and year after year he

College of Science, London, University College, Lootor, continued to give fresh evidence of the astonishing range

Mason College, Birmingham, Durham College of Science, Furt of his knowledge and of his remarkable capacity for far

College, Sheffield, University College, Dundee, Univery reaching and brilliant generalization. "Among the College, Bristol, City and Guilds of London Central Lastitnice writings of this period are his Manual of Palæontology, the Royal College of Science, Dublin, and the Pharmaceutic and his memoirs on the classification and geographical Society of Great Britain. A special group of signatures oor distribution of mammals, on the British fossil reptiles of sists of the names of a number of Fellows of the Royal Society. the Liassic formations, ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs, on the British fossil cetacea of the Red Rag, on the British

Sir Joseph Lister, Sir Henry Roscoe, and Prof. Rap fossil reptiles of the Mesozoic formations, pterodactyls,

Lankester, will represent the Royal Society at the Pasteur odeand on the fossil reptiles of South Africa.

bration in Paris on the 27th inst. Captain Abney has bees In 1883 he resigned his official position, but he did not invited to represent the Society at the 150th anniversary of the cease to interest himself in the studies in the prosecution | American Philosophical Society in May 1893. of which he had displayed so commanding a genius. In 1884 he issued in three volumes his great “ History of

We are glad to see that a movement has been started for the British Fossil Reptiles,” and until a comparatively recent purpose of securing that due honour shall be done to the memory date he submitted to the Royal Society from time to time of Jean Servais Stas, one of the most illustrious of modern papers embodying the more important results of his chemists. It is proposed that a new edition of his writings thai, labours.

be issued, his memoirs, notes, and reports being grouped in the In the course of his long career Owen did much good

| proper order, and that a commemorative monument shall alo service as a member of various Commissions, and it is

be erected. An influential committee, representing science is scarcely necessary to say that honours of many different kinds were conferred upon him. About these matters we

all parts of the world, has been a ppointed to take the necessary have given all necessary information in our previous

steps. Subscriptions will be received by M, L. Errera, 1, Place article. Owen was very far from being content merely Stéphanie, Brussels. with the collection and classification of facts ; he sought

Tue Committee of the International Electrical Exhibitiza also to bring out the ideas in which his facts seemed to

to be held at Milan in 1894 proposes, according to La Lunar him to find their ultimate significance. He was unable to adopt the theory of evolution as presented by Darwin,

Electrique, to offer a prize for the most important invention « but his researches did much to prepare the way for the

discovery in the province of electricity, especially in connectica general and rapid acceptance of Darwin's hypothesis,

with the transmission of energy to a great distance, and its do since it was felt that there must be some strictly scientific tribution and transformation for industrial uses explanation of the affinities by which he had shown vast

Successful experiments have been made in France relaties groups of animal forms to be allied to one another. Apart altogether from its speculative aspects, his work is uni

to the introduction of telephones for use in warfare. The tele versally acknowledged to be of high and enduring value. | phonists are organized in sets of two men, each set being pro and there can be no doubt that he will rank among the vided with equipment for a mile line. The very simple strongest and most impressive figures in the intellectual receiving and transmitting apparatus are attached to the military history of the nineteenth century.

cap, and the wire is on reels in a sort of breast-plate, the whole He desired that his body should be buried beside that being so light that a man's ordinary equipment weighs less tha of his wife in Ham Churchyard, and his wish is, of course,

six pounds. to be complied with. At the suneral, which will take place to-morrow (Friday), there will be representatives of The tunnel at Niagara Falls is finished, and the power plan. all the learned societies with which he was connected. will be in operation by next March. It is expected that a car

rent of 45,000 electric horse-power will be transmitted from

there to Buffalo, and 30,000 to other points. NOTES.

