« PreviousContinue »
isolating pure salicylide. Salicylic acid is dissolved in an in- really the chief nebula line. The bright lines kez different solvent, preferably toluene or xylene, before the addition towards the violet, indicating approach, whereas is le of the phosphorus oxychloride. The product of the reaction is and March last they were displaced towards the red washed first with soda and afterwards with water. Owing to
1892. the property, discovered by Prof. Anschütz during the course of
50036 the work, which salicylide possesses of combining with chloro
3-7 form, it may be extracted from the white solid product, after drying, by means of chloroform, the compound being deposited
24 from the chloroform solution in large colourless transparent
Sep. 3 crystals belonging to the tetragonal system. The compound
19 possesses the composition C.H.CO.0.2CHC1z. The chloro
21 form readily escapes upon warming, in very much the same
22 manner as the water of crystallization contained in many crystallized salts. The free salicylide remaining is a solid sub
Oct. 12 stance melting at 261°. As regards its molecular constitution
19 it is shown, by the amount of lowering of the melting point of
404 phenol employed as a solvent, to contain four of the salicylic radicles C&H.CO.0, and is probably a closed ring compound. In the same journal Mr. Sidgreaves points out that In a precisely similar manner phosphorus oxychloride reacts
lines cannot simply be revivals of those of Februar = with the three cresotinic acids, the acids next higher than
further, that on account of the great difference of veloc: s
the reversed direction, they cannot be supposed to bel: salicylic, with formation among other substances of lactides,
the bright-line component of February. Neither 3 1 which may be isolated in the same way in the form of their
that the dark-line component has become a planetary chloroform compounds, CHz. CeH3.CO.O.2CHCIZ. Ortho and the probability of three bodies rushing together bege cresotinic acid lends itself best to this reaction. The pure lactides small, Father Sidgreaves believes the new results to see are readily obtained from the chloroform compounds by warm
the view that the compound character of the spectrum kv;
duced by local disturbances of a single star, ing to 100°, pure chloroform being gently evolved.
ASTRONOMICAL DISCOVERIES IN 1892.- In the CTHE two substances above described, salicylide.chloroform for January Mr. Denning gives an excellent summary". and the corresponding compound derived from ortho-cresotinic astronomical discoveries of 1892, a year which was very acid, are admirably adapted for the preparation of pure chloro.
able for the special attention given to the science by
and the public. In chronological order the principal form, on account of their large content of the latter substance,
were as follows: salicylide-choloroform containing 33'24 per cent. and the January 20.–Minor planet (324) discovered by phonest." cresotinic compound 30-8 per cent of its weight. Moreover, in by Max Wolf at Heidelberg. (Altogether 27 were di closed vessels they may be preserved any length of time ; when during the year by various observers.) exposed to the open air salicylide.chloroform slowly loses its
January 23-30.- Discovery of Nova Aurige bep
Anderson. chloroform, but the cresotinic compound is well-nigh stable,
February 11.—The great sun-spot, extending over le even under these conditions. The same quantity of the free miles of longitude, reached the sun's central meridia. lactide may be used over and over again without decomposition, was followed by remarkable magnetic disturbances and diss it being only necessary, in order to re-form the chloroform com- / of aurora. pound, to allow it to remain in contact with the chloroform to
March 6.--Comet discovered by Lewis Swift.
March 18.-Comet discovered by Denning at Bristo be purified for twenty-four hours at the ordinary temperature.
this day also, Dr. Spitaler, of Vienna, re-detected the per None of the usual impurities in chloroform crystallize along with comet of Pons (1819) and Winnecke (1858). the compound, so that a perfect separation is effected. Again, August 6.-Opposition of Mars. Mr. Denning : it is well known that pure chloroform decomposes more or less
“Practically our knowledge stands where it stood before on keeping ; this loss may be avoided by storing it in the form
results are not sufficiently discordant to settle disputed pe
August 27.-A new comet discovered by Brooks, of lies of the lactide, and regenerating it when required by the appli. cation of a gentle heat, with the certainty of obtaining it per September 9.- Prof. Barnard's memorable discovery of 3 fectly pure.
fifth satellite of Jupiter. The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the
October 12.-Comet discovered by photography by!
