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Mesori

12 B.C.

There is also, as I have indicated, temple evidence that Julian correction of the calendar. In consequence of this us was not the first star utilized as a herald of sun- correction we now add a day every four years to the end : . We have then this possibility to explain the varia- of February. The decree regulated the addition, by the from the true meaning of the signs in Ramessid times. Egyptians, of a day every four years by adding a day to

the epacts, which were thus 6 every four years instead of being always 5 as they had been before.

In fact it replaced the vague year by the sacred year long known to the priests.

But if everything had gone on then as the priests of -Sirian. Texi

Tanis imagined, the Egyptian new year's day, if determined by the heliacal rising of Sirius, would not always afterwards have been the ist of Payni, although the

solstice and Nile flood would have been due at Memphis rian,

about the ist of Pachons; and this is, perhaps, one among the reasons why the decree was to a large extent

ignored. 1 it may be gathered from this that the Calendar was Hence, for some years after the date of the decree of ganized when the Sirius worship came in and that Tanis there were at least three years in force : the new change effected in 619 B.C. brought the hieroglyphic fixed year, the new vague year, reckoning from Pachons, is back to their natural meaning and first use.

and the old vague year, reckoning from Thoth. Fefore I pass on it may be convenient in connection But after some years another attempt was made to get

the above month-tables to refer in the briefest way rid of all this confusion. The time was 23 B.C., 216 years he mythology relating to the yearly movement of the after the decree of Tanis, and the place was Alexandria. , in order to show that when this question is considered Hence the new fixed year introduced is termed the II, if it helps us with regard to the mythology con

Alexandrine year. ted with the rising and setting of stars, it will as This new attempt obviously implied that the first one iredly help us with regard to the mythology of the had failed; and the fact that the vague year was continued ous changes which occur throughout the year.

in the interval is sufficiently demonstrated by the fact that e have, as we have seen, in the Egyptian year really the new year was 44 = 54 days en retard. in the year of prototype of our own. The Egyptians, thousands of Tanis it is stated that the ist Pachons, the new New Year's rs ago, had an almost persect year containing twelve Day,the real beginning of the flood, fell on the 19th of June ths, but instead of four seasons they had three, the (Gregorian), the summer solstice, and hence the ist of of the sowing, the time of the harvest, and the time of Thoth sell on the 22nd of October (Gregorian). In the inundation. Unfortunately, at various times in Alexandrine year the 22nd of October is represented ptian history, the symbols for the tetramenes seem to by the 29th of August, and the 19th of June by the 20th e got changed.

of April. he above-given inscriptions show that they had a It is noteworthy that in the Alexandrine year the inct symbolism for each of the months. Gods or heliacal rising of Sirius on the 23rd of July (Julian) desses are given for ten months out of the twelve, and falls on the 29th of Epiphi, nearly the same date as that re we have not these, we have the hippopotamus (or to which I first drew attention in the inscriptions of the pig) and the jackal, two circumpolar constellations. I date of Thotmes and Pepi. This, however, it is now k there is no question that we are dealing here with clearly seen, is a pure accident, due to the break of cone constellations, though the figures have been sup- tinuity before the Tanis year, and the slip between that d to represent something quite different.

and the Alexandrine one. It is important to mention this, here are also myths and symbols of the twelve because it has been thought that somehow the “ Alexannges during the twelve hours of the day ; the sun drine year” was in use in Pepi's time ! g figured as a child at rising, as an old man when It would seem that the Alexandrine revision was final, ng in the evening. These ideas were also transferred and that the year was truly fixed, and from that time le annual motion of the sun. In Macrobius, as quoted to this it has remained so, and must in the future for ever Krall, we find the statement that the Egyptians com

remain so. It must never be forgotten that we owe this d the yearly course of the sun also with the phases perfection to the Egyptians. man life.

One of the chief uses of the Egyptian calendar that Little child Winter solstice.

has come down to us was the arrangement and dating of Young man Spring equinox.

the chief seasts throughout the year in the different Bearded man = Summer sols ice.

temples. Old man = Autumnal equinox.