M. MAURICE MALLET, in L'Aéronaute, describes what be The following memorial, numerously signed, has been pre- claims to be the longest balloon ascent on record. Hos sented by Sir Henry Roscoe to the Right Hon. the Earl Cowper, balloon, "Les Inventions Nouvelles," started from the gasworks Chairman of the Royal Commission on the Gresham Univer- of La Villette, Paris, on October 23, and the voyage lerminsted sity :- The undersigned desire hereby respectfully to record at Walhen, in Central Germany, at 6 a.m. on the 25th, after a their strong opinion that the foundation of a Teaching Univer- total journey of 36 hours 10 minutes above ground. The flight sily for London, without due provision being made for higher was interrupted several times by the snow which fell in the higher Education and original Research, would be unworthy of the regions of the atmosphere. When lower strata were reachel, Metropolis, and would entail the neglect of an admirable op- the snow melted, and the balloon regained its ascending power portunity for promoting the advancement of Science and During one of these descents it was stopped and examined by ussian gendarme, who had followed it at a gallop for some highest in mountainous districts, the maximum fall being found nce. The route passed over part of Belgium, the Taunus, in Cumberland, where the record for six years shows an the Odenwald, and the towns of Metz and Frankfurt were annual rainfall of 165 in. The lowest in England is between znized in passing.

Biggleswade and Bedford, where it reaches only 20 in. London

and the east coast average about 25 in. Speaking of drinking HE“Annals of the Harvard College Observatory” contain

water, Major Flower said the best way to get it was to bottle scussion by H. H. Clayton of the cloud observations made

it at the fountain head and have it delivered in bottles, which r. A. L. Rotch's observatory at Blue Hill, Massachusetts.

had been done already and might be done to a greater extent in of the most noticeable facts brought out by the measurements

the future. loud heights and velocities, which have been conducted

MR. W. F. HOWLETT writes to us from Pabiatua, New great care, is the difference in height between the same

Zealand :-" Can you inform me what is now sold in England is in summer and winter, the clouds, with few exceptions, g lowest in winter. The bases of the cumulo-nimbus clouds,

as gum arabic? I used to be able to buy a soluble gum ; what

I get now is the same in appearance, but it will not dissolve. It ever, are generally lower in summer, while, at the same

swells up, truly, but will not forin a homogeneous filterable , their tops are higher than in winter. The heights of the

solution. It would be a great boon to small buyers if such rent clouds were found to maintain an almost constant ratio

things were sold under their proper names. Am I right in supich other. The mean velocities recorded showed that the

posing that since the Soudan trouble gum arabic has disappeared e atmosphere moves twice as fast in winter as in summer.

from commerce ?". mean velocity of the highest clouds in winter was about miles an hour; the extreme velocity amounted to 230 miles

A VERY interesting report on artesian boring, by Mr. nour, from which it appears that the upper currents are

J. W. Boultbee, is included in the volume containing the h more rapid over America than over Europe, which pos.

annual report of the Department of Mines and Agricul. s explains the greater velocity of the storms in America.

ture, New South Wales, for the year 1891. Mr. Boultbee regards the directions of cloud movement, the tables show

shows that, as a rule, artesian waters are suitable for from the highest clouds to the earth's surface, the prevail

irrigation purposes, only those heavily charged with salt or wind is west ; above 4000 metres more than 90 per cent. of

alkaline matters being unsuitable ; and he can see no reason observations show the clouds from some point between south

why such irrigation should not be an element of immense and north-west inclusive. In the cirrus and the cumulus

value, deserving the utmost consideration in connection with the ons, and near the earth's surface, the prevailing direction is

development of that north-western portion of the colony, where a little north of west, but in the intermediate levels, from

the fertility and recuperative powers of the soil are so wonderitle south of west, the excess of the southerly component

fully illustrated by the growth of feed after rainfall at the proper hese regions being possibly due to the influence of

season. The average quantity of water required for the irones.

rigation of grain crops, based upon the experience of other

countries, may be roughly estimated at 72,600 cubic feet, or He weather during the past week has been generally very

