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e restorations. As an example of how a restoration British Museum (Natural History), handed on to the ald not be made, we may instance the figure of Stego unlearned as representing the best available classificaus ungulatus (p. 104), in which the management of tion. On page 75, the author introduces a restored limbs is out of harmony with the evidences of the skeleton of Megalosaurus, which is attributed to Prof. scular structure of the tail, and the supra-vertebral | Marsh. The skeleton certainly is not referable to Mega-1. The restoration of the Scelidosaurus from the losaurus, which never has the pubic bones or the ilium s of England is unsatisfactory. There is no better constructed as in the figure. The restoration has been und for giving a kangaroo-like position to that animal previously used in Nicholson and Lydekker's “Palæon

there would be for drawing Teleosaurus in the same tology," and in Dr. Woodward's "Handbook to the ition. The mobility of the neck as drawn is aston Geological Department of the British Museum,"but we do ng.

not remember any published authorization for the use of "he restorations of mammals are happier. The sub Prof. Marsh's name as authority for confounding Megalos diverge less from existing types. And probably the saurus with the allied American type. st successful in the volume is the spirited restoration Another example of the same kind of interpretation Sivatherium giganteum from the Sivalic Hills, though occurs in dealing with Stegosaurus. It is said to have : Glyptodon and Irish Deer are meritorious.

been proved that bones to which the name Omosaurus n the text the author is generally content with telling has been applied really belong to Stegosaurus, and that

story of the history of science; but he sometimes an unnecessary name has been disposed of. The ground:


The four-horned extinct Mammal Sivatherium giganteum. The animal on the left is Heladotherium.

strays into less safe matter. Thus an account is given of on which this determination is made, not being stated the eye of the Ichthyosaurus. And it is urged that the need not concern us now ; but it is undesirable that a bony plates exercised a pressure on the eyeball, so as to popular work, whose main merit is that it does not premake the eye more convex, and improve the definition of tend to teach the facts of science, should appear to enunnear objects. The study of sclerotic defences does not ciate judgments on scientific problems. Having desupport this interpretation ; and in at least one generic scribed the immense enlargement of the spinal cord in division of the Ichthyosauria the sclerotic plates do not the sacral region of Stegosaurus, the author remarks :overlap at all, but join each other by their lateral sutural | “ So this anomalous monster had two sets of brains-one margins.

in its skull, and the other in the region of its haunches ! It is perhaps unfortunate that the author gives cur- and the latter in directing the movements of the huge rency to nomenclature and classification of the terrestrial hind limbs and tail did a large part of the work.” Retypes of saurians which may not always prevail. If the marks of this character are sure to be misunderstood, genera with a bird-like type of pelvis are terrestrial repre-i are out of place and incorrect. sentatives of birds, and the genera with a reptilian The author has read much, and shown an excellent type of pelvis are terrestrial wingless representa capacity for quotation, but has not always succeeded in tives of Pierodactyls, then it may not be an advan- using the newest results. He has conscientiously tage to have the Dinosaurs treated as a homogeneous endeavoured to tell the story which is contained in his group, or the divisions adopted by Prof. Marsh, or in the quotations, but beyond this he does not pretend, except in the occasional use of supposed scientific principles following proportionate result for seven points in as a means of accounting for facts of animal structure. normal spectrum, whose wave-lengths correspond He has dealt with a subject of great difficulty with proximately with those of the ordinary colour divise commendable clearness, and will interest readers who where unity is the amount of energy required to make would be unable to follow a more technical exposition of see light in the extreme red of the spectrum near A extinct types of life.

H. G. S. where the six preceding wave-lengths given correspa

approximately to the six colours, violet, blue, green, z

orange, red. ENERGY AND VISION.