Barnard past week include a Rhesus Monkey (Macacus rhesus 9 ) from November 6.-Bright comet discovered in Andrus India, presented by Mr. W. Stutely; two Barbary Mice (Mus | Mr. Edwin Holmes, London. barbarus) from North Africa, presented by Lord Lilford ;
November 20.-A faint comet discovered by Brooke, four Bearded Titmice (Panurus biarmicus), European ; four
November 23.-Brilliant shower of shooting stars obsen
Canada and the United States. The shower was eviden: Ani (Crotophaga ani) from South America ; six Hog-nosed
of the Andromedes connected with Biela's comet. Snakes (Heterodon platyrhinos); a Striped Snake (Tropidonotus
Comer HOLMES.--Mr. Lewis Boss finds for this sirtalis); a — Snake (Pitnophis —-), from North America,
period of 6'914 years, and concludes that ao very su purchased.
proach to Jupiter can have taken place in recent years eccentricity, however, is so small that important perint
by Jupiter may have occurred. He further states that the OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.
remarkable decrease in brightness of the comet seems to
with the necessity of supposing that it has been recul THE MOTION OF NOVA AURIGÆ.-Prof. W. W. Camp. member of the solar system. This decrease also te bell, of the Lick Observatory, has communicated further results reasonably certain that the comet must have been subject relating to Nova Aurigæ to the December number of Astro. some extraordinary disturbance of its internal economy nomy and Astrophysics. He is now perfectly convinced that application of forces from without or within, with the re the variation in the velocity previously suspected is real, and giving to it that which was really an unaccustomed probably due to orbital motion. The values given below have porary size and brightness" (Astronomical Journal been calculated on the assumption that the brightest line in the According to Mr. Lockyer's views, such increase of bre spectrum of the Nova, since the reappearance in August, is would be produced by the comet colliding with another
I'm lying in its track, and it is quite possible that the bright Friday evening, when a large audience of both young and old og of the comet at the time of the discovery was very sudden, enjoyed his spirited descriptions of Iceland and British Columbia, s explaining why the comet was not detected earlier.
illuminated by many anecdotes of persunal adventure. The 'Rev. Ě. M. Searle (Astronomical Journal, No. 283)
The defective condition of the charts, even of the coast of deduced a period fifteen days shorter than that of Mr.
Europe, was strikingly brought out by the recent court-martial
| on the stranding of H.M.S. Howe in Ferrol Channel. The 1. Schulhof, of Paris, finds a period of 6.909 years. He
chart used on board was drawn from soundings made about a points out that among the known periodic comets that of
hundred years ago, with a few subst quent corrections, which Vico shows the greatest orbital similarity to Holmes's comet,
failed altogether to indicate the rock on which the Howe struck. he considers that they may possibly have a common origin.
The Spanish authorities are reported to have resused permission Ir. Roberts, of the Nautical Almanac Office, accepting as
| for the new chart surveyed by the officers of the Channel the supposed impression of the comet obtained by Mr.
Squadron to be published, and meanwhile the Hydrographic prling in a photograph of the region taken on October 18,
Office has cancelled the old chart. d a period of fisteen years, but the general agreement of the it couputations seems to indicate that the image in question d not be that of the comet. he comet is now so dim that it is not considered necessary
A NEW SEISMOGRAPH. ontinue the ephemeris. PHEMERIS OF COMET BROOKS (November 20, 1892). — The BEFORE speaking of this memoir, let me enter a protest wing ephemeris of Comet Brooks (Berlin, midnight) is against the method of publishing these “ Annali” in such n in Asi. Nach., No. 3140, by Kreutz:
a way as to convey the impression that the papers composing it Date. RA. Decl. (app.) Log r. Log A.
were written three years before their actual date. All readers
are warned that when the volume is bound up, and the paper n. 12 ... 21 40 18 ... + 5941 ... 0'0786 ... 9.8915 covers are removed, they must post-date the papers by three
13... 56 4 ... 58 8.1 ... 0'0791 ... 9'9012 years. 14 ... 22 9 53 ... 56 336 ... 0'0797 99114 The seismograph described in the present paper is intended for 15 ... 22 3 ... 54 59'1 ... o'0803 9.9220 stations of the second class. The objects in view in its con16 ... 32 47 ... 53 257 ... 0'0810 ... 9.9330 struction were amplification of the record in a pendulum seis17 ... 42 18 ... 51 542 ...
0'0818 ... 9 9442 m graph, and improvement of the warning apparatus in the 18 ... 50 47 ... 50 25'2 ... 0'0826 ... 9.9556 form of a style seismoscope of the Milne type which the author 19... 22 58 23 ... 48 59*3 ... 0'0835 ... 9-9670 finds frequently fails.