543,485 gallons per acre. One inch of rain would equal 3630 and scarcely any rain has fallen over the southern parts of

cubic feet, or 22,622 gallons per acre. A rainfall of 20 inches kingdom. Butween Friday and Monday there were several

would therefore yield 72,600 cubic feet, or 543,485 gallons per ressions to the northward of our islands, passing in an easterly

acre. 640 acres would consequently require 46,464,000 cubic ction, which caused very severe gales and high seas on the

feet, or 347,830,400 gallons upon them as an equivalent to 20 ts of Scotland, the difference on pressure on Sunday between

inches of rain. When it is considered that the flow per diem aorth and south of our islands being more than an inch.

from the Native Dig Artesian Bore, 45 miles from Bourke, is ing the first part of the period the temperature was un approximately 2,000,000 gallons per diem, or 730,000,000 lly high for the season, the maxima exceeding 55° in gallons per year, it will be seen that upon the foregoing basis a e parts, and the night minima were occasionally higher

supply of water equal to a rainsall of 40 inches per annum, per the average daily maxima for the month; subsequently, 640 acres is available, or that an area of considerably over 1280 ever, a decided fall occurred, with fog and mist in most

acres can be supplied with water equalling a rainfall of 20 inches 3 of England, while in Scotland hail and sleet showers

per annum. · experienced. The Weekly Weather Report of the 17th nt shows that for that period the temperature was from 2°

The Cambridge Local Lectures Syndicate have just issued above the mean. Rainfall exceeded the mean in the north

an announcement of their next Summer Meeting of University cotland only, and just equalled it in the north of Ireland ;

Extension students, to be held at Cambridge in August, 1893. I other parts there was a deficiency. Bright sunshine was

The programme is a large and varied one, and a number of less prevalent than during the preceding week, although

well-known lecturers have already promised their services. >st parts of England the amount exceeded the average.

Among the scientific lecturers we notice the names of Sir

Robert Ball, Sir H. E. Roscoe, Mr. Pattison Muir, and several Or, Cole writes from Dublin that the afterglow in the and zenith on Saturday, December 17, was of a superbly

of the best known of the Cambridge Extension lecturers. Cam

bridge has always laid great stress on the importance of proint character. Mr. R. Langton Cole observed that in

viding, as far as possible, practical work in science as well as on on December 15 the whole sky was covered by the

theoretical teaching. It has seldom been found possible to which was deeper all round towards the horizon.

arrange much practical work in connection with the lectures interesting lecture on “Water and Water Supply” was given in the provinces, chiefly on account of the difficulty of red last week at the London Institution, by Major L. finding laboratory accommodation. But students who can er, of the Sanitary Institute. As an instance of the im spare a fortnight--or, better still, a month-have now the op2t part which water played in the economy of nature, he portunity of coming to Cambridge and seeing, at any rate, oned that if a man weighing 140 lbs. were placed under a something of the resources of the University laboratories. Even ulic press and squeezed flat, the result would be 105 lbs. two or three weeks' work in a well-equipped laboratory may ter and only 35 lbs. of dry residue, which was a fact for easily be a revelation to a student who has hitherto learnt his (or ited people to reflect upon. Major Flower gave some | her) science from books or lectures. The laboratory work has sting facts about the rainfall of England. It is, of course, I always formed an important and highly appreciated part of the Cambridge Summer Meetings. Next year no less than five prisoners on the heel and then scamper away, which it did will practical courses are promised, viz. in physics, chemistry, safety to itself, although chase was made after it. The epide: botany, physiology, and palæontology, thus providing for a con- seemed to be in an angry mood at being disturbed in a favourisiderable variety of taste, and for the accommodation in the haunt for food and shelter. The bite drew blood, about too laboratories of a fairly large number of scientific students. three drops. A Trinidad labourer's foot is thick enough almer Another feature in the programme is an entire novelty. It is to resist an auger, yet the spider managed to penetrate, so a proposed to give a series of short courses of lectures on the may safely be asserted it was in earnest. Immediately the lyre growth of various sciences-astronomy, -physics, chemistry, was given a shout went up, “The man is bitten by a big black and geology-to illustrate from different points of view the spider-a tarantula !” This made the bitten one almost fra methods by which discoveries are actually made, and science with fright, and he cried out piteously, “Me God, me go az makes progress. These will be accompanied by a short theoreti- | in gaol, me God," &c. Mr. Meaden took him to the infirmary, cal course on scientific method. The sciences selected only some 300 yards distant, and the sufferer carried his heel in hu cover a small portion of the whole field, and some aspects of hand, i.e. hopped all the way. His foot was fomented with her scientific method-such as classification-will obviously scarcely water, and spirits of ammonia were applied, with the addition be represented. The organic sciences generally are left out, of a little liquid ammonia, and he received a dose of the and may possibly form the groundwork of a similar scheme on mixture. About two hours afterwards he ate his dianer heartily some future occasion. The idea of illustrating scientific method and slept well at night. He complained of no pain in the by the history of science is a familiar one, and is the basis, for morning, and went to work as usual. There was no locat example, of Whewell's great books on “ The Philosophy and swelling or inflammation, and but little pain at any time. Fret: the History of the Inductive Sciences.” Few men, however, pos was the only ill effect. sess the encyclopædic knowledge of science which Whewell had, SOME interesting results in application of cold have bec: and the progress of science since his day would make such a task | recently recorded. Thus M. d'Arsonval has found that w e as he undertook well-nigh impossible for a more modern writer.

with rising temperature, microbes die before soluble ferments, The Cambridge Syndicate do not attempt to find a Whewell,

with lowered temperature the opposite occurs. The invertine or but hand over the history of each science to competent special

beer yeast cooled to - 40°C., does not lose its power, but it is ists, and hope to give real unity to the whole by the lectures on destroyed as a ferment at - 100% On the oiber hand, the method, in which the lessons taught by the history of the yeast itself cooled to - 100° is still active. M. Ranul Pice various sciences will be brought into a focus, and made to lead

has lately observed that at - 150° all chemical reaction m up to general principles. The experiment is certainly an in

suppressed. Thus, if sulphuric acid and potash are brought teresting one, and we shall watch with some interest to see how

together at this temperature, they do not combine. Lilmek it succeeds. The programme includes also lectures on history,

paper, introduced, keeps its colour. Curiously, it is possible to literature, art, and other subjects. But we have dwelt only on

restore their energy to these inert substances, by passing the science as being of special interest to our readers.

electric current, and the current passes readily whatever the sun In the Herz oscillator, as used hitherto, the spark discharge stances; at - 150° all bodies are good conductors. The of a Rhumkorff has been produced in air between two balls. disappearance of affinity at a low temperature can be utilized to MM. Sarasin and de la Rive lately thought (Arch. de Sciences) | get absolutely pure substances, and M. Pictet has thus obtainel to place the balls in an insulating liquid, and they find that this alcohol, chloroform, ether, and glycerine. gives a more intense effect in the resonator. Olive oil does best ; oil of turpentine, liquid paraffin, and petroleum were also! Some good notes on the Shuswap people of British Columbis. tried. Placed near the oscillator the resonator gives quite a read before the Royal Society of Canada by Dr. George bright spark, and at about 30 ft. distance, with a resonator of | Dawson, F.R.S., are now printed in the Society's Transactions large dia neter, the spark is strong enough to be visible a good and have also been issued separately. In an interesting sectico way off.

