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well as in ordinary combustion, the oxidation of the car Machinery at the Southampton Water Works, by Mr. W bonic oxide is effected by the interaction of the steam. Matthews, Water works Engineer (Friday). · 4. Inert gases are found to retard the explosion wave according to their volume and density. Within wide Prof. CAYLEY, we are glad to learn, is now convalescez. limits an excess of one of the combustible gases has the same retarding effect as an inert gas (of the same volume

We greatly regret to have to announce the death of XL: and density), which can take no part in the reaction. F. Blanford, F.R.S. He died on Monday at the age of it

5. Measurements of the rate of explosion can be em eight. ployed for determining the course of some chemical

PROF. MICHAEL FOSTER, Sec.R.S., has been appen changes.

In the explosion of a volatile carbon compound with Rede Lecturer at Cambridge for the present term. His in oxygen, the gaseous carbon appears to burn first to car lecture will be delivered early in June. bonic oxide, