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must have almost exclusively served under the Empire. They! An excellent “Child Life Almanack" for 1893, by á X are now reduced to 27. The oiilest, Vivien by name, a Lyons Clive Bayley, has been published by Messrs. G. Philip and S man, is now 106. When 13 he was with Bonaparte in Egypt, i Iris issu d as an extra number of “Child Life," and the object fought in 22 campaigns, and was one of the Imperial | the author explains, is to provide teachers with suggestions be Guard at Waterloo. The youngest is 92, and served in the for lessons to be prepared and observations to be mana navy. The mean age of the 27 survivors is 97 or 98 years. The Teachers who may wish to give “seasonable " lessons ' annual number of deaths in this body of men reached a maximum find many most useful hints as to what really goes on in nat: of 6456 in 1872, since which year it has been gradually diminish during the various periods of the year. ing. The proportional mortality rose, in general, till 1889, but
MR. JOHN BROWNING, optical and physical instrizes in the years since there has been a marked fall, testifying to the
maker, has issued an illustrated catalogue of magic, diesolu exceptional vitality of those late survivors. M. Turquan calcu
view, and optical lanterns, lime-light apparatus, and sluies, lates that this remnant will have wholly disappeared by the end of the century. Going back to 1815, he estimates the genera
The extraordinary diversity in the temperature at whid tion to which the men belong at about 300,000, with a mean
different micro-organisms flourish and multiply, has from time age of 25 years, and that 500,000 births hetween 1785 and
to time been the subject of some interesting investigatiars 1795 would concur to its formation. From figures relating to
Fischer, Globig, and others. Thus Fischer isolated fourters the Napoleonic w ars he comes to the grim conclusion that one
different species of bacteria from the sea-water in Kiel harbou
and from soil in the town itself. These he was actually alike man in five of those born between the years just named was destined to die in war. It is, he says, to the immense losses of
lo cultivate successfully at the freezing temperature (o C.). men during the ten years of war of the Empire that the present
well as at from 15 to 20° C. Globig, on the other hand, studie generations owe their low birth-rate.
the behaviour of micro-organisms at high temperatures
separated out no less than thirty varieties from garden soil whic Mr. J. R. S. CLIFFORD offers some interesting observations would grow at 60°C. Some of these were even able to develog in the January number of Nature Notes-the Selborne Society's at 70°C., whilst the majority refused to grow at all below 50°C. magazine-on the Death's-head moth and bees. Last July a some still more fastidious individuals objected to any temper friend of his at Gravesend found one of these huge moths ture below 60°C., and others again required a temperaturel trying to gain access to a hive, having evidently been drawn to between 54° and 68° C. One bacillus, however, was discovered the spot by the odour of the honey. This disposes of doubts more catholic in its taste in this respect, for whilst growing which have been suggested as to the old statements about this | 68° C. it managed to develop also at from 15 to 20°C. Set moth's habit of entering hives when it has a chance. The con. fresh contributions on the growth of micro-organisms at low struction of modern hives keeps it out, but " where old-style temperatures have recently been made by Forster of Amsterdam hives are used, the moth can and does enter, and occasionally (“ Ueber die Entwickelung von Bakterien bei niederen Tea one has been found dead within a hive, the bees, being unable aturen"). As far back as 1887 Forster described a phosphor to remove so bulky an insect, having taken the precaution to escent bacillus obtained from sea-water which was found tot embalm its body with what is called propolis,” According to only capable of growing, but of producing the phenomeota d Mr. Clifford, some Continental bee-keepers have discovered phosphorescence at 0°C. In further researches made by thes that “the bees are aware they are liable to the intrusions of this investigator in conjunction with Bleekrode, it is stated thr, big moth," and when the bees are “ located in the old-fashioned although not many different species were found by tbem to hive, the insects erect a kind of fortification at the portal. This develop at o° C., yet immense numbers of individual bacten is constructed with a narrow passage and a bend, past which the belonging to this category were detected in very various se Death's-head could not possibly make its way, and which it has Thus one cubic centimetre of milk as sent into the market coano jaws to bite through."
tained 1000 such micro-organisms, whilst in a single gram sf We learn from the Agricultural Journal, issued by the
garden soil as many as 140,000 were found. Large numbers
such bacteria were also present in sea-water obtained from the Department of Agriculture at Cape Colony, that much atten.