on the superstitions of the Shuswaps he notes that they have a

singular idea about certain small lizards. A man who sees one ATTEMPTS are being made to create a silk-producing industry

of these creatures is supposed to be followed by it wherever de in the district of Nicolaieff, in South Russia : and, according to

may go during the day, till at length, when he is asleep the British Vice-Consul at Nicolaieff, the result is not unlikely

during the following night, it finds him, and entering his to be satisfactory. He says that the mulberry tree, for the

body, proceeds to eat out his heart, so that he quickly dies. The growth of which the soil and climate are well adapted, flourishes

late Mr. Bennett, of Spallumsheen, told Dr. Dawson in 1877 wherever it is planted, and that with very little trouble or ex

that the Indians employed by him in making a ditch for par pense every little plot of ground, now yielding nothing more

poses of irrigation, on coming into camp in the evening, would than a crop of weeds, might in a short time be transformed into

jump several times over the fire in order to lead the possibly a remunerative feeding-ground for the silkworm. The matter

pursuing lizard to enter the fire and be destroyed in attempting has been taken in hand by a society, and every encouragement

to cross. He also noticed that they carefully tied up the legs of is given to the peasants and poorer classes to take advantage of

their trousers when retiring. If while at work during the day the opportunities provided for them. If seriously followed up,

they saw one of these little lizards, which appeared to be the scheme may, the Vice-Consul thinks, prove a source of

abundant in that locality, it would be caught in a forked tog revenue to many a poor family, and eventually be the means of

the ends of which were then tied together with a wisp of gran establishing a large and flourishing industry.

and the butt end of the twig afterwards planted in the soil. Thes At a recent meeting of the Trinidad Field Naturalists' Club treated, the lizard soon died and become a natural mummy. Il there was some discussion as to the question whether the bile during the progress of the work any one found and carelessly of the larantula (Mygale) spider is poisonous. Mr. C. W. tossed aside one of these lizards, the Indians would throw down Meaden, writing to the Club's journal on the subject, describes their tools and search diligently until they found it, and secured an incident which came under his own observation. Early in! it in the manner just described. Dr. Dawson thinks that this the present year he had a gang clearing some land after burning, superstition must be widespread among the Indians, for it was and on visiting them one afternoon he saw a black tarantula afterwards related to him in identical form by a man of the dart from a heap of bush and deliberately bite one of the Nicola River, who further pointed out a small lake, singularly lated on the summit of a high ridge about a mile and a half MR. JOHN MURRAY has published a fourth edition of Dr. th of the mountain named Za-kwās'.ki, as a noted resort, W. Fream's "Elements of Agriculture.” The work was sibly the only place known to the man-of this peculiar i originally issued at the beginning of the present year, and two mal. He described it as being a few inches in length and editions were sold out before the end of January. The third urly black. Za-kwās'-ki, to which other stories attach, is edition has for some time been out of print. The book has th of Nicola River, at the source of the Nicoamen River. now been thoroughly revised, and enriched with a completely

new set of illustrations. I COMMON impurity in many seeds which are used as food live-stock is the seed of corn-cockle (Agrostemma githargo).

A NEW edition of Dr. John Casey's “Sequel to the First Tably is this the case on the Continent, and especially in

Six Books of the Elements of Euclid” has been issued as a ngary, where the refuse from the machines used in cleaning volume of the Dublin University Press Series. The work has in consists chiefly of cockle-seed, and is largely used in

been edited by Prof. P. A. E. Dowling, by whom it has been ling swine. It appears, as a rule, to have no ill-effect upon

carefully revised and considerably enlarged. The editor has je animals. Up in other animals, however, it sometimes has

obtained much valuable aid from Prof. Neuberg, of the Unions and even fatal effects, especially upon calves and dogs. versity of Liège. ording to Kobert (Landw. Centralblt. Provinz Posen, 19) it MESSRS. BLACKIE AND SOn have issued a second edition, ild appear that the seeds contain a glucoside-saponin revised and enlarged, of Mr. J. McGregor. Robertson's H54019, —which acts as a poison either when eaten in the | “Elementary Text-book of Physiology." n of cockle-seed or when introduced into the blood. Various mals are affected in different degrees, but dogs, cats, and

A FURTHER communication concerning the nature and prois soon die when fed upon the seed. The poison decomposes

perties of hydroxylamine, NH,OH, is contributed to the blood, dissolving the red corpuscles, and also destroys the

Recueil des travaux chimiques des Pays-Bas by M. Lobry de sitive albuminoid portion of the nerve elements. Heating to