The fact that the two great complete feast calendars of th the day of the summer solstice the sun reaches Edfu and Esne refer to the only fixed years evidenced by reatest northern rising amplitude, and at the winter records, those of Tanis and Alexandria, one of which was ce iis greatest southern amplitude. By the solstices established over 200 years after the other, is of inestiear is divided into two approximately equal parts;

mable value for the investigation of the calendar and g the one the points of rising move southwards, chronology of ancient Egypt. 3 the other northwards.

In an excellent work of Brugsch, “ Three Festival s phenomenon, it is stated, was symbolized by the Calendars from the Temple of Apollinopolis Magna (Edfu)

es of Rå, the so-called Utchats, which look in dif- in Upper Egypt,” we have two calendars which we directions. They appear as representing the sun can refer to fixed years, and can date with the greatest two halves of the year.

accuracy. In the case of one of these, that of Esne, this

is universally recognized ; as to the other, that of Apolhave next to discuss the fixed year, to which the

linopolis Magna, we are indebted to the researches of ian chronologists were finally driven in later

Krall, who points out, however, that "it is only when the ian times.

province of Egyptian mythology has been dealt with in i decree of Tanis was the true precursor of the all directions, that we can undertake a successful exdwin has already asked, "Does the Smith Papyrus refer to some planation of the festival catalogues. Even externally they non of the Calendar made in the 4th Dynasty, similar to that made pe rom the old to the new style," quoted by Riel, "Sonnen- und

show the greatest eccentricities, wbich are not diminished hr," p. 361.

but increased on a closer investigation.”

About some points, however, there is no question. The eye on the 30th Mechir. Perhaps the old year, which * summer solstice is attached in the Edfu calendar to the Egyptians introduced into the Nile valley at the time 6th Pachons, according to Krall, while the beginning of their immigration, and which had only 360 days, or the flood is noted on the ist of that month. In the Esne menced with the winter solstice. Thus we should be calendar, the 26th Payni is New Year's Day. We read : in the 'festival of the suspension of the sky, by the " 26th Payni, New Year's Day, Feast of the Revelation ancient god Ptah-venerated as crea:or of the world, of Kahi in the Temple. To dress the crocodiles, as in remnant of the time when the winter solstice. the month of Mechir, day 8."

marked the beginning of the year, and also the creatina Peculiar to the Esne calendar, according to Krall, is The reconstruction of the calendar naturally enhance the mentioning of the “New Year's Festival of the An the importance of the month Pachons; this comes E. cestors" on the 9th of Thoth; to the Edfu calendar, very clearly from the inscriptions translated by Brugse publication No. I of Brugsch, the festival “ of the offer- On this point Krall remarks :ing of the first of the harvested fruits, after the precept of “It is therefore quite right that the month Pacas, King Amenemha 1.," on the ist Epiphi, and "the cele which took the place of the old Thoth by the decree of Tax, bration of the feast of the great conflagration” on the oth should play a prominent part in the feast calendars of of Mechir. In feast calendar No. 1, the reference to days of the Ptolemies, and the first period of the Emp the peculiar Feast of Set, is also remarkable, this was in general, but especially in the Edfu calendar, vic celebrated twice, first in the first days of Thoth (? 9th?), refers to the Tanitic year. The first five days of Paches then, as it appears, in Pachons (10th). This feast is are dedicated in our calendar to the celebration of well known to have been first mentioned under the old subjection of the enemies by Horus; we at once to Pharaoh Pepi Merinrā.