The amplifying lever is composed of fine placfont tubes arranged IE METEOR SHOWER OF November 23, 1892.-Further
girder-like in the form of a short hollow triangular prism, surrvations of this fine display of shooting stars are recorded
mounted by an acute triangular pyramid, which points downwards, stronomical Journal, No. 283. Prof. J. K. Rees counted
and carries at its apex the writing style. The pendulum bob is a neteors in half an hour, and noted some as bright as Mars ;
fartened cylinder, supported by a placsont wire 1'50 m. long. them were very swift. The Rev. J. G. Hagen estimated
The ampliiying lever at the junction of the three pyramidal and one observer, with a clear view to the west would have
the prismatic tubes supports three radial arms meeting in the 250 meteors in half an hour, and notes that some were as
centre, as it were, of the pyramid base, and support a ball-andtas Jupiter Mr. Sawyer estimated the maximum fre
socket joint of agate, the cup part of which is at the end of an cy as about 300 per hour, and, strangely enough, describes
arm projecting from the supporting wall. Immediately above as "slow-moving, generally quite bright, although none
this centre, and occupying the prism space of the lever, is the observed as bright as the planets Mars and Jupiter.” Both
cylindrical box, the wire supporting which passes through a Rees and Mr. Sawyer note that the meteors appeared in
small hole in the centre of the base of the prism. We thus is, four or five falling almost at the same instant, while for
have a simple lever of the first order of light girder work. It is i minutes none were seen. The radiant was near
prevented from rotating in azimuth by including some steel wire omedæ, and there is little doubt that the shower was that
permanently magnetized. Biela's comet.
The style has been modified by lightening it and making it more rigid and non-oxidizable, which is done by using a capil
lary glass tube. GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
The registering apparatus is a smoked glass plate, supported M. Dybowski's journey from the Mobangi to the Shari,
over a clock, started at the moment of the earthquake by a 'scribed at a recent meeting of the Paris Geo graphical
seismoscope. To prevent the complex figures of the ordinary ty, he encountered one of the most systematically cannibal
registration in a pendulum seismograph, the author has arranged which has yet been described. This tribe, known as
so that the plate shall rotate through a segment of a circle every Bonjos, have only one object of purchase-slaves to be
Ihree seconds, so as to bring a fresh surface of smoked glass They refuse to sell food or any other products of their
beneath the style. ry for anything else, and the surrounding tribes capture
Some modifications are then described. The principal one is sport can le loads of slaves for this purpose. The French
making the bub annular, carrying a suitable aperture, in which ition experienced great difficulty in obtaining food amongst
is engaged the short end of a lever. This lever is composed of le who had no desire for ordinary articles of trade.
three very thin brass tubes, graduating away smaller from the
fulcrum, which is a gimbal joint such as suggested by the E boundaries of the republics of South and Central
reviewer some years since in NATURE. This lever carries at its ca are certainly the least definite lines on the political lower and longer end the style which records on the glass f the world so far as civilized lands are concerned. The
plate as in the original one described in this memoir. in of delimitation is never at rest. Dr. H. Polakowsky
Another modification is a combination of the triple ard single n the last number of Petermann's Mitteilungen a brief
suspension of the pendulum bob, that is, the bob ring is first It of the negotiations and surveys relating to the frontier
suspended by triple wires to a button which in its turn hangs ita Rica and Nicaragua from 1858 10 1890. The difficulty | at the end of a single wire. case lies in the fact that the mouth of the San Juan The details of these seismographs are fairly well worked out, I certain point of which was fixed on in 1858 as the coast
but the employment of aluminium in many of the parts has been 1, is continually changing, and a breakwater belonging
neglected. Likewise, no arrangement has been made for the harbour and canal entrance of Greytown, in Nicaragua, oblique play of the engaged pinion in the newer lever. The ands in what was formerly the territory of Costa Rica. only new point about this seismograph is the interrupted rotation
Pacific coast years of diplomacy were required to fix of ihe recording plate. This has a decided advantage in giving tre of Salinas Bay, but it is satisfactory to know that
a dissected record, but is part counterblanced by the fact that lent boundary stones have now been erected at both
important movements that may be taking place at the moment the line. COLES delivered his second lecture to young people | dell u thício Centrale Metcor. e Geodinamico, ser. sec., pt. 3, vol. xi., 1889.