North Sea, and they were also found on the surface of frest tion is being given there to questions connected with the fruit
water fish as well as in their alimentary tract. It is well koon export trade. The department is in correspondence with the steamship companies with a view to securing every possible
that to successfully preserve meat and other articles of lood encouragement to the trade, which is expected to be taken up
is necessary to employ a much lower temperature than o' C.
and experience has further shown that this is best done when on a considerable scale this year. Replying to inquiries on the
the atmosphere is deprived of all moisture, as is accomplished subject, the Castle Mail Packets Company announce that they
by the compression and subsequent expansion of the size will give every publicity to the rates of freight to be charged and the stowage arrangements, &c.
enclosed spaces. Haddocks imported from Norway and thres
The Company will also concede a somewhat lower rate for the less remunerative fruits
artificially frozen were examined by Forster for bacteria. Thes
fish were first killed and then exposed to a temperature of fros carried in the cool chambers, and will reserve a cool and well
20° to 40° below o° C, until they became perfectly hard and ventilated part of the vessel for conveyance of fruit as ordinary
stiftly frozen, when they were removed to a cold chamber in cargo. Careful instructions have been issued to captains of the
which the temperature varied from 8° to 15° below oo C. Company's vessels in regard to the stowage and carriage of
spite of the extremely low temperature to which these fish bed fruit.
been subjected, on examining them when still hard frozes, a DR. THEODORE MAXWELL has issued a useful catalogue of considerable number of bacteria were found in the abdominal Russian medical dissertations and other works he has collected cavity which had been opened when the fish was killed. It u and presented to the Royal College of Surgeons of England. obvious that during the interval which elapsed between the In order that the dissertations may be of service to students killing of the fish and their transference to the freezing chamber, who do not read Russian, he has indicated the nature of bacteria must have been able to gain access, but had not had each work in English, and has given references to such abstracts time to multiply to any considerable extent before the fish was in the Lancet or elsewhere as he has himself made or happens frozen. Forster points out, what is sufficiently apparent, thai to be acquainted with.
the packing of samples of water in ice when sent from a distance
or bacteriological examination to prevent the multiplication of branching dark lines. They are too wide for rivers, but may be micro-organisms present, is really of very little if any use at
indicate their courses. (8) Scattered over the surface of the II. Thus it was already shown several years ago by Percy
planet, chiefly on the side opposite to the two seas, we have "rankland that the bacteria in filtered Thames water were able
sound a large number of minute black points. They occur almost > multiply extensively, even when preserved for some days in
without exception at the junctions of the canals with one
another and with the shaded portions of the planet. refrigerator.
They range from thirty to one hundred miles in diameter, and THE additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the
in some cases are smaller than tbe canals in which they are ast week include a Biltern (Botaurus stellaris), European, pre
situated. Over forty of them have been discovered, and for con
venience we have termed them lakes. ented by Lord Ilchester, F.Z.S. ; two Hamsters (Cricetus
The heights of some of the clouds were found to be not less ruomentarius), British, presented by Miss Pugh; two Alligators than twenty miles, and indirect observations have led to the Alligator's mississippiensis), from Florida, presented by Master conclusion tha: the density of the atmosphere of the planet is Williams ; a Common Snipe (Gallinago cælestis), British, pur
less ihan that at the surface of the earth, but probably not as based.
much as ten times less.
Prof. Pickering is of opinion that the opposition of 1894 will
be quite as valuable to observers as that of 1892, the distance OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
being but little greater, while the planet will be much farther COMET HOLMES (NOVEMBER 6, 1892).- The following is a
north, and there is less likelihood of the surface being so much
obscured by clouds as during the recent opposition, pontinuation of Herr Berberich's ephemeris of this comet, the places being for Berlia, midnight :RA.
Decl. Logr. Log a. h. m. s.
GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES Jan.
50 ... +33 479 ... 0-4119 ... O‘3400 An interesting illustration of the rapid development of 9 59 ... 40 4
South Africa is given by the recent appointment of a magis45'0
trate to reside near Lake Ngami to protect the interests of ... 12 18 ... 437
white traders, aud enforce the laws restricting the sale of liquor 13 30 ... 426 ... 0'4143 ... 0'3516
and ammunition to the natives. The comet is now near to and south following B Andromeda.