Colour Violet! Blue Green | Yellow Orange, Rodica

Wave length 400 470 5 30 580 60 60 THE interesting researches of Prof. S. P. Langley on Luminosity 1600 | 62.000 100.000 28.000 1 14.097 iz!

energy and vision have recently been published in the Memoirs of the American National Academy of

It appears from this that the same amount of ex Sciences. From this we gather that he was led to in

may produce at least 100,000 times the visual effecar vestigate the question by the fact that it was not generally

colour of the spectrum that it does in another. recognized how totally different effects may be produced

If now it be inquired what the actual value of a by the same amount of energy in different parts of the

in ordinary measure, we are able to give this also en spectrum. Two series of experiments were necessary,

fair approximation, and to say that the vis-vira da the first to determine the amount of energy in each ray,

waves whose length is 7500 (tenth metres) being as the second to observe the corresponding visual effect.

by the ordinary retina, represents work done inca The energy was determined as heat by the use of the

rise to the sensation of the deepest red light of 2 bolometer, the heat dispersed by a prism being very

To'oof of an erg in one-half second. nearly proportionate to the energy. In the second series of experiments a beam of sun

NOTES. light from a siderostat passes through a small hole in a darkened room and falls on a slit with a standard width | The Prince of Wales has consented to become Chars of o'i mm. It is then received on a collimating lens of the Committee for the memorial of the late Sir Richard' 119 centimetres aperture and 755 centimetres focal length, and to preside at a meeting to further the object, whio si. after which it passes through a prism of about 60° re held in the rooms of the Royal Society, Burlington Hoe fracting angle. The spectrum thus formed is reflected | Saturday the 21st inst athi

Saturday, the 21st inst., at half-past eleven o'clock. Az and brought to a focus on a second slit of one millimetre

will be by tickets, which may be obtained from : * aperture by a concave mirror, any particular colour being

Sladen, Linnean Society, Burlington House, W. (who is adjusted on the slit by a rotation of the prism. This

as secretary to the Committee), or from Mr. H. Ris, second slit is screened from all possible stray light by a dark curtain, and is used as a source of illumination for

secretary of the Royal Society. a series of numbers from a table of logarithms, which is The annual general meeting of the Royal Meteor attached to a sliding screen. The greatest distance from Society will be held at 25, Gre at George-street, Westes the slit at which the figures could be distinctly read was

on Wednesday, the 18th instant, at 7.15 p.m., when the then determined, and the law of inverse squares applied.

of the Council will be read, the election of officers ands For the brighter colours of the spectrum, the light enter

for the ensuing year will take place, and the Presiden: ing the first slit was reduced by an adjustable photometer

Theodore Williams) will deliver an address on "T wheel. Actinometric measures were made during the progress

Altitudes of Colorado and their Climates," which will of the photometric observations, and showed a solar

trated by a number of lantern slides. This meeting radiation of 1'5 calories per square centimetre per minute ; | preceded by an ordinary meeting, which will be this naturally being an essential unit.

7 p.m. The energy necessary to give the bare impression of The general meeting of the Association for the Impo luminosity in different parts of the spectrum, expressed

| of Geometrical Teaching is to be held at University Cin terms of horse-power, was found to be roughly as

Gower Street, W.C., on Saturday, January 14. to follows, the minimum visibile being defined as the feeblest

Taylor in the chair. At the morning sitting 11 light which is observed to vanish and reappear when silently occulted and restored without the knowledge of

the report of the Council will be read, the new officers the observer :-

elected, and several candidates will be proposed for dec Horse-power.

members of the Association. After the conclusion of the Violet (1 400) .... O'000000 000000 00018000 business Mıs. Bryant will give "A Model Ls Green (1 550)

0'000000 0.0000 00000075 Geometry, as a Basis for Discussion." After an ad Scarlet (1 650) ... O'000000 000000 0001 7000 Crimson (1 750) ... O'000000 000000 34000000

for luncheon at ip.m. members will re-assemble (2 * |

hear papers by Mr. G. Heppel on "The Use of These values were derived from observations made by in Teaching Mathematics," and Mr. F. E. Marta a single observer, Mr. F. W. Very, and are, of course, “ The Teaching of Elementary Arithmetic." Mers subject to a large percentage of error.