member the above mentioned (p. 7) record of Edfu It is a question whether in the new year of the ancestors the nature of a mythological calendar, describing te and the feasts of Set, all occurring about the 9th Thoth advent of the Nile fivod. On the 6th of Pachonsand Pachons, we have not Memphis Festivals which gave member the great importance of the sixes in the Pain way to Theban ones, for so far as I can make out the mæan records—the solstice is then celebrated. T food takes about nine days to pass from Thebes to Uza-eye is then filled, a mythical act wbich we bare ? Memphis, so that in Theban time the arrival of the flood another place referred to the celebration of the solsta at Memphis would occur on 9th or roth Thoth. There is and "everything is performed which is ordained" in te no difficulty about the second dating in Pachons, for as we book "on the Divine Birth.” have seen this followed on the reconstruction of the Next let us turn to Esne. The inscriptions here ore calendar.

stated to be based on the Alexandrian year, but we It is also worthy of note that the feast of the “Great only find ist Thoth given as New Year's Day, bet Conflagration” took place very near the Spring Equinox. 26 Payni given as the beginning of the Nile flood.

It is well to dwell for a moment on the Edfu inscrip Now I have already stated that the Alexandrine yet tions to see if we can learn from them whether they bear was practically a fixing of the vague Tanis year ; that out or not the views brought forward with regard to this a year beginning on ist Pachons in 239 B.C. reconstruction.

If we assume the date of the calendar coincidence As we have seen it is now acknowledged that recorded at Esne to have been 15 B.C. (we know the temple inscriptions at Edfu (which are stated was after 23 B.C. and at the end of the Roman ds to have been cut between 117 and 81 B.C.) are minion), we have as before, seeing that, if the vague Tans based upon the fixed year of Tanis ; hence we should year had really continued, it would have swept forraru expect that the rising of Sirius would be referred to with regard to the Nile flood, oni Payni, and this is so. But here, as in the other

Pachons 30 temples, we get double dates referring to the old calen

Payni 26 dars, and we find the “ wounding of Set” referred to on the ist Epiphi and the rising of Sirius referred to under

56 x 4 = 224 years after 239 B.C. i Mesori. Now this means, if the old vague year is re This double dating, then, proves the continuation of the ferred to, as it most probably is, that

vague year of Tanis if the date 15 B.C. of the inscriptio 5 Epacts

is about right. 30 Mesori

Can we go further and find a trace of the old code

beginning 270 B.C.? In this case we should have the 35 * 4 = 140 years had elapsed since the beginning of a Sothic cycle, when

rising of Sirius the calendar coincidences were determined, which were

270

- 15 afterwards inscribed on the temple walls. We have, then, 140 years to subtract from the beginning of the

4)255 years cycle in 270 B.C. This gives us 130 B.C., and it will be seen that this agrees as closely as can be expected with

64 = say 5 Epacts and 2 months, my view, whereas the inscription has no meaning at all This would give us i Epiphi. Is this mentioned in the if we take the date given by Censorinus.

Esne calendar? Yes, it is," i Epiphi. To perform the I quote from Krall ? another inscription common to precepts of the book on the second divine birth of the Edfu and Esne, which seems to have astronomical child Kahi." significance.

Now the 26th Payni, the new New's Year Day, is as * I. Phamenot. Festival of the suspension of the sky ciated with the “revelation of Kahi," so it is not impos by Ptah, by the side of the god Harschaf, the master of sible that "the second divine birth” may have some Heracleopolis Magna (AI). Festival of Ptah. Feast of dim reference to the least. the suspension of the sky (Es).

It is not necessary to pursue this intricate subject “ Under the 1st Phamenot, Plutarch, de Iside ac further in this place; so intricate is it that, although the Osiride c. 43, b, notices the uBagis 'Ovípidos eis The suggestions I have ventured to make on astronomical reaniny. These are festivals connected with the cele- grounds seem consistent with the available facts, they bration of the winter solstice, and the filling of the Uza- | are suggestions only, and a long labour on the part al

Egyptologists will be needed before we can be said to 1 On the 7th Epiphi of the roth year of Ptolemy III, the ceremony of the stretching of the cord took place, Düm.cher, Aig. Z. 2, 1872, p. 41.

be on firm ground. a Op. cit., p. 37.