IG: Agamennone, " Sopra un Nuovo Pendolo Sismografico." Annali the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society, on | (Roma, 1892 )
of the advance are represented by a curve or curves which sixteenth century, explored at least the northern parts & Art would require a series of carelul experiments to be carried out in What they learned was, however, kept a profound 2 = each instrument, followed by difficult and elaborate calculation about 1540, when one of their government maps DR for each advance.
and there are now in existence six maps believe taken Much credit is due to the author for working out the modifi. it, which were all published between 1539 and 1555. TA cations, but until we have some original method of finding a show Australia under the name of the Land of Java' steady-point, not so far suggested, it is doubtsul if we can im Java being called the “Little Java," and from tha uso prove on the Gray, Ewing, and Milne seismographs, that are frequent attempts were made to explore wbal had lor not, as the author imagines, little used or tested instruments. generations been "Terra Australis incognita," and
H. J. JOHNSTON-LAVIS. tors could not understand the silence of the Portoglar
as proof of the richness of the land, about which hade
wonderful tales "It was a land of gold and spices, w PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE OF
cent tropical fruits and vegetation-a perfect parache, 1.
the happy and simple inhabitants were londel wu NEW SOUTH WALES.
ornaments of gold. Its very almosphere was elixir, ante A SECOND edition of an excellent pamphlet on the “Phys. , a round of enjoyment." No wonder that in an age EN
1 icnl Geography and Climate of New South Wales,” by Mr. | least upon the ocean, the power to take was mana H. C. Russell, F.R.S., astronomer royal for New South Wales, right to do so, there were many who cast longing glansi has just been issued at Sydney. It is published by authority
the southern Paradise. Whether these stories of gold of the New South Wales Government. The following extracts foundation in fact or not, when tarter was regularly ado may be of interest to various classes of readers in Great
the coast of Australia, it is impossibile now to say, but Britain :
discoveries of rich sursace gold lend some colour to Ler
the vegetable richness of the northern part of Australa : Looking back through the pages of history, and the dim in accordance with tradition. But all the early Eagles traditions of an earlier time, we find abundant evidence of a tors were unfortunate, and Australia got a te punim i belief in the existence of a great south land to the south and reverse of what further investigation has shown that lla east of what was then the well known earth. Those early | In point of fact, all the glowing colouring of iroditina EN navigators whose travels had fostered this belief, had doubtless but when Dampier, in 1688, sailed down the wote followed down the Malay Peninsula and the string of islands saw nothing but a “ dry sandy soil," and the "za which seem to form part of it, in search of spices and other people in the world ” ; and later on, when the finu treasures which the islands supplied. Pliny, who had evidently settlers landed on Australia, they chose a bay, beautilul gathered up the traditions of “ Terra Australis incognita," says at, but there was no gold and no fruit worthy of the Daz that it lay a long way south of the Equator, and in proof of this soil was barren and sandy, and the climate in the wont mentions the fact, strange in those days, that when some of its | its summer. No wonder that the same of Australia and inhabitants were brought 10 civilization they were astonished to ened, and report made it a miserable land, subject to do find the sun rise on their lest hand instead of on their right. and floods-a land in which everything was turned top And Ptolemy, A.D. 170, alter describing the Malay Peninsula, | The summer came at winter time ; trees shed their tart says : Beyond it, to the south-east, there was a great bay in their leaves-were brown instead of green; the stonos which was found the most distant point of the earth ; it is called the outside of the cherries; and the pears, pleasant to be “Cattigara," and is in latitude 8.1° south ; "thence (he goes on were only to be cut with an axe ; and there was notburg to say) the land turns to the west, and extends an immense dis. "unless, perchance, ye'l fill ye with root of fern orsul RI tance until (as he believed) it joins Africa." And it may fairly | Such was the early verdict upon Australia. Fortunnish be assumed that the extreme south latitude of Catrigara, and its first colonists, once here, were obliged to stop. By upp situation in a great bay where the land turns to the west until it they found that everything that was planted grew well joins Africa, is proof that it was some point in the Gulf of Car wheat in the valley of the Hawkesbury yielded 40 to go be pentaria, for no other place would sulfil the conditions. The to the acre, and in one memorable season actually rien idea that the land actually reached Africa was not Ptolemy's ; it farmers by its very abundance, for in the then limited and was a necessary part of the system of Hipparchus, for he taught the price fell so low that it was not worth gatherin that the earth surrounded the water and prevented it from Rowing it was left in the fields to rot, while the farmers soopte v away. It is not surprising, therefore, that the early navigators, work, Horses, sheep, cattle, and pigs throre marvci following down the islands, came