wish to have any special matter brought forward at the The general results of the investigation may be best

meeting, but who are unable to attend, are requested: summarized in Prof. Langley's own words :“The time required for the distinct perception of an

municate with one of the Honorary Secretaries. Alla excessively faint light is about one-half second. A re

in the objects of the Association are invited to attend. latively very long time is, however, needed for the re

Dr. Ludwig BECKER has been appointed to the covery of sensitiveness after exposure to a bright light, astronomy at the University of Glasgow. and the time demanded for this restoration of complete

The Comet Medal of the Astronomical Society visual power appears to be greatest when the light to be perceived is of a violet colour. The amount of energy

| Pacific Coast has been awarded to Mr. Edwin Holmes required to make us see varies enormously according to

don, for his discovery of a new comet on November á the colour of the light in question. It varies considerably On Tuesday next (January 17) Prof. Victor Horses, * * between eyes which may ordinarily be called normal ones, will begin a course of ten lectures, at the Royal Instre: but an average from those of four persons gives the “The Functions of the Cerebellum and the Elements

les of Psycho-Physiology.” The Friday evening meeting | A new edition of the list of members of the Institution of I begin on January 20, when Prof. Dewar, F.R.S., will give Civil Engineers, corrected to the 2nd inst., the seventy-fifth iscourse on" Liquid Atmospheric Air.”

anniversary of its establishment, shows that the aggregate nuin

ber of all classes is 6341, an increase during the past year at the The severe frost which set in just before Christmas was

rate of 35 per cent. ceeded by a rapid rise of temperature in Scotland on

A PSYCHOLOGICAL laboratory has been established at Yale day, but in England the thermometer did not rise much

| College, where Prof. Ladd has for some years been lecturing ve the freezing point until about twenty-four hours later.

on physiological psychology. the 5th and 6th instant the thermometer fell below

Science gives an interesting in many parts of Great Britain, and snow was falling

account of the new institution, which has been placed under the Scotland, which after waris spread to many parts of

charge of Dr. E. W. Scripture, a pupil of Wundt. The labozland. The absolute shade minima recorded were--2° at

ratory consists of fifteen rooms, three of which, including an

isolated ” room, are given over entirely to research. The emar, and 2° at Fort Augustus, in the north of Scotland. distribution of pressure was unusually high over Scandi.

| isolated room is a small room built inside of another room ; ia and northern Europe (inadvertently referred to in our

sour springs of rubber and felt are the only points in which it e last week as over these islands) having reached about 31'3

comes in contact with the outer walls. The space between the

walls is filled with sawdust as in an ice-box. les in Central Russia on the 4th, while areas of low pres

The room is thus :lay over the Gulf of Genoa and the south-west of Ireland.

proof against sound and light, and, according to Science, affords

an opportunity of making more accurate experiments on the : latter depression gradually extended eastwards, causing strong erly gales on the Irish coasts, while the anticyclone over

mental condition than any yet attempted. op: gradually gave way, the barometer at Haparanda on

STUDENTS of ethnography will be interested to hear that aday being 1'5 inch lower than a few days previously. By

Dr. N. B. Emerson, of Honolulu, is preparing a full account of day all stations reported temperatures above the freezing point,

the Polynesian canoe. In a communication printed in the new le in the south-west of Ireland the maxima reached 47° and

number of the Journal of the Polynesian Society he points out he south of France even 63o. These changes were accom

that the various migrations of the ancient Polynesians and their led by rain in most parts of the country, which added ma

progenitors, from whatever source derived, must have been ully to the rapidity of the thaw. Bright aurora was seen on

accomplished in canoes or other craft, and that the waa, the iday night in Scotland and Ireland. On Tuesday an pahi, &c., of to-day, however modified they may be under the cyclone from the north-westward was spreading over our operation of modern arts and appliances, are the lineal descendids, with finer weather and lower temperatures generally,

ants of the sea-going craft in which the early ancestors of the occurring in the north of Sco: land and the central parts of

Polynesians made their voyages generations ago. He holds, land. The Weekly Weather Report of the 7th instant showed

therefore, that a comparative study of the canoes cannot fail the temperature in the eastern and midland parts of Eng.