The January nunber of the Geographical Journal, the new Reports from various Observatories state that the comet is now
form of the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, very dim.
contains a paper and map of some importance by Mr. A. P. COMET BROOKS (NOVEMBER 20, 1892). —This comet is now Harper, descriptive of the central part of the Southern Alps of travelling very quickly. The ephemeris for Berlin, midnight, New Zealand. Government surveyors have been sent for is continued below :
several seasons to map out the glaciers, and an effort is being R.A. Decl. Logr. Log A. Br.
made by thoroughly exploring and mapping the region to make h. m. S.
it the Switzerland of the southern hemisphere in the estimation Jan. 5 ... 18 29 40 +66 5'4 ... O'0805 ... 9:8562 ... 7.82 of tourists, as it is already by virtue of its fine mountain 6 - 19 0 49 ... 136
systems. 7 ... 19 31 22 ... 65 59'2
An important paper on the physical conditions of the waters Ś ... 20 o 22 ... 246 ... O'0806 ... 9.8651 ... 7-49
of the English Channel is published by Mr. H. N. Dickson 9 ... 20 27 8 ... 64 324
in the new number of the Scottish Geographical Magazine, 10 ... 20 51 19 +63 26'0 ... 0'0811 ... 9.8781 .. 701
He shows how the ebb and flow of The tides in the The unit of brightness is taken as that at midnight on Channel is affected by the characteristic form of the main November 21.
feature of the coast-line, viz. bays with the western side runThe track of the comet lies near the pole of the ecliptic, in
ning nearly from south to north, turning at a sharp angle, and the constellation Draco.
lying open to the east. The circulation of the water and its THE SPECTRUM OF COMET HOLMES. --The spectrum of the
temperature were found to be largely determined by these concomet appears to have been continuous without any trace of ditions. bright bands. At South Kensington it appeared to have its MR. COLEs gave a successful lecture to young people in the brightest part near the chief carbon fluting (1 517), but there hall of the University of London, on Friday last, covering was nothing which could be described as a line or fluting. As the first half of his subject, “ All the World Over," in a very might be expected, there was a brighter continuous spectrum interesting way. Anecdotes of personal adventure combined from the nucleus. The same result was obtained by Mr. with exceptionally fine limelight views of scenery to give a vivid Campbell at the Lick Observatory, and by Prof. Keeler at the impression of the regions touched upon. The second and last Alleglieny Observatory. The latter observer remarks that the juvenile lecture, under the authority of the Royal Geographical spectrum is just what we should expect is the comet shines Society, will be given on Friday, January 6, at 4 p.m. entirely by reflected sunlight.
The Royal Scottish Geographical Society announces a course THE RECENT OPPOSITION OF Mars.--In the December
of educational lectures in continuation of those delivered by gomber of Astronomy and Astro Physics, Prof. W. H. Picker
Prof. J. Geikie and Dr. H. R. Mill last year. The new course ing summarizes the conclusions derived from the observations of
will be on the Geographical Distribution of Animals, hy Mr. J. Mars at Arequipa as follows: (1) That the polar caps are clearly
Arı hur Thomson, who is at present delivering the Thomson distinct in appearance from the cloud formations, and are not to ! Lectures at Aberdeen. The Society has also provided two be confounded wi h them. (2) That clouds undoubtedly exist
| special lectures to young people, by Prof. C. G. Knott, on upon the planet, differing, however, in some respects from those Life in Japan, and by Mr. Graham Kerr on his recent travels upon the earth, chiefly as regards their density and whiteness.
in South America. (3) There are two permanently dark regions upon the planet, which under favourable circumstances appear blue, and are pre
We understand that a book of travel in Madagascar and sumably due to water. (4) Certain other portions of the surlace
Africa, by Mrs. Colvile, F.R.G.S., describing the observations of the planet are undoubtedly subject to gradual changes of
of the authoress on a recent extensive tour, will shortly be pubcolour, not to be explained hy clouds. (5) Excepting the two
| lished by Messrs. Blackwood. very dark regions referred to above, all of the shaded regions MR. 1. W. GREGORY, assistant in the Geological Department upon the planet have at times a greenish tint. At other times of the British Museum, has joined as naturalist the sporting they appear absolutely colourless. Clearly marked green regions expedition of Lieutenant Villiers and others, which is on the are sometimes seen near the poles. (6) Numerous so-called point of starting up the Juba. From Bardera, the head of navi. canals exist upon the planet, substantially as drawn by Prof. gation, the party will traverse unknown regions to Lake Rudolf, Schiaparelli. Some of them are only a few miles in breadth. and from there attempt 10 cross in a north-easterly direction, No striking instances of duplication have been seen at this oppo- through the Galla country and Somaliland to Berbera, on the sition. (7) Through the shaded regions run certain curved | Gulf of Aden.
THE INTERNATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL CON
A BOTANIST'S VACATION IN THE GRESS AT MOSCOW.