at length to that part of the and some of the cows getting away, the bush soon Gulf of Carpentaria where the land turned to the west ; and numbers of wild cattle. Even wool did not deteriorat believing Hipparchus' system of geography, thought that in new Colony; and step by step the facts became too grea turning to the west they were in reality turning towards home, prejudice, and the first feeces of Australian sheen we and Cattigara was therelore the most distant point known. | England lifted the veil. Manufacturers would gladly at Marco Polo tells us that the Chinese navigators in his day (A. D. | many as could be sent; their demand for more wodle 1293) asserted there were thousands of islands in the sea to south with the supply, and now only from Australia can they of them, and in the present day we find proofs of their early the fine wools which they need. Quantity and quali visits to Australia in the traces of Chinese features amongst the bave increased together, and the Grand Prize at the fans natives of the northern coast ; indeed, some historians think hibition for our New South Wales wool has proclaimed the that Marco Polo, in the account he gives of the expedition sent | far and wide. Wool has done still more for the Colcay to Persia by the Great Khan, resers directly to Australia, under took possession of it as a narrow strip of coast country; the name of Lochac. This place he says was too far away to be mand for pasture forced us to find a way over a hitherto y subjugated by the Great Khan, and was seldom visited ; but it able range, and the same want has driven all the desert ca yielded gold in surprising quantity, and amongst other wonders Colopy, and covered it with sixty-two millions of valuable contained within it an immense lake or inland sea. It is im. | (1892). The country which early writers upon Australe possible that such a description should apply, as has been thought, a barren waterless desert is now growing the finest sod to the Malay Peninsula,-a country within easy reach, and one yielding abundant water from wells, and when, in 1831, which his ships must have passed in every voyage ; and so far announced that gold had been discovered in abundance, from being beyond his power, it was within the limits over which world was convinced that Australia was a promising se his sway extended. That Lochac formed part of the main-land after all. Year by year the people have been coming was also quite in accordance with their ideas of the earth, which ing numbers to supply our great want (population) and surrounded the ocean, and the abundance of gold is certainly numbers increase new avenues of wealth and prospent more likely to be true of Australia than of the Malay Peninsula. | opening before us.
For long years after Marco Polo we find no direct reference Geographically, Australia has a grand position, lying lerne to Australia, except the stories which lived amongst navigators, the roh and oth degrees of south latitude-that happen and seemed to lose none of their marvellous points by transmis | where it is neither too hot nor too cold. Surrosidad sion. These kept alive the desire to explore the great south ocean, the sea breezes temper what might otherwise be land, so rich in treasures and wonders. All the evidence col climate in the sun mer; the air is clear and dry, and yet lected so far goes to prove that the Portuguese had, early in the rain in heavy showers. Vegetation is abundant, and no
the cereals and fruits of the world, so that, in the words of herbage, and here also the greater part of the gold-mining area, old tradition, it has "all the conditions which make life a as well as mines for other minerals have been found, including
coal, which is also found in great abundance, with iron and Lustralia measures from north to south 1900 miles, and lime, at Lithgow and other places. Deposits of copper, silver, n east to west 2400 miles, and speaking generally, has a lead, tin, and mercury are also found in abundance. A very nded outline, the only great inlets on the coast-line being the large portion of the high land here is suitable for agriculture, f of Carpentaria and the Australian Bight. The total area and is being taken up for that purpose by degrees. English ather greater than that of the United States, and almost fruits—the apple, cherry, currant, &c.-grow to perfection here, al to the whole of Europe. On the east, north, and west, as well as in other parts of the mountain districts. at a short distance from the coast are found ranges of moun: The third division covers by far the greatest area, and consists s, of no great elevation, yet almost the only high land. On of the Great Western Plains, extending away to the Darling west and north-west coasts the mountains form a bold out. | river, and thence to the south Australian border. Here there of granite, rarely more than 200 miles from the coast, and are but few known mineral deposits except copper, and the ining to heights of 2000 to 3000 feet. Between these and enormous deposits of silver and lead at Broken Hill, and no sea the land is low and good, but on the inland side is found attempt at agriculture. All the land may be said to be held st table land which slopes towards the unknown interior so for grazing purposes, and for that purpose, now that capital has lually that the inclination is not easily seen, and no rivers been invested in tanks and wells for water supply, this country ning to the interior have yet been discovered-all known is unequalled. Sheep and cattle thrive in a remarkable degree, ims running to the sea.