to shed light on the problems of Polynesian migrations and was 12° to 13° below the average for the week ; at several

relationships. e inland stations in England the daily maxima were below An interesting little paper on the destruction of wild birds' brough the whole period.

eggs, and egg-collecting, is contributed to the new number of v enlightened Bengali, Babu Govind Chandra Laha, has

the Annals of Scottish Natural History, by Col. W. H. M. ibuted fifteen thousand rupees towards the expenses of the

Duthie. Collectors who require to be specially dealt with osed snake laboratory at Calcutta. We may expect,

he groups in three classes-the aimless, the greedy, and the fore, that the institution will soon be in full working order.

mercenary. In contrast with these is: “the true collector," rding to the Pioneer Mail, two main lines of research will

whom Col. Duthie defines as “ a naturalist, acquainting himallowed in the laboratory. So-called cures for snake bites

self with birds, their habits, Alight, migration, language, and be tested under strictly scientific conditions, and the pro

breeding haunts ; his egg-collecting being only one of the means es of the snake poison as such will be investigated. The

of acquiring this knowledge.” The true collector should collect atory will be the only institution of its kind in the world,

for himself, and should never receive an egg into his cabinet the Committee of the Calcutta Zoological Gardens, who

unless authenticated by an individual in whom he can implicitly taken the matter in hand, expect that it will be largely

trust. If all collectors were of this type, egg-dealers would ed to by the scientific inquirers who visit India during

cease to exist, and with them would disappear the tribe of weather. In accordance with the practice of scientific

hangers-on whom they maintain. stories in Europe, a charge will be made for the use of A GOOD study of the form of eggs has been recently bles and instruments at a rate sufficient to cover working made by Dr. Nicolsky of St. Petersburg. He constructs an ses. Work done on behalf of the Government will also abstract formula, by which different eggs can be compared trged for according to a regular scale.

without regard to absolute dimensions. Calling the longer axis E members and friends of the Society for the Study of

1000, he obtains a figure representing the ratio of the longest ety met on Tuesday to congratulate Dr. Severin Wielobycki

transverse axis to it, and another, that of the distance of the ving completed one hundred years of life.

obtuse end from the "centre," or point where the longer axis

cuts the plane of the equator ; then forms a fraction with these iF. BAIN contributes to the new number of Mind an

two figures, and takes it as the formula of the egg. Various iting sketch of the career of the late Prof. G. C. Robert

explanations have been offered for the different forms of eggs. ith whose name Mind will always be intimately asso

Dr. Nicolsky traces all to gravity. He considers that every egg Prof. Bain includes in his article the admirable notice

not yet coated with a solid shell departs from the spherical form pertson written by Mr. Leslie Stephen for the Spectator,

and elongates, simply because of pressure on it by the walls of are glad to note the publication of a fifth edition, revised the ovary. In birds which keep a vertical position when at igmented, of the Official Guide to the North Gallery at rest (such as the falcon and owl) the soft egg becomes short oyal Gardens, Kew. It includes a short and interesting through the bird's weight acting against the ovarian pressure. phical notice of Miss North. A map is given to convey In birds which, like the grebe, are nearly always swimming, dea of the extent to which her collection illustrates the the egg lengthens, because the body weight acts in the same tion of the temperate and tropical regions of the world ! direction as the ovarian compression. Lastly, eggs become

pyriform (more pointed at one end than the other) in birds Hunter points out that no “caliche" is ever found in site which, like the guillemot, often change their position, sometimes places, the accepted opinion being that there has been a "TE swimming and diving, sometimes perching on rocks, &c. An out," as it is called. During a later period than that of examination of all the eggs in the zoological collection of the formation of the “caliche" great floods passed over the pas St. Petersburg University fully bore out these views. Dr. Nicol. | as is shown by the deep tracks of rivers, and the smooth wasia sky thinks it would be useful to test the theory by experimenta appearance of the surface. Such periodical floods are comte tion, birds being kept in a vertical or horizontal position at the in tropical, rainless regions, and would not call for spea laying time.