Bruyn, whose isolation of the free base was described in our C. decomposes the saponin, and renders the seed harmless,

note of vol. xlv. p. 20. It may be remembered that pure ce this glucoside is found to lie only just below the surface of

hydroxylamine was found to be a solid substance, crystallizing seed, Kobert suggests that the seed should be coarsely ground

in colourless thin plates or needles, which are extremely the outer husk separated ; to cook the meal would be a still

deliquescent. So powerful indeed is the affinity of hydroxyl. r precaution. A good deal of cockle-seed comes into the

amine for water, that the crystals rapidly dissolve when exposed of Hull, chiefly, it is presumed, amongst grain which has not

to the air, in the moisture attracted. The crystals melt at a tem2: creened. From such seeds as linseed it is removed by

perature of 33°, and the liquid boils at 58° under the reduced ening before pressing, but it is too often found in the cake

pressure of 22 millimetres. If the liquid is heated under ordinch results after the oil is expressed from the linseed. A

i ary atmospheric pressure in contact with the air, it explodes with iderable quantity of corn-cockle is handled in Hull, what

great violence when a temperature between 60° and 70° is its ultimate destination may be, and it sometimes occurs in

attained ; if the experiment is carried out in a vessel from which ing-stuffs in far too large a percentage to be considered as an

air is excluded, the liquid may be heated as far as 90° without dental impurity. Its use in admixture (as impurity or otherwise)

accident, regular decomposition into gaseous products occurring I other feeding-stuffs is strongly to be deprecated so long as

at this temperature. Explosion, however, usually follows at once e is the slightest risk attending its consumption by any dom.

if this temperature is much exceeded, and generally after a short : animal. Its detection is very easy, the peculiar rough husk

time if the source of heat is removed as soon as the thermometer le seed being characteristic ; the husk, after clearing with

has reached 90°, inasmuch as the decomposition which is le sulphuric acid, and then with caustic soda, and examined

induced at this temperature is accompanied by evolution of heat. er a low power of the microscope, will exhibit dark-red

The crystals are without odour. They react with considerable 'oluted markings which distinguish it clearly from the husk

violence with the halogen elements, the reaction in the case of ny other well-known seed.

chlorine being accompanied by production of fame; the products

do not appear to have been investigated as yet beyond ascertainis a well-known fact that sea-anemones have a sense by ing the presence among them of the halogen acids. Metallic h they recognize food. This has been studied recently by

sodium also vigorously attacks hydroxylamine, brilliant incan· Nagel at the Zoological Station in Naples, and he has descence occurring. Warm zinc dust reduces it to ammonia so avoured to localize it. Among other experiments, a small rapidly, that if any considerable quantities are employed a of a sardine was brought carefully to the tentacles of one violent explosion follows. Highly oxidized compounds, such as se animals; the tentacle first touched, then others, seized potassium permanganate, chromates, bichromates, or chromic yod and surrounded it, and the morsel was swallowed. A acid react with crystals of hydroxylamine, as may be expected, ir ball of blotting-paper saturated with sea-water, brought in a most energetic manner, brilliant flame bei ng produced in the same way, was not seized. If, however, the ball was often accompanied by detonation. Chlorates, perchlorates d in the juice of fish, it was seized with the same energy as and bromaies behave similarly in the presence of a drop of sulece of fish, but often liberated again after a time without phuric acid. Hydroxylamine liberates iodine from iodic anhy.