J. NORMAN LOCKYER

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PROPOSED HANDBOOK TO THE BRITISH I. From Cælenterata :-Genus AntenNULARIA.
MARINE FAUNA.

Stems simple or branched ; pinnæ verticillate ; nema-
tophores along the

stems;

gonothecæ axillary, HE admirable monographs issued under the auspices

unilateral. of the Ray Society, and in Van Voorst's series, by A. antennina, L., stems clustered, usually simple; hydroIch well-known authorities as Forbes and Hanley, Alder thecæ separated by 2 joints. 6 to 9 in. high. Gen. nd Hancock, M‘Intosh, Allman, Hincks, Brady, Norman,

distr. deep w. nd others, are amongst the most creditable and useful A. ramosa, Lamk., stems single, usually branched; hydro. oductions of British Zoology, and all naturalists must thecæ separated by 1 joint only. 6 to 9 in. high. Gen. evoutly trust that there are still others of a like classical

distr. deep w. ature to follow, and that, for example, Prof. M'Intosh

II. From Crustacea :-Family MaiDÆ. ill soon be able to complete his long-expected work on

HyAs. Carapace tuberculous, no spines ; branches of e British Polychæta.

not divaricated; second joint of antenna

dilated ; no teeth beneath last joint of walking legs. But many Marine zoologists feel that, quite apart from ch exhaustive and expensive monographs, and only

H. araneus, L., carapace not contracted behind post

orbital process. 3 in. Common, shallow. piring to occupy a very much humbler position, there is

H. coarctatus, Leach, carapace contracted behind postessing need of a pocket” or seaside “Invertebrate

orbital process.

I in. Gen. distr. shallow, suna," which could be used in much the same way as Pisa. Carapace may be tuberculous, with strong posteroe botanists' “ Field Flora.” It has been suggested to

lateral spine ; branches of rostrum divaricated at e more than once during the last few years that I would

extremity ; second joint of antenna slender ; terminal doing useful work in compiling such a book ; and as

joint of walking legs toothed beneath. one else seems ready or willing to do so, I feel inclined P. tetraodon, Leach, carapace with small tubercles ; make the attempt. Some material has already been

antero-lateral margin with 4 spines. 2 in. Rare, S. coast. cumulated for the purpose, but before going further I

P. gibbsii, Leach, carapace with large rounded elevations, sh to lay my views before my fellow zoologists, in the

but no tubercles, no spines on antero-lateral margin.

Rare, deep w., S. coast. pe that they will be kind enough to criticize the scheme

MAIA. Carapace covered with numerous sharp spines ; d give me the benefit of their advice.

branches of rostrum strongly divaricated ; no teeth The only existing work of the kind is Gosse's well

beneath terminal joint of walking legs. own, and, so far as it goes, very excellent little “ Manual M. squinado, Latr. 10 in. long. S. and W. coasts of Marine Zoology,” but that book does not really meet England.

present want, as not only is the date of publication 111. From Tunicata :--Family MOLGULIDÆ. 55-6, since when the number of genera and species has

EUGYRA. Branchial sac with no folds. bably been something like doubled, but also Gosse. E. glutinins. Möll., circular area on side free from sand. rely gives the names of the species, while the book I

in. Shallow w., gen. distr. nk of would, in order to be of any real use, require to

E. globosa, Hanc., entirely covered with sand. } in. i at giving a brief but sufficient diagnosis and figure of

Pera. Bran. s. with 5 folds each side. ry British species. I would adopt as “British” the

P. hancocki, Hrdn., matted fibres at poster. end. } in.

Irish Sea, 20 fms. a defined by Canon Norman's British Association

MOLGULA. Bran. s. with 6 or 7 folds each side. mmittee in 1887. 'robably the most convenient form of publication

M. inconspicua, A & H., 6 folds, sandy, dors. lam. entire,

no pap. on stigmala. in. ald be some four to six small volumes, each dealing M. impura, Hel., 6 folds, sandy, small papillä on edges of h one or two of the large groups. This would allow of stigmata. i in. W. of Ireland, shallow.

groups being published as they were ready, not M. simplex, A. & H., few hairs, little or no sand, 6 folds, essarily in zoological order, and would also be con- anus fringed, dors. tub. horse-shoe, aperture to left. ient for the use of those interested in one set of mals.