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. THE International Zoological Congress held its second session THE new number of the American Botanical Garette vel
in Moscow during the month of August last, and with xvii., No. 12) contains the first part of a paper in het most commendable zealihe committee, to whose care the editing D. H. Camphell, descriling his experiences during a vacaia and publishing of the men oirs read were committed, now publish | spent last summer in the Hawaiian Islands. We reprint ou the first part of the volume of its Proceedings. This part is following passage :printed in royal octavo size, and contains 350 pages, with several illustrations. All the merroirs are in French, thirteen out of On awakening upon the seventh day out, and looking throug the 1otal thirty having been translated from, it is presumed, the port-hole of my state-room, I saw that we were sailing wa Russian. In the first section, that of questions concerning land. Rugged barren looking hills were seen ; and, going upe biology and systematic and faunistic zoology from a general deck, I learned that this was Oahu, the island upon ako standpoint-there are three papers. J. de Kennel replies to the Honolulu is situated. As we skirted the shore at a distance, queries of Prof. L. Cosmovici : (1) On a definite arrangement soon spied a grove of unmistakable cocoa palms, the first of ihe animal kingdom in “Phyla"; (2) is there a type of ihe iropical vegetation to which I was soon to be introduced " Vermes"? (3) on a uniform terminology of the secretory Beyond was the bold promontory of Di mond Head, an eng organs of worms. Ch. Girard on some points of nomenclature. volcanic crater, forming a great bowl with rugged sides, right J. de Bédriaga on introduced species, and on hybrids, reptilian at the water's edge. Beyond this, and bounded partly by t_1 and amphibian. In Section 11.—the same subjects from a special the bay upon whose shores stands the city. Back of it te standpoint-there are twelve papers:-P. N. Boutchinsky, on ihe abruptly a chain of mountains, in places about three thousand Black Sea sauna ; relers to a report on invertebrates of the Bay feet above sea level, and surrowed by deep valleys, whose wat of Sebastopol by Péréîaslavtzeva, who records 639 forms found. as well as the cloud-capped summits of ihe hills, were covered He describes three zones : (1) from the surface to a depth of 175 | with the most wonderfully verdant vegetation. Never been feet; (2) from 175 to 280 feet in depth, with a minimum tem had I realized the possibilities of green. Blue greens, pero perature of 6-7° C.; and (3) from 280 to 700 feet, with greens, gray greens, and positive greens, with all degrees a slightly higher temperature than in the previous zone, these and others that are indescribable, combined to loro v 8-9° C. From a depih of 700 feet the waier contains a Whistler would term a symphony in green. quantity, more or less large, of sulphureted hydrogen, the As if to vie with the colours of the mountains, the sea quantiy notably increasing with the depth. T. J. Van- hibited an equally wonderful variety of tints. Outside the Beneden gives a note on ihe living and extinct Ceiacea of harbour is a coral reef, and within this the water is of the pa the same sea. Gr. Kojevnikov gives an account of the sauna green common to shallow ocean water ; but outside it deeper of the eastern Baltic based on many recent explorations. Dr. very rapidly into the vivid blue of the open ocean. Free ! J. de Bédriaga treats of European and circum-mediterranean distance the line is clearly seen; but, as the observer approaches vipers. C. Grévé has a paper on the geographical distribution shore, the water changes from deep blue through every shaded of the Carnivores, and T. Richard, one on the geographical dis blue and green until the pale green of the water within 3 tribution of the Cladocerous crustacea. H. de Jhering makes harbour is reached. some observations on insects' nests made of clay, Prof. A. As we approached land numbers of the queer outrigger caso Brandt gives a classification of animal variations according to of the natives were met, and from the wharf boys jumped in their causation. Prof. A. Milne Edwards and E. L. Bouvier the water and swam about the ship in the hope of persuar give a most interesting account of the varieties and distribution some of the passengers to throw over to them coins, which t* of Parapagurus pilosimanus, S. T. Smith. A table with the were very skilful in diving for. comparative measurements of forty-two specimens, is appended. On the way to the hotel a few gardens were passed, and P. abyssorum and var. scabır, are reduced to the first named them everything was strange. By far the most striking the species. F. Vejdovsky desi ribes Thuricola gruberi, n. sp., and was the superb Poinciana regia. Alihough I had never ses Monodontophrya longissime, gen. et sp. nov., the former from a his before I recognized it in an instant from a descriptical stream near Budenbach, ihe latter in the alimentary tract and Charles Kingsley's, read long ago. Surely in the whole se body cavily of Rhynchelmis limosella, Holm. In a short note table kingdom there is no more splendid plani. A sprezan Dr. J. de Bédriaga calls atiention to some differences between flat-topped tree, per haps thirty feet high, with fear berygtes Chalcides simonyi, Sieind., and C. viridanus, which forms acacia-like foliage and immense flat clusters of big fasa Boulenger and Steindacher have proposed to unite, and thinks scarlet flowers that almost completely hide the leaves so ** thai Molge luschani, Sieind., neither belongs to Molge nor to the tree looks like an immense bouquet. They were in te Salamander, but 10 a European and American genus, not prime about the time of my arrival in Honolulu, and continuar however named by him.