and form a most profitable investment, the climate being dry in the east coast we have also the mountain chain parallel and wonderfully healthy for man and beast. le coast, but it is much higher and more extensive, and the These are the three great natural divisions, made so by the of low land by the coast is much narrower, often not more conformation of the land and the climate. It will be evident
30 miles wide, and at Point Danger the range comes right from what has been said of the elevation of the mountains that he sea. This grand chain of mountains is known generally snow is not a common feature upon them, and the only part the Great Dividing Range, and extends for about 1500 where snow lies for any considerable time is the extreme south, is along the east coast. Near its southern extremity is the As a necessary consequence, the river system is peculiar ; wy Range, the only spot in Australia where snow may indeed, it has often been asserted that Australia had no rivers – lys be found. The highest peak, Mount Kosciusko, 7170 at least none which were of any use as such ; but as we shall
is also the highest land in Australia. The ravines on its presently see, this statement, like many others affecting Auss always contain snow, and the mountains near it, about tralia, was made in ignorance. The necessity for increased > feet high, are also covered with snow for the greater part pasture had driven the early colonists to cross the Great he year.
Dividing Range, aptly so.named, in search of pasture, in 1815, [ this great continent island, the Colony of New South and the desire to extend the new pastures beyond the Bathurst es holds the choicest portion—the southern part of the east Plains, which were the first discovered, led them on, and one t-the part where, with remarkable sagacity, the first settle of the first questions that demanded their attention was to I was made. It has the best climate, all the most important account for the direction in which all the streams were flowing. s in Australia, the great bulk of the coal land, unlimited The shortest road to the sea was to south-west, and yet all the !s of all the useful minerals, and the finest pastoral and water was running to north-west, and quite naturally it was ultural lands for extra-tropical vegetation ; besides which, asked-Could there be a great inland sea into which these xtensive highlands afford climatic conditions for all pur rivers discharged ? In 1818 Oxley started with a determination 5. It is Dalurally divided into three portions. The com to see where at least one of them went to; so he followed the tively narrow coast district, from 30 to 150 miles wide, Macquarie for more than 200 miles, and found that he was dantly watered by rivers and smaller streams coming down going dae north-west, further and further, as it seemed to him,
the mountains. The rainfall here, fed by winds from the ! from the natural outlet on the south coast. At last the river t Pacific Ocean, is very abundant, from 40 inches in the spread out to an apparently interminable marsh. Turn which 1 to 70 in the north, and at Sydney 50 inches. The moun. way he would his progress was stopped by a shallow fresh.
have doubtless very much to do with this abundant water sea, for sea he was at last convinced it must be, so great pitation, and at times the rains are so heavy that the was its extent, and he was obliged to turn back. He had got s, fed by mountain torrents, carry heavy and dangerous there after two very wet seasons (1817 and 1818), and his inland ls. In years past wheat was largely and profitably grown, sea is now known as the Macquarie Marshes ; and the mystery rust has of late so frequently appeared that little or no was not solved until Sturt, in 1829, found all these streams at is grown, for it pays better to supply the city markets trending to north-west unite in the Darling, and then turn to dairy produce, Indian corn, and various kinds of hay. In south-west. northern districts sugar-growing is a profitable industry, Coming from mountains of such moderate elevation, these increasing rapidly. About Sydney enormous quantities of streams are necessarily dependent upon the rainfall, and have res are grown for exportation.
no snow to help them, so that in rainy seasons they become e second division includes the mountains and elevated important rivers and in dry ones sink into insignificance; but $, and extends the whole length of the colony, varying in since most of the rains which feed these waters are, as it were,
from 120 to 200 miles. On the south, with the exception offshoots of the tropical rains, they seldom fail altogether, and le Monaro Tableland, the country is very rough and as a rule the Darling is navigable for four months of each year, tainous, the highest points, Mount Kosciusko and the and sometimes all through the year, up to and beyond Bourke. y Range, catch the rain and snow that feed the river The current is very slow, seldom reaching two miles per hour, ty and the Murrumbidgee. Wheat grows well here, but and therefore offers little hindrance to the steamers which carry
all the land is used for pastoral purposes. Proceeding / wool and stores. wards, the mountains decrease in height and extend later. In the exploration of our rivers there was another surprise
A part of the land is taken up for agriculture, some for when settlement extended south-west from Sydney. The 5. In its natural state the western country is open plain waters here were found to flow to the west, and the Lachlan htly-timbered, and large areas are covered with rich has for a considerable portion of its course a south-west direclic soil which seems fit to grow anything, but the want of tion, that is, at right-angles to the Macquarie and the Bogan.