M. tubifera, Örst., 6 folds, anus fringed, dors. tub. horse"here would be definitions—perhaps with occasional

shoe, dors, lam. toothed, sandy. I in. E. coast. lytical tables or keys-of orders, families, &c., down

M. ampulloides, v. Ben., 6 fulds, anus fringed, dors. tub. ind including genera. Under each genus would be

horse-shoe, 3 bars on fold, dors. lam. entire. I in.

E. coast, shallow, in all sufficiently defined species with a brief description

M. socialis, Ald., 6 folds, anus fringed, dors, tub. horseach either in tabular form or in series, as seems most shoe, 4 bars on fold, dors. lam. entire, sandy, gregarious. ible in each case, and with an indication of size, ? in. shallow w. S. coast. e, and habitat. Many species might be described M. holliana, Hrdn., 6 folds, dors, tub, serpentif., hairs but briefly in terms of preceding species, the differences little sand on test. in. W. of Ireland, io sms. ly being pointed out. By simplicity of language, M. occulta, Kupf., 7 folds, dors. tub. horse-shoe, dors. lam. lance of unnecessary repetition, and use of con- toothed, whole body sandy. I in. Shallow w. S. and ions it might be hoped that each species could be

W. coasts. ned on an average to a couple of lines.

M. oculata, Forb., 7 folds, siphonal region alone free from istrations would be either in the form of numerous

sand, and retractile between folds of test. I in. Gen.

distr. Shallow w. outline figures on thin paper plates inserted as near ssible to the pages where the descriptions occur, or

M. cæpiformis, Hrdn., 7 folds, globular, not attached, no

sand. in. S. coast, shallow w. mall groups of cuts (as in “Gosse') in the text.

M. citrina, A. & H., 7 folds, attached by left side, no ! would be a figure of the whole animal in each

sand - in, under sl., litt. E. and W. coasts. tant genus, or small family, and the figures of the CTENICELLA, as Molgula, bút branchial and atrial lobes laci:s would represent the diagnostic points only, e.g.

niated. : zoophytes there would be a figure in the genus C. complanata, A. & H., 6 folds on left, 7 on right, deularia of an entire colony, or shoot, while the pressed, attached, sandy, 1 in. s pinnata, setacea, catharina, &c., would be repre- In conclusion, I need scarcely say that I shall be very

each by a small figure showing the pinnæ, calycles, grateful for suggestions, and, if the work is carried on, natophores as the case required.

for any information from specialists about less known all now give a few examples, taken from different species, and the discrimination of allied forms, and for i, of the method in which the genera and species specimens, and also for references to any descriptions be treated, in order that specialists may have the which might be likely to escape my notice. unity of judging and criticizing.

W. A. HERDMAN.

- in.

NOTES.

produced upon the members of the Russian Mineralogiat

Society by Gadolin's first communication upon this subje. In consequence of the unavoidable absence abroad of the new President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, Mr.

The lucidity with which he deduced all systems of crystals W. H. Preece, F.R.S., on the 12th inst., he will deliver his

tion from fundamental principles of equilibrium of molecuo inaugural address on the 26th inst.

forces, and the simplicity of the exposition of his researche,

entirely based upon high mathematical analysis, reminded to A PUBLIC meeting, arranged by the Technical Instruction hearers of some of the best pages of Laplace's writings. The Committee of the Essex County Council, will be held in the Shire work soon became widely known in a German translatx Hall, Chelmsford, on Friday afternoon, January 13, at 4.30 A paper on the resistance of the walls of a gun to the prese p.m., Lord Rayleigh in the chair. An address will be given of gunpowder gases also deserves mention, as, in addition to the by Sir Henry E. Roscoe on technical instruction in agricul- formerly known formulæ of highest resistance of cylinder, te tural counties, with especial reference to science teaching. gave a new formula of minimal resistance. Later on E Afterwards a discussion will take place.