remark, but from the fact that wherever these river tracks FOR twelve years (1878 to 1890) M. P. Plantamour made care- washed surface appear no "caliche" can be found. This 38 ful observations of the displacements shown by two spirit levels well known that even the workmen never attempt to search (one north-south, the other east-west), in the cellar of his house at it in such places. The only surface indication for the presse Sécheron. The instruments were transferred to the Geneva Obser

of “caliche" is rising ground covered with small black stron vatory, and the work resumed by M. Pidoux in April 1891 (after The "caliche" in its native state is white, very compact sa six months' interruption). M. Plantamour found that the mean

amorphous, not unlike rock salt, but when rich in iddias air temperature had a preponderating influence in the oscilla. | assumes various colours, according to the composition et tions observed, while some other factors of obscure nature were

quality of the iodine it contains. For example, at tinal involved. The first year's data at Geneva (Arch. de Sci.) reveal an

contains masses of bright yellow, red, or blue, and again whah annual oscillation of the ground of the Observatory about an axis

composed of a dull black colour, in which state it requiros directed north-east and south-west, such that the south-east part | expert to distinguish it from costra or rock. sinks in summer and rises in winter. The east side went down till | MR. E. LOMMEL claims to have found a simple explank July 16, then rose gradually till the end of December (29), there I of the Hall effect. A simple train of reasoning shows, he ser after sinking again. The extremes were – 4":73 and +4":85 (an that the equipotential lines perpendicular to the lines of 3 amplitude of 9':58). The variations of the south side were

a plate are also the lines of force due to the current. 13 similar, but the amplitude somewhat greater. The north-south

filings are strewn upon the plate they will arrange thens level showed some quite abnormal variations in the autumn of

along the equipotential lines if the current be strong etsip 1891, to which, however, the author does not attach great On bringing the plate into a magnetic field these lines of fre importance.

change their position. Hence the lines of flow, necester An interesting contribution to our knowledge of the adapta- orthogonal to the lines of force, will also change in forts tion of structure to function in the human body is afforded in an position. investigation by Signor Minervini (of the Naples Society of Naturalists) of the blood-vessels of the skin in different parts.

ACCORDING to Dr. J. Böhm, the statement that Phytod: Portions of skin were prepared so as to show the exact structure

infestans, the fungus which causes the potatoe diseases, so

nates in the tubers, is incorrect, nothing whatever being kose of the chief arteries in them. The results are as follows:(1) The artery-walls of the skin in men are generally thicker than

about its mode of hibernation. He further states that the inte those of other organs. (2) This greater thickness is due gene

tion of the potatoes never takes place in the soil throtz

uninjured skin, but is always brought about through is en rally, and during most of life, to thickening of the middle

the tubers by insects or snails. In potatoe-heaps sound the layer ; but in childhood the outer, and in advanced years the innermost, layer is most developed. (3) The artery-walls in

can never be infected by their diseased neighbours. An ins the hollow of the hand, the finger-tips, and the sole, are, other

potatoe either does not germinate at all or produces a ke things equal, thicker than those in the back of the hand, the

plant. forehead, the arm, &c. This greater thickness is due chiefly to In examining milk which is suspected to contain the telo a greater development of the middle layer, and in all ages of bacillus it is usual to subject a sample of the milk to the 2. life. The arteries in the hollow of the hand in the case of of a centrifugal machine after separating the fat. One sett occupations involving hard manual labour show a greater in- of working is described by Ilkewitsch (Münckesc screase of thickness than in the case of those with little or no Wochenschr. 1892). The casein in 20 C.C. of milk is cool such work. In these cases all three layers of the artery are with citric acid, and, after filtering, the residue is dissolved: thickened, but the middle layer most. (4) In women all the solution of sodium phosphate. The butter-fat is separat chief arteries of the hollow of the hand and of the back of the shaking with 6 c.c. of an aqueous ether solution, and aceto hand are somewhat less thick than in men. The difference is is then added until the liquid is on the point of coagulatie, not great, but occurs at all ages.