to flower more or less for the next six weeks. Pretiy had The Third section contains eight papers on histology and everything in Honolulu, except the cocoaputs and an ecce embryology. N. Kholodovski, contributions to a mesoderm haw tree (Paritium tiliaceum) is planted ; but people seen and metamere theory. A. Ptitzine, note on the formation vie with each other in seeing how many different kinds of plan of the germ of the peripheric nervous system. V. Roudnev, they can grow, and the result is that the place is like one | note on the development of the cardiac endothelium in botanical garden. To Dr. Hillebrand this is said to be lungo Amphibians. Mme. Ó. Tikhomirova, on the development of due, as he was one of the first to introduce foreign 09 Chrysopa perla. Fr. Vejdovsky, on the segmentation of the mental plants, and his place, which is kept much as 14 15 ovum and the formation of the blastoderm in the Pseudo the time he left the islands, was a very remarkable collecsa scorpiones, and on a rudimentary organ in the same. N. useful and ornamental plants from the warm. regions of a Koulaguine, contribution towards the history of the parasitic the whole globe. hymenoptera. A. Tin homirov, value of embryological research Probably the first thing that strikes the traveller from for classification, Section IV., phy:iology :-C. Khvorostansky, cooler regions is the great variety and numher of pales on the luminosity of animals from ihe White Sea.
these the beautiful royal palm (Oreodoxa regia) is easi In Section V., devoted to morphology and comparative anatomy, I With its smooth columnar trunk, looking as if it had been L. Cosnovici writes as to the purport of the "aquilerous system,” | turned, encircled with regular ring-shaped leal-scars, and “segmentary organs," "excretory organs," and “nephridia.” crown of plumy green leaves, it well deserves its name. H. de Jhering, on the presence or absence of an excretory characteristic palms are various species of belel palms (Aza apparaius in the genital organs of the metazoa. P. Mitrophanov, wine palm (Caryota), sugar palm (Arenga), and a great nule on ihe melameric significance of the cranial nerves. N. 1 of fan-palms of different genera. None is more beautta Nassonov, on the position of the Strepsiptera in the animal a thriliy young cocoa palm, but unfortunately it is very system, according to the facts of post-embryonal development in the Hawaiian Islands 10 lhe ravages of some insect what and of anatomy. A. O. Kovalevsky, on the excretory organs the leaves and often renders them brown and unsightly. I of the terrestrial Arthropods. N. Zograf, on the origin and it is almost impossible to find a specimen which is pa* part niage of the Arthropods, more especially the tracheal bear. | less disfigured by This post. The trunk of the covoarel ing forms,
usually more or less ciooked, and in old specimens much more or its thickness, so that the old trees look top-heavy. The date duct has enjoyed practically a monopoly of the American alm Aourishes in Honolulu, where it is quite dry, but does not market, having been admitted by treaty free of duty. o so well in the wetter parts of the islan is.
I made several trips up the valleys back of the city, but owing On studying the other rees, one is struck at once by the great to the almost constant rain in many of them, these were not reponderance of Leguminosa, especially Cæsalpineæ and always agreeable. However, one is richly repaid by the Limosex. All about the town, and growing very rapidly, is luxuriance and variety of the vegetation. For a mile or two we ne algaruba (Prosopis juliflora), a very graceful tree of rapid pass between grass-covered hills, or hills overgrown in places cow'h, with fine bipinnate leaves and sweetish yellow pods,
with the lantana, which, introduced as an ornamental plant, bas hich animals are very fond of, and which are used extensively become a great pest. This plant covers some of the hills with r folder. Add to this that the tree now forms the principal | an absolutely impassable thicket, and spreads very rapidly, so Epply of fuel for Honolulu and we can realize its full value. that it is a serious problem what is to be done with it. Of ther le zuminous trees that are planted are the monkey-pod the common roadside plants, an orange and yellow milk. Pithecolobium samang), tamarind, various species of Bauhinia weed and the showy white Argemone Mexicana were the ad Cathartocarpus. One species of the latter with great most conspicuous. As one proceeds farther, where more Fooping bunches of golden yellow flowers and enormous / moisture prevails, the variety becomes larger. Thickets of lindrical pods three or four feet long, rivals the Poinciana Canna and a Clerodendron with double rosy-white flowers, are hen in full fower.