method was used with great success by Klebsch, in bis el Dr. Percy RENDALL, F.Z.S., has accepted an appoint-known “Theorie der Elasticität fester Körper," for dedeig ment as Resident Medical Officer to the Sheba Gold-mining

some general equations of equilibrium of solid bodies. Company in the Barberton District of the Transvaal. He will The last issue of the Izvestia of the East Siberian los reside at Eureka City, at an elevation of scoo feet above the graphical Society (vol. xxiii. 3) contains an obituary notice's sea-level. Dr. Rendall made a good collection of birds during v. O vrutcheff, of I. D. Chersky, who died in the far northhis recent residence at Bathurst on the Gambia, of which he has of Siberia, during his expedition to the Kolyma river

, és given an account in the Ibis for last year (Ibis, 1892, p. 215). having given many years of his life to the active geological He has also made many valuable donations to the Zoological ploration of Siberia. He began his work in 1872 at Ones Society's Menagerie, amongst which is the unique example of where he made most valuable discoveries of post-lerta the Nagor Antelope (Cervicapra redunca), presented by him in mammals. During the next two years he explored the Tea June, 1890. Of this scarce animal there is, we believe, no ex- and Kitoi Alps, but his rich materials were lost during the past ample in the British Museum. Dr. Rendall's new appointment conflagration at Irkutsk in 1879. In 1875 and 1876 he explos will give him many opportunities of extending our zoological the Nijneudinsk caves, making again remarkable fods knowledge of a little known district.

quaternary mammals ; and then he give fully five years taż LORD WalSINGHAM, who has devoted much of his attention study of the stores of Lake Baikal, embodying the results at to the micro-lepidoptera, has filled the vacancy on the staff of extensive researches in a map (6-7 miles to the inch), : *

vol. xii. of the Memoirs of the East Siberian Society, and the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine occasioned by the death

xv. of the Memoirs of the Russian Geographical Socies of Mr. Stainton.

1882 and 1883 he explored the Lower Tunguska, and zu Last week a preliminary meeting was held at the house of made rich finds of fossil mammals. The next five yer: Sir James Paget to consider what steps should be taken with spent at the Academy of St. Petersburg, preparing the premis regard 10 a memorial of Sir Richard Owen. It was decided that Ritter's “Asia ” which is devoted to Lake Baikal, and earts a committee should be formed to make the necessary prepara- out the rich materials collected by another lamented Pis tions. The following, among others, have consented to serve explorer of East Siberia, Czekanowski. He also workedd as members :—The Presidents of the Royal Colleges of Physi- the collections brought in from the New Siberia Islands cians and Surgeons and of most of the scientific societies, the MM. Bunge and Toll, and came to such interesting and = Duke of Teck, Lord Playfair, Prof. Huxley, Sir Joseph Hooker, conclusions as to the recent geological history of Arctic Sites Sir Henry Acland, Sir John Evans, Dr. Michael Foster, Mr. that the Academy of Sciences sent him out in 1891, at the ti Sclater, Sir W. Savory, Mr. Hulke, Sir Joseph Fayrer, Sir of a new expedition to the Kolyma region. There be dead Edward Fry, Dr. Günther, Mr. Carruthers and Dr. H. Wood- the midst of his promising work. ward. Sir William Flower will act as treasurer, and a general

The twentieth annual dinner of the old students of the ti meeting will shortly be called. It has been suggested that the

School of Mines will be held at the Holborn Restape. memorial should be a marble statue, to be placed in the hall of Tuesday, January 10, at 7 o'clock. The chair will be * the Natural History Museum.

by Mr. W. Gowland, late of the Imperial Mint, Bus PROF. WESTWOOD, who died on Monday at the age of eighty- Japan. seven, will be greatly missed at Oxford. To most people he is MR. G. T. ATKINSON has been appointed Proiecte known chiefly as a writer on the archæology and palæography Cryptogamic Botany at Cornell University, Ithaca, sa of art, but he was equally eminent as an entomologist. He was New York, in the place of Prof. W. R. Dudley, who has one of the founders of the Entomological Society, and received to the Leland-Stanford University, Paolo Alto, Californi one of the Royal Society's gold medals for his entomological

At the next public meeting of the French Academy, in Den researches.