is then placed in a copper tube tapering at the botton, 295 In a paper on the Santa Isabel Nitrate Works, Toca Chile, tube is inserted in the centrifugal machine and turned 33 read lately before the Scottish Institution of Engineers and rate of 3600 revolutions per minute for fifteen minutes. Shipbuilders, and now printed in the Institution's Transac bacilli collect at the narrow end of the tube together with tions, Mr. G. M. Hunter has something to say regarding the sediment and dirt. The liquid is poured off, and the sec origin of " caliche," as nitrate of soda is called in its native examined microscopically. Thörner (Chem. Ztg. IL state. Some contend that “ caliche” is a marine deposit, others 791-2) gives another method, which is as follows:-2008 that it is an animal deposit, while others say it is a vegetable the suspected milk are mixed with i c.c. of 50 per cent. deposit. Mr. Hunter holds the first of these views. The coast solution, and heated in a bath of boiling water until the of Chile has several times been disturbed and upheaved by saponified, when the solution turns yellowish brow..5 volcanic agency, and he suggests that a large tract of sea was treatment the casein and albumen become soluble i enclosed and heaved up to the present height of the nitrate Twenty cubic centimetres of acetic acid are added, the sea region, and there formed an inland sea, which, after a lapse of shaken, heated on water-bath for three minutes, transfer time under a tropical sun, evaporated, leaving the salts to per- strong glass tube, and turned in the centrifugal machine colate and form the beds of nitrate. From the formation of minutes. The liquid is poured off, and the sediment ss * the ground, showing depressions and ravines leading to the sea, by shaking with 30 c.c. hot water, and again turned it is evident that immense volumes of water at some remote centrifugal machine. The water is poured off, and the sale period have passed through them. In proof of this, Mr placed upon cover-glasses, which are treated in the ordinare


ing with hot Neelsen's solution, decolourizing in 25 p.c. that is, a swelling from 3500 to 4000 feet high, devoid of tree buric acid, and finally staining in methylene blue ; instead vegetation, with ridges and mountains rising over it to heights ashing the cover-glasses in sulphuric acid Thörner simply of from 5000 to 5600 feet. They consist of granite and crystalline a solution of methylene blue containing sulphuric acid. schists, probably of Laurentian age, covered with younger,

probably Huronian, gneisses and schists. The other parts of the METHOD of producing an intense monochromatic light is

highlands consist of Cambrian and Lower Silurian deposits, ribed by Dr. Du Bois (Zeitschr. für Instr. p. 165). It

while Upper Silurian limestones and Devonian Red sandstones rs from the usual processes in the form in which the sodium

are only met with in the valley of the Lena. We thus have a troduced into the Aame. A mixture of sodium bromide

further confirmation of the hypothesis, according to which the bicarbonate is made cohesive by adraganth and moulded

great plateau of north-eastern Asia is a remnant of an old contisticks 4 mm. in diameter and 12 to 15 cm. long. These

nent which has not been submerged since the Devonian epoch. lept in the flame of a Linnemann burner by means of a rack

Further traces of mighty glaciation have been found in the pinion motion. Their conductivity being very low, they south-east part of the region. As to the gold-bearing deposits, only vaporized at the extreme end. The latter must be

they are pre-glacial in the south, and post-glacial or recent in rei to avoid a continuous spectrum. At the greatest in.

the north. The high terraces in the valleys are indicative of a ty, two or three centimetres of the substance are consumed

considerable post-pliocene accumulation of alluvial deposits, and minute. The spectrum exhibits, besides the enormously

of a subsequent denudation on a great scale. onderating D lines, a air of lines in the green, and a er pair in the red.