common, and the curious screw.pine (Pandanus odoratissimus) Mingled with these are a great number of shrubs and trees is occasionally seen. This latter is a very characteristic plant, th showy flowers or leaves, most of them more or less familiar but is much more abuudant in some of the oiher islands. the stranger, either from pictures or from green-house speci. In this region some very showy species of Ipomoea are very ens. Several species of Musa are grown, and when sheltered common, among them the well-known moon-flower, 1. bona nox. om the wind are most beautiful; but ordinarily the leaves are With the increase in moisture, as might be expected, the rn into rags by the wind. The tall and graceful M. sapientium
mosses and ferns increase in number and beauty. There are Ei been largely supplanted by the much less beatiful Chinese many of them of types quite different from those of the United nana, M. Cavendishii, which is short and stumpy in growth, States. One of the commonest ferns of the lower elevation in at enormously prolific. The related traveller's tree (Ravenala Microlepia tenuifolia, a very graceful fern with finely divided aidagascariensis), is a common and striking feature of many leaves and terminal sori. Species of Vittaria, with very long awaiian gardens. Of the many showy i wering shrubs, the i undivided leaves, are also common here. autiful Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis is one of the commonest, and As we ascend one of the commonest ferns is Sadleria nised extensively for hedges. One of the most striking hedges
cyatheoides, a very large fern, often more or less arborescent. the city, however, is the fam vus one at Puna Hou college, Ascending still higher the number and variety of serns increases nich is soo seet long and composed of nighi-blooming cereus.
rapidly, and many beautiful and interesting ferns and mosses vas not fortunate enough to see this when it was in full flower, and liverworts become common. I saw a photograph of it when it was estimated that there
At about one thousand feet elevation we begin to meet re about 8000 flowers at one time.
with species of Cibotium, to which genus belong the largest of of the fruit trees ordinarily grown, the following may be men
the tree ferns of the islands. Here, also, I met for the first time ped. The mingo is a very handsome tree with dense dark
with the smallest of all the ferns I have ever seen, Trichomanes een foliage and masses of yellow and reddish fruit on long ' pusillum. This dainty little fera, one of the Hymenophyll iceæ, nging stalks. The bread fruit tree is common, both cultivated forms dense mats on rocks and tree-trunks, looking like a deli1 wild, and is a very beautiful tree of moderate size, with cate moss. The full-grown frond is fan shaped, and, with its ves looking like immense fig-leaves, and the fruit like a large
stalk, is not more than half an inch high. These tiny leaves, ge orange. I saw no ripe fruit, and so had not an oppor. nevertheless, in many cases bore sporangia. ity of testing its quality. Guavas of different varieties are Femely cominon, both wild and cultivated, and the various
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES. Ets of the whole citrus tribe grow well. The few specimens emperate fruits were, for the most part, much inferior to
LONDON, se of the United States. Of the fruits that did not strike my Royal Society, December 8.—“ Preliminary Account of cy, at least at first, was the alligator pear (Persea gralissima), the Nephridia and Body Cavity of the Larva of Palamonetes og green or purple pear-shaped fruit with an immense single varians.” By Edgar J. Allen, B.Sc., University College, d. The pulp is somewhat waxy in consistence and very oily. London. Communicated by Prof. W. F. R. Weldon, F.R.S. s eaten as a salad, and very much relished by the islanders, The Green Gland, in a larva of Pa'amonetes which is a few the taste is acquired. The curious papaya (Carica papaya) days old, consists of an end-sac, which communicates by means nother fruit which did not appeal to my palate. Its big of a U-shaped tube with a very short ureter, opening at ihe base ge fruit, not online a melon in appearance when cut open. of the second antenna. At the time of hatching, the gland a peculiar " squashy" favour that suggested it having been consists of a solid mass of cells, without a lumen. In later stages - a day too long.
the tube of the gland enlarges to form the bladder. The enany showy climbers are planted, some of which, like larged bladders of the two sides subsequently meet and fuse in banotis, Thunbergia and Allamanda are -uperb ; but there the middle dorsal line, forming the nephroperitoneal sac described e that is particularly obnoxious in colour, Bougainvillea, by Weldon and Marchal. e inagenta Aoral-bracts are an offence to the eye, forming a The Shell Gland is found in late embryos and young larvæ act of raw colour. It looks, as some one observed, as if it of Palamonetes. It consists of a short renal tube, with a conu«t come from a chemical baih.