swallowed. Blotting-paper saturated with sugar acted dride, and rapidly reduces iodates to iodides. Dehydrated he other, but more weakly. If saturated with quinine, it sulphate of copper inflames in contact with the crystals of the -fused, the tentacles drawing back. On the outer sursace base, and powdered nitrate of silver is reduced to metallic silver. body, as also in the part between the tentacles and the Addition of trichloride or pentachloride of phosphorus to the . quinine had no effect, nor had coumarin, vanillin, or crystals likewise brings about ignition. Hydrogen peroxide acid. When a piece of meat was placed in or near the oxidizes hydroxylamine to nitrous acid. These reactions,

of a widely-open animal, no notice was taken of it ; it was selected from a large number which M. de Bruyn describes, pized when the tentacles were touched. Thus the sense amply demonstrate the remarkable chemical energy with which

e seems to be in these alone. Cutting the tentacles did anhydrous hydroxylamine is endowed. It is interesting to learn idently give pain, but these organs appeared sensitive to that the melted substance is capable of dissolving a considerable nd to touch, so that they appear to be the seat of three | volume of ammonia gas. Moreover, carbon dioxide and sul

| phuretted hydrogen are so soluble in melted hydroxylamine that

1892.

129

viscous liquids are produced which remain liquid even at - 10°. | ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTRUM IN PROMINENCES.—Io the As regards the preparation of the base, M. de Bruyn has now current number of the Memorie della Società Degli Spatrname succeeded in obtaining a hundred grams of the pure crystals

enure crystals Italiani, Prof. G. E. Hale communicates a note on some peces from a little more than a kilogram of the hydrochloride, by the

graphs of the ultra-violet region in the spectra of solar proni

nences. On October 15 at 3h. 15m. a photograph of the method described in our previous note above referred to.

spectrum of a metallic prominence was obtained, which The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the

tained as many as 74 bright lines in the ultra-violet betwee

wave-lengi hs 3970 and 36:0. The photograph, besides displan past week include a red and yellow macaw (Ara macao) from ing all the lines previously recorded by Prof. Hale and Central America, presented by the Rev. T. N. Talsourd Major ; | Deslandres, contained 32 additional lines which had not be two gold pheasants (Thaumalea picta $ 8 ) from China ; an previously known. The following table shows their respective Alpine Chough (Pyrrhocorax alpinus), European, purchased.

wave-lengths, which are to be regarded yet as only approx

mate :-
- - -
3964
3863

37243 OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

3956'9
3850'5

37169 COMET HOLMES (NOVEMBER 6, 1892). — The following ephe

39452
3813-5

37 10:3 meris, taken from Astronomische nachrichten, No. 3131, gives

3938-1
3774

3699'5 the position for Conset Holmes for the ensuing week :

39135
3767'1

3683
3965
3758

3681
Berlin, Midnight,

38955
3757

367995 R.A. (app.). Decl. (app.). Log r. Log A.

3893:8
3749*7

3674*2 h. m. S.

3891
37417

36622 Dec. O 55 44 ... + 34 19'2

3878.8
3733-3

36478 56 37 ... 16'0 ... 0'4050 ... 0'3049

3632 57 31 ...

3630-8 26 ... 58 27 ... 10'0

Besides these lines the photograph shows traces of the line 27 ... 0 59 24 ... 72

À 3807'2, 3802, 3764, 3763, 3758:2, 3709-5, 3707-8, 36;6. 28 ... 1 o 22 ... 4'5 ... 04073 ... 0'3167

3643. 29 ... 1 I 21 ... 34 19

EPHEMFRIS FOR Bodies MOVING IN THE BILLA ORBIT.M. Deslandres, in Comptes rendus for December 12 (No. 24),

In Astronomical Journal, No. 281, Dr. Chandler commun: informs u. that on November 21 be obtained a photograph of

cates ab ephemeris for the use of those wishing to search this comet between roh. 40m. and 11h. 20m. Paris mean iime,

bodies which may be moving in the orbit of Biela's comet. showing distinctly “un commencement de dédoublement."

The ephemeris is given for every eight days. It is based on the Owing to the bad weather no other negatives were taken until

orbit obiained by Michez, who calculated the principal perturba. December 10, but although the time of exposure was an hour,

tions up to 1866. In the present computations Dr. Chandle the comet's impression was not obtained, ihus confirming the

has not taken into acc 'unt any disturbance that may have been present eye observations that its intensity is slowly decreasing. produced by the proximity of the planet Jupiter, or any per.