1893, forty-five prizes will be awarded for the best work WE regret to record the death of General Axel Wilhelmovitch to the advancement of the various branches of science Gadolin, an old member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. these, the following are, by the terms of the bequests, He was born of Finnish parents on July 10, 1828, received his competitors of all nationalities. The Prix Lalande education in the Finnish Corps of Cadets, and till his death re- awarded for the most intereresting observation, or the mained in the Russian Artillery, devoting bis leisure time to or work most useful for the progress of Astronomy. mineralogical, and especially to mathematical, researches into | is 540 francs. The Prix Valz, of 460 francs, is offered the molecular forces which act in the formation of crystals. One the same conditions. Three prizes of 10,000 francs of his earlier works, published in the Verhandlungen der queathed by M. L. La Caze, will be awarded annualis Mineralogischen Gesellschaft zu St. Petersburg, was on some best contributions to Physiology, Physics, and Chezza minerals from Pitkäranta. His chief work, published in 1867, spectively. The Prix Tchihatchef, of 3000 francs, s was his “Deduction of all the Systems of Crystals and their annually to naturalists who have distinguished themschke Derivates from a Unique Principle.” A deep impression was in the exploration of the continent of Asia or the adjaar

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cluding better known regions such as British India, Siberia England the day readings were only slightly above the freezingoper, Asia Minor, and Syria. The explorations must have point. There was a complete change in the type of weather at me object connected with Natural Science, physical or mathe- the close of the week; a large anticyclone had formed over utical, and will not be awarded for archæological or ethno- Scandinavia, and the air over nearly the whole of Europe was aphic work. All these prizes will be awarded in December intensely cold, the minimum in the shade at Haparanda on 93. Works for competition to be sent in to the Sécrétariat Sunday registering 72° below the freezing-point, and the barofore June 1. The Prix Leconte, of 50,000 francs, for the meter on subsequent days rose to 31 inches and upwards in these ost important scientific discovery, will be awarded in 1895. islands. These conditions were accompanied by cold easterly The Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin, in accordance gales in the south-west of England, while a heavy fall of snow th the will of Dr. Cesare Alessandro Bressa, and in conformity was experienced in the south-eastern districts. On the coast th the programme published December 7, 1876, announces of Kent the shade minimum fell to 1° during Monday night. at the term for competition for scientific works and discoveries The Weekly Weather Report issued on December 31 shows the years 1839-92, to which only Italian authors and inventors that the temperature of that period was much below the mean, re entitled, was closed on December 31, 1892. The ninth amounting to 9° or 10° over the greater part of England, and to essa prize will be given to the scientific author or inventor, 12° in the Midland counties. Very little rain fell during the latever be his nationality, who during the years 1891-94, week; the deficiency of rainfall in the south-western district of according to the judgment of the Royal Academy of Sciences England for the last year amounts to 10-8 inches, or more than

Turin, shall have made the most important and useful dis- 25 per cent. below the average of the 25 years 1866-90. A good very, or published the most valuable work on physical and deal of fog was experienced at the inland stations during the perimental science, natural history, mathematics, chemistry, week. ysiology and pathology, as well as geology, history, geo