siderable lumen, which communicates internally with an endsoon as one gets fairly away from the city, it is at once sac, and opens externally at the base of the second maxilla. hat all the luxuriant vegetation is strange. Along the Sections through the anterior region of the thorax of Palapre is a plain gradually ri-ing into low hills, both almost monetes show that the body cavity may be divided into four ute of irees, except here and there a few cucoa palms along regions : a dorsal sac, surrounded by a definite epithelium, in ore. On the strictly littoral plants among the most con which the cephalic aorta lies, but which does not itself coniain bus is the curious I pomæa pes-capra, with deeply two-cleft blood ; a central cavily, containing liver, intestine, and nerveand purplish pink Auwers. lo che fertile lowlands near
cord ; two lateral cavities, containing the proximal ends of the a are the principal cane and rice helds, which with taro shell glands; and fourthly, the cavities of the limbs, which cone staple crops. The rice is cultivated entirely hy Chinese, tain the distal ends of the same organs. Inolulu ; but on the sugar plantations the Japanese are In late embryos of Palæmoneles solid masses of cells lie upon
einployed. To see a Chinese laboriously transplanting either side of the cephalic aorta. The dorsal sac is formed by sandiuls of rice into straight rows, or ploughing in ihe mud the hollowing out of ihese masses of cells. Two lateral cavities her with a primitive plough drawn by a queer Chinese are thus formed, which are separated by the aorta. The proto
are sights very fireign to a. American eye. Sugar cane plasm of the cells lining these cavities, which is at first gathered Dently productive in the islands, and, hitherto, bas proved | into masses around the nuclei, then spreads out into a thin in suurce of revenue ; but now ihe Ilawaiians are bewail sheet, drawing away from the lower portion of the aorta, and
de session caused hy the free admission of sugar from causing the two lateral cavities to unite ventrally, and so form a countries into the United States ; as, hitherto, their pro. single sac.
In the posterior region of the thorax the central and lateral pale bluish-violet fluorescence, Aint glass a strong blue, and croa cavities are similar to those of the anterior region, whilst dorsal glass a very brilliant blue fluorescence. (11) Substances whid to them the pericardial chamber lies. This chamber is separated are not fluorescent in strong solutions may become so on dilutica from the central body cavity by the pericardial septum. The | particularly if they exert a very powerful absorption of the ultra genital organs are situated immediately below the front end of violet or invisible spectrum,- The origin of colour, v. coloured this septum.
hydrocarbons and 'Auorescence : a reply to Prof. Hartley A comparison with the body cavity of Peripatus suggests the observations on the origin of colour and of Auorescence, by ! following relations. In the anterior region of the thorax of E. Armstrong. If attention be paid to visibly.coloured organ Palamonetes the dorsal sac is homologous with the dorsal por substances, it is a most remarkable fact that in those case tions of the mesoblastic somites of Peripatus, and its cavily is a which the "constitution” is fairly well established colore true colom. The central and lateral cavities, together with substances are found to be all of one type. The author som the cavities of the legs, represent the pseudocole. In the from this basis to inquire whether all coloured organic mate posterior region of the thorax the cavities are all pseudocoelomic, stances are not similar in type. Hartley's remark that 1 and agree with those of the adult Peripatus.
organic colouring matters are endothermic compounds has it December 15.-" Preliminary Note on the Relation of the
importance in the present connection, inasmuch as the contex Ungual Coriuin to the Periosteum of the Ungual Phalanx." By
does not hold. The author contends that before admitting the F. A. Dixey, M.A., M.D., Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford.
fluorescence of many substances, e.g. alcohol and its homologs Communicated by E. A. Schäfer, F.R.S.
every precaution must be taken to ensure their purity; instanci
in which easy explanation of the fluorescence of cere Chemical Society, December 1.-Prof. A. Crum Brown, substances is possible are given. Hartley's observation te President, in the chair.- The following papers were read : anthracene is coloured strongly confirms the author's hypothes The isolation of two predicted hydrates of nitric acid, by S. U. Anthracene is fluorescent, and may be represented by a quinoa Pickering. The author announces the isolation of two crystalline formula, whilst its isomeride phenanthrene, which cannot be hydrates of nitric acid: the monohydrate and the trihydrate, melt- ! represented, is colourless and non-fluorescent. Furtherne: ing at 36.8° and - 18 2° degrees respectively. In the case of whilst intense colour is produced by "weighting" what either the melting point is lowered by ihe addition of acid or author terms the “ quinonoid radicles” of anthracene bf # water. The existence of these compounds was foreseen from | placing the central hydrogen atoms by a halogen, no such an examination of the curves plotted from Bertholet and Thom. attends the similar treatment of phenanthrene, dibromophen sen's heat of dissolution values. This result is an important ihrene being colourless like the hydrocarbon. And yet une confirmarion of the author's views.