Comer BROOKS (NOVEMBER 20, 1892).- The following turbation that might have ensued from an approach to our earth. ephemeris of Comet Brooks is that obtained by Berberich, and The values are given up to the end of February, 1893. varies a little from that given last week, as will be seen by com

Madras MERIDIAN Circle OBSERVATIONS.— The Govern paring the values for December 22, with those given last

ment of Madras has lately issued the results of observaticos week :

of the fixed stars, made with the meridian circle during the Berlin, Midnight,

years 1874-76. During this interval no change whatever wê. R.A. Decl. Log A. Log r. Br. made either in the instrument or in the methods of reduction

The volume gives the instrumental corrections for these years, Dec. 22... 14 26 9 ... + 42 50'2

the separate results of observations for each year, with the mote 23... 14 33 28 ... 44 40'4 ... 9'9211 ... 0'0880 .. 5:59

positions of the stars brought up to January 1 of each year, 24...14 41 35 ... 40 34'4

and corrections to the Nautical Almanac stars for the period in 25...14 50 41 ... 48 31:6 ... 9.9013 ... 0'0861 ... 6:18

question. 26... 15 0 55 ... 50 31:4 27.. 15 12 26 ... 52 32'9 ... 9:8838 ... O'0845 ... 6.75 28 ..15 25 30 ... 54 34 5 29... 15 40 21 ... 56 34'4 ... 98694 ... O'0831 ... 7.26

THE JUBA RIVER. Swift's COMET.-- Knowledge for December I contains three AT the meeting of the Royal Geographical Society on Monday most interesting photographs of Comet Swist, taken by Prof. h evening, Commander F. G. Dundas, R.N., read a paps Barnard at the Lick Observatory on April 4, 6, and 7 re describing his ascent of the Juba river. This was the for:

pectively. These photographs, which are obtained from the serious attempt to explore the river since Von der Decken's original negatives after an enlargement of 2 times, show what saied expedition in the Guelph in August, 1865. The sien good photographic work can be done even with small instru wheel steamer Kenia, belonging to the Imperial British Eas: ments when exposures are somewhat lengthened. In this Africa Company, under the command of Captain Dunder, case a 6-inch Willard lens of 31 inch focal length was strapped crossed the bar of the Juba on April 25, 1892, an opkratico af on to the tube of a 6-inch equatorial, and the exposures given much danger, as the vessel was exposed broadside on to hery amounted to 60, 65, and 50 minutes. The ordinary driving. rollers ; the depth at high water is only one faibom, and the clock, combined with a slight hand movement at the eye end, water swarns with sharks and crocodiles. The coast Somali. were all that was required to compensate for the diurnal and lined the bank with hostile movements as soon as they ssw the proper motion of the comet. The siar trails on the plates the vessel was to go up the river, and detained the expeditice pointed out then the comet's proper motion. Although these for a fortnight, unul a message was sent to the head chief, the photographs were taken at such short intervals the changes re Sultan of the Ogaden Somalis. It was July 3 before amicabk corded are most striking, the pictures bearing very little likeness arrangements could be made, and the expedition fairly slarted to one another. On this point Prof. Barnard says: “Had they The Somalis met with everywhere were very strict Mohamte been drawn by the most competent observer, most astronomers dan", and secluded their women, but a number of Galla slave would leave their remarkable differences to the un kilsul hand girls were seen amongst them. There were few village, of the artist, for there i- absolutely no resemblance among them." | Hajowan and Hajaualla opposite each other near the man The photographs here referred to are from a series taken at Mount being the only large ones until Munsur, 360 miles, and Bar Hamilton, and in examining them he mentions that in the case dera, 387 miles from the sea, were reached. The lower reache of this comet he has been led to forcibly believe that in a com- of the river were very winding. On one occasion Captai paratively hort period there occurred a rotation of the tail | Dundas observed a stream flowing parallel to the river he was "upon an axis through the nucleus."

| on, and going across to see it recognized the landmarks as those

1892.

h. m.

S.

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