and carriage, and the profit and security to be found in Could the Lachlan, the Murrambidgee, and the snow-sed | wool and meat, has for the most part tempted capital Murray ultimately join the waters that ran north-west from quatting pursuits; but since the railway has reached this Bathurst? Sturt had not solved this question-he only followed I the country more attention is being given to agriculture, the Darling part of the way down-and it was lest sor Sir is rapidly extending. Between Goulburn and Bathurst, Thomas Michell to find the junction of the two river systems estern waters form the Lachlan and the eastern the in 1835, and to prove that the Darling and the Murray were esbury rivers, and from Bathurst northwards to latitude united at and below Wentworth.
the western waters go to form the various tributaries of arling river. These mountains are from 2000 to 3000 After dealing with the rivers and harbours of New South
ith some peaks rising to nearly 6000 feet. The central Wales, Mr. Russell discusses the temperature, rainfall, droughts, of the western slopes are celebrated for rich soil and and winds of the colony. Of the temperature he says :
In works of reference, Australia generally is credited with same or nearly the same latitude, Messina, in Sicily, lativt heat in excess of that due to its latitude. It is difficult to say | 38° 11', has a mean temperature of 66°, summer 72*2, : why, unless it arose from a habit of one of our early explorers 55° ; Eden, New South Wales, in latitude 37°, has a di who carried a thermometer and carefully published all the high, temperature of 60'3', summer 67.9°, winter 51'9°; a Car and none of the low readings he got, until, fortunately for the in latitude 30°, mean of 72°, summer 85-7°, winter & colony, the thermometer was broken and the unfair register | Grafton, latitude 29° 45', mean 68.1°, summer 768, stopped. But not only the interio-Sydney even to the 58.4°. It is useless to multiply examples. --we have be present day is credited, in standard works of reference, with a enough to show how much cooler Australia really is tbas mean temperature of 66'2", or more than three degrees higher fervid imaginations of some writers have made it appeara than the true mean, which is 62'9o. Such an error is not ex- print. cusable wben meteorological observations have been taken and Looking at this question of temperature generally, itu. published for just forty years. There is another error made be seen that New South Wales is no exception to the gener by some writers when describing Australia. It is shown by deduction of science that the southern lands are cooler 'is them inverted on the corresponding latitudes in Europe, and those of corresponding latitudes in the north, and it is the reader naturally insers that Australia is as hot as those during hot winds, which are very rare in New South Wu parts of Europe. Confining our attention to New South that the temperature rises to extremes. But to leave Ezan Wales, that is between 29 and 37° of south latitude, we find and compare the climate of New South Wales with time that generally it is cooler than a corresponding part of Europe. America. Our limits of latitude would place us from Wat The mean temperature of the southern parts of England is | ton to New Orleans. Now the mean temperature at Washing about 52", and that of France, near Paris, about the same, in- | is 55° and at New Orleans 68°, while that of Eden is 60-j* = creasing as you go south to 58.5° at Marseilles. Taking this Grafton 68'1° ; so that if mean temperature were a coeple as a sample of the best part of Europe, let us see how the test of climate it would appear that our coast is hotel mean temperatures in the colony compare with those : Kiandra, corresponding latitudes in America. But mean temperiet our coldest township, situated on a mountain, is 46°; Cooma, not enough; we must compare the summer and winter terre on the high land, 54; Queanbeyan, high land, 58°; Goulburn, tures; and summer at Washington rises to 76-79 and 1 1 high land, 56o; Armidale and New England district, 56° ; only to 67'9", 9° cooler; New Orleans summer is we Moss Vale, 56° ; Kurrajong, 53o; Orange, 55o. These towns Grafton 76.8°; but 82° hardly represents the summer a are scattered along the high table-lands from south to north, New Orleans, for it is a steady broil, during which are and represent fairly the climate of a very cɔnsiderable portion for three months of summer the heat is over 80°, a terpec of the whole colony. Next to this in point of temperature is that is only reached on this coast during hot winds, or in the strip of land between the ocean and the mountains, and words, very seldom. But winter temperature at Waste which is affected by the cooling sea-breezes. Here we have a falls to 37.8°, and at New Orleans to 56°; at Eden 514, mean temperature ranging from 60° at Eden, the most southern at Grafton 58.4o. Hence it is evident that on this css 2 port, to 68° at Grafton, one of the northern ports. Sydney, in heat is very much less in summer and greater in wide latitude 34', has a summer temperature only four degrees upon the coast of America. Such facts place the color warmer than Paris, which is in latitude 49o. 