-Anhydrous oxalic acid, by quinone and phenanthraquinone are coloured yellow and les W. W. Fisher. The best method of obtaining crystallized orange respectively. Reference is made to other colour anhydrvus oxalic acid is by allowing the hydrated acid to remain hydrocarbons, viz. carotin and the red hydrocarbon, C5 in contact with concentrated sulphuric acid for some months in recently investigated by Graebe. The formula assigned to s a sealed glass tube. Oxalic acid is soluble in about 30 parts latter by Graebeof cold sulphuric acid ; the anhydrous acid dissolves with ab. sorption of heat, whilst the reverse is the case with the hydrated aciit. Anhydrous oxalic acid may be crystallized from nitric
CH acid of sp. gr. 1'5. Oxalic acid may be completely dehydrated in a vacuum at 60°; the anhydrous acid is soluble in ethyl
-is an improbable one ; such a substance would be colours
is an imore oxalate or glacial acetic acid, and separates from these solvents
The author gives a possible constitu'ion, and, for the price in a powdery form.-The production of orcinol and other conden-ation products from dehydracetic “ acid," by N. Collie
proposes to call the compound “erythrophene." The yelse and W. S. Myers. The authors have obtained orcinol by the
hydrocarbon, CX6118, obtained together with this, is possil action of barium hydrate on dehydracetic "acid” or di
diphenyla ed anthracene, and may be termeil "xanthopbe] methylpyrone ; on boiling a mixture of syrupy caustic soda and
The “quinonoid radicles” in both hydrocarbons are bem
| "weighted,” hence their strong colour. With references dehydracetic “acid," a true carboxylic acid is first produced, Harvey's statement that a very little shifting of the regio and. losing carbonic anhydride, yields orcinol. Among the absorption determines the presence or absence of colour pro lucts of the interaction of barium hydrate and diacetylacetone bright yellow needles melting at 180-181° are found ; these
compound, it is contended that this shifting may be du
special character of structure. The author then explains probably consist of a naphthalene derivative C,H,Oz. Amidodehydracetic “ acid," ohtained in long needles melling at 192
views as to the manner in which the “quin noid mechansa
conditious colvur. He suggests that in quinonoid compus 196°, by the action of strong ammonium hydrate on dehydracetic
there are two “colour cent es "cirresponsing to and esper - acid," readily yields dehydracetic“ acid,” on acid or alkaline
by the symbol in formulæ such as he has used in represel hydrolysis.-Ob-ervations on the origin of colour and on fuor.
coloured substances. These centres co-operate in proch escence, by W. N. Hartley. It cannot be stayed in general terms
colour through interaction of the light waves which tru that colour is due to special methods of atomic arrangement ; the
them. Substances in which there are no such co-opera statement may, however, be applied in a restricted sense to certain organic compounds, especially to those included in the
centres may absorb generally and selectively in "ultra
"infra " regions of the spectrum, but without exhibiting ** class to which organic dye-stuffs belong. It is pointed out that
colour.”—The origin of colour, vi. azobenzene, by all open chain hydrocarbons exert a continuous absorption, the
Armstrong. Azobenzene, a highly-coloured subsians extent of which depends on the nu nber of carbon atoms in the molecule. The condition of strain and instability existing in
generally represented as Ph.N: N.Ph, a formula in disa
with the author's hypothesis explained in ihe preceding many coloured substances has been remarked by Armstrong ;
Moreover, the formulæ usually attributed to the colourles the author points out that all organic colouring matters are
salts (Ph. N:N.CI, for example) represent them as camp endothermic compounds, and considers this to be the physical cause of what Armstrong terms “reactivity" or "high potential."
| in constitution with azobenzene. The behaviour of azo. It is shon that anthracene is not cilourless, but has a true
towards bromine and other reagen's leads the author 16
the correctness of the conventional formula assigned to greenish-yellow colour in addition to its Auorescence. A num.
to consider the following a more probable one :ber of experiments on Auorescence are detailed, and the following conclusions drawn from them :-(1) Alcoholic solutions of quinine exhibit a beautiful, bright violet fluorescence. (2)
EN-N= Hydrochloric acid is not fluorescent. (3 and 4) Quinine hydro
H chí vride and chloroform are seehly Ruorescent, but without distinct colour. (5) Both hydrochloric acid and chloroform can extinguish those rays which are the cause of Auorescence in quinine. (6) Some alkaloids may be recognized by the degree - The reduction products of dimethyldiacetylpentane, and colour of their fuorescence. (7' Normal alcohols of the Kipping. The author shows that dimethyldiacetylpesa ethylic series and the fatty acids are fluorescent. (8) Glycerol diketune produced by the hydrolysis of ethyl dimethy has a violet Aluorescence. (9) Benzene 'has a pale blue Huor pimelate is converted by reduction with sodium in escence, azo senzene a greenish-blue. (10) Rock crystal has a ethereal solution into dimethyldibydroxynonane and a co