Some very interesting entomological notes from the Eastern aphy and statistics." The term will be closed at the end | Archipelago are given by Mr. J. J. Walker in the January numDecember 1894. The sum fixed for the prize, income

ber of the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. Incidentally Mr. x being deducted, is 10,416 francs. Any one who pro- Walker mentions that Dr. Wallace's residence in these islands, ses to compete must declare his intention within the time

after a lapse of more than thirty years, is not forgotten, and that ove mentioned, by means of a letter addressed to the Pre

the Dutch translation of the Malay Archipelago" is "as lent of the Academy, and send the work he wishes to be highly appreciated in the lands of which he gives so vivid a nsidered. The work must be printed. Works which do not picture as the original work is at home.” tain the prize will be returned to the authors, when asked ' within six months from the adjudication of the prize. None

At the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, Berlin, copies the national members, resident or not resident, of the Turin of standard mercury resistances are being constructed in which ademy can obtain the prize. The Academy gives the prize to

the mercury does not require renewal (Wiedemann's Annalen). : scientific man considered most worthy of it, even if he has They consist of U-shaped tubes filled with mercury in a i competed.

vacuum and then sealed by susion. Into each of the ends are Messrs. Macmillan and Co. hope to publish early in the fused three thin platinum wires connecting with the main ring the second volume of Dr. Arthur Gamgee's Treatise on current, the secondary circuit, and the galvanometer respecysiological Chemistry. This volume, which deals with the lively. Since the connections are rigidly joined to the glass, gestive Processes, will be followed at no long interval by an

it is possible to employ platinum wires as thin as 0-3 mm. so arged and revised edition of the first volume, which originally

that there is no danger of heat being conducted into the peared in 1880.

mercury from without. The copy, mounted in a perforated The United States Government is inviting the various Euro

brass box with an ebonite lid, is immersed in petroleum con

tained in another brass box, so that the binding screws are in Governments to send delegates to an International nserence of Meteorologists, to be held at Washington. The

covered. This box is again surrounded during the experiment owing is said to be proposed as a provisional programme of taken at a temperature which can easily be obtained, and which

with a mixture of fine ice and water. The resistance is thus ics to be discussed by the Conference : (a) The organization is uniform throughout the containing vessel. additional meteorological work for the benefit of agriculture. The extension to all ports frequented by commerce of the

An apparatus for demonstrating the difference of potential Iefits of systematic storm and weather signals, and the in- at the poles of a galvanic cell has been constructed by Messrs. luction of a uniform system of storm warnings throughout Elster and Geitel, of Wolfenbüttel (Zeitschr. für Phys. und world. (c) The co-operation of all nations in the publica. Chem. Unterricht). It is a modification of Thomson's waterof a daily chart of the weather over all the habited lands dropping influence machine. Two insulated metallic vessels frequented oceans for the study of the atmosphere as a can be filled with water by pressing a rubber ball communicating le, and as preparatory to the eventual possibility of pre- with a three-necked jar. The jets enter the vessels through two ng important changes several days in advance. (d) The metal rings. One of these rings is connected with the positive ble apportionment of stations, publications, and expenses pole of the cell. The jet on passing through becomes negatively ng the nations, and the suggestion of practical methods by charged, and the charge is communicated to the vessel and ta to secure observations from those countries that are not through a wire to the second ring, which acts by induction on sented in this Conference. (e) The encouragement by the the otber jet. A strong positive charge is soon accumulated on ctive Governments of special scientific investigations look- the outside of the second vessel, and can be exhibited by a gold o the advancement of meteorology. Such other matters leaf or aluminium foil electroscope. • delegates may think advisable to submit for discussion, IN 1869 it was decided, in France, to give a medal and pensulure report, will also be considered.

sion of 250 francs to every old soldier of the Republic and the IRING the past week the sharp frost has continued almost Empire who could show two years of service, or two campaigas, erruptedly over these islands, with the exception of a partial or a wound. An interesting statistical record of these “mé

on Friday and Saturday, caused by a disturbance in the daillés de Sainte Hélène” as of “a generation which is disapspreading to the eastward. The greatest increase of tem- pearing,” is given by M. Turquan in the Revue Scientifique. ire occurred in the north and west, but in the south-east of The first list, in -1870, comprised 43,592 names; and these men

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