'Now the usual very different position in regard to climate from that we difference for a degree in latitude is a degree in temperature, has occupied in published works, for instead of being a and therefore, if Sydney were as much warmer than Paris as its country we see that its coast districts are mach coula? latitude alone would lead us to expect, its temperature should corresponding latitudes in Europe and America, and it is be 74°, and that is 15° warmer than Paris ; but as we have elevated districts, which comprise a large part of it and seen, it is only 4° warmer. This single example is enough to of the best land, it has a climate no warmer than the less prove the comparative coolness of our coast districts. The in- | most enjoyable parts of Europe in much higher latinda. vestigation made during recent years shows that the mean while bringing these facts into due prominence it temperature of the whole colony, as derived from forty-five intention to deny that another considerable part of the stations scattered over it, is 59'5', three degrees lower than forming the wesiern plains, is subject to greater beat, that of Sydney, or only one degree hotter than that of Paris. no doubt, by the sun's great power on treeless plains, **
It may be mentioned that the highest shade temperature ever almost total absence of cooling winds; yet, although ir su recorded in Sydney was 106'9", and near Paris a temperature of the temperature here frequently rises over 100®, and sincs 106.5° has been recorded.
up to 120°, yet, owing to the cold at night and in wiej The third great district, consisting of lower land and plains mean temperatures are not greater than those of corresa to the west of the mountains, bas a climate considerably wariner latitudes in the northern hemisphere ; and this party in summer than the parts above described, owing to the colony being remarkably dry, the great heat is by co SC powerful effect of the sun on land having little forest and little enervating as a temperature of 80° in the moist atunc or no wind ; but in winter the temperature sinks down much the coast, and, what is of still more importance, it 29 lower than the coast districts, owing to the great radiation ; so produce those terrible diseases which are usually the that the anoual mean temperature is not so great as the summer of hot countries. This is also, no doubt, due to the rest heats would lead one to anticipate. A table has been pre | the air. Stock of all kinds thrive remarkably well, pared for the purpose of showing by comparison with many very free from disease in those hot western districts places in Europe and America the temperature of the colony. The places have been arranged in order of temperature, taking for that purpose the mean annual temperature. This shows at once that the range of temperature here is equivalent to that offered by Europe from the north of England through France to Sicily.
SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. Such a range is more remarkable, because if New South Wales were placed on the map of Europe according to its latitude it The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science fue would extend from Sicily to Cairo, whereas when placed by its 1892 contains :-On the anatomy of Pentastomum temama temperature it stretches as we have seen from Sicily northwards (Baird), by Prof. W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A. (Plates 151 to England. Nor is this all that the table shows us. For even Whilst collecting on Kings Island, which lies to the when we find a place in Europe with a temperature equal to Bass Straits, half-way between the mainland of Piel that of some place here, it is at once observed that the summer Tasmania, numerous specimens of the copper temperature in Europe is warmer than the colonial one and the (Hoplocephalus superbus) were found, in the lungs of winter colder ; for instance, Naples, 60•3° ; Eden, 60°3° ; large species of Pentastomum were parasitic; after summer at Naples, 74'4" ; at Eden, 67-9°; winter at Naples, same parasite was discovered in the lungs of the big 47:6o ; Eden, 51-9; and so generally the southern country has (Pseudechys porphyriacus) in Victoria ; on examines the cooler and more uniform temperature. It is worthy of seemed little doubt but that the species was the coe is remark that the only places here of equal mean and summer by Baird long ago (1862) from specimens obtained in the temperature with places in Europe are ihose which are to be of a dead copper-head snake in the Zoological Gardens, found on the western plains, as at Wagga Wagga, which has a under the name of Pent. teretiusculum. In this paper mean temperature of 60'3° ; Naples, 60'3° ; and summer tem- a very complete account of the anatomy of this list perature of both is 74°; or again, to compare the places of the being descriptions and figures of its external anatoor,