Messrs. MACMILLAN AND Co. announce that a new edition

of Sir Archibald Geikie's “ Text-hook of Geology” is in the ROM the ages of persons who have died in France during the

press, and will appear shortly. 32 years, M. Turquan computes the average life there to been about 38 years for women, 36 for men, and 37 years

The third and fourth volumes (completing the work) of Mr. oth sexes together (Rev. Sci.). But this is now exceeded, H. C. Burdett's “Hospitals and Asylums of the World ” will the average is over 40 years; a result, partly, of more | be published by Messrs. J. and A. Churchill about the end of ition to hygiene, partly of a dininished birth-rate. From a this month. Vol. ill. deals with the history and administration showing the distribution of the average life, one finds the of hospitals in all countries throughout the world. Vol. iv. ige very low in Finistère and Brittany (28 years II months relates to hospital construction, and contains a bibliography and e former) in the Nord, the Pyrénées Orientales, &c., and cially in Corsica (28 years I month). In Finistère and

Messrs. R. SUTTON AND Co. have published a second ediica one finds least hygiene and most children, but not the tion of Mr. J. E. Gore's “Scenery of the Heavens," with stellar est mortality of children. In some parts of Normandy,

photographs and various drawings. Mr. W. F. Denning cona high infantile mortality, the mean lise is yet very long.

tributes to the volume a chapter on fireballs, shooting stars, and ; it is about 48 years in Eure, 47 in Orne and Calvados,

meteors. The difference between the average life of men and en rises to 4 years (excess in case of women) in the north

The second annual issue of “The Year-Book of Science," , and diminishes as you come towards the Mediterranean;

edited by Prof. Bonney, F.R.S., is now in a forward state of in Bas ses Alpes and Gard (in the south-east) man lives

preparation, and will be shortly published by Messrs. Cassell Ir than woman by about a year and a half. In Normandy

and Company. Brittany there are most widows, and woman appears to

Messrs. DULAU AND Co. have published " Annals of a grea ter vitality.

British Geology, 1891," by J. F. Blake. This is the second

issue, and geologists will be unanimously of opinion that it is a is now many years since electric currents were proved to

decided improvement upon the first. It contains a digest of in plants. In the study of these currents, an important step in

the books and papers published during the year, with occasional nce was taken when Prof. Burdon Sanderson proved their

notes. ence in uninjured parts of living plants (it was usual before ply electrodes, often polarizable, to cut parts). As to their

LECTURES on the ear will be delivered in Gresham College, , certa in experiments made by Kunkel, some time ago, led

Basinghall Street, E.C., on January 17, 18, 19, and 20, at o think it was in the purely mechanical process of water

6 o'clock, by Dr. E. Symes Thompson. , set up on application of the moist electrode. The sub- In Mr. R. Assheton's letter (NATURE, vol. xlvii. p. 176) the as been recently investigated by Herr Haake, who pro sentence beginning line 31 of the second column should have es against this view. He used Du Bois Reymond's clay read thus:--“But it is more metazoic-if I may use such a odes, with some woollen fibres projecting at the ends, and word—to call the whole animal resulting from the segmentation closed the leaves in a tube in which they were guarded of the fertilized ovum, the sexually produced generation.” air-draughts and kept moist. Arrangements were also

Two interesting new compounds are described by Prof. for various operations, such as varying transpiration, ad.

Anschütz, of Bonn, in the current number of the Berichte. They g hydrogen, removing oxygen, &c. (for details see Flora, , of this year). Herr Haake's results are briefly these :

are well-crystallized compounds of the lactides derived from is unquestionable that changes of matter of various kinds

salicylic acid and the next higher (cresotinic) acid with chloro

form, which latter substance is so loosely united with the lactide acerned in the production of the electric currents, especially

that warming to the temperature of boiling water is amply a respiration, and carbonic-acid assimilation. 2. Water

sufficient to dissociate them. Hence the compounds may be nents may possibly share in their production, but certainly

employed for obtaining perfectly pure chloroform, and for hare is but a small one.

preserving chloroform in a solid form in which it is not prone to E Isvestia of the East Siberian Geographical Society decomposition. The lactide of salicylic acid has long been xiii., 3) contains an account of M. Obrutcheffs' further supposed to be formed when the acid is treated with oxychloride ches in the Olekma and Vitim highlands. In the north of phosphorus. Prof. Anschütz, however, shows that the pro

, formerly quite unknown part of this region, the duct of this reaction contains many other substances in addition, : found a further continuation of the “Patom plateau”— but by working under special conditions he has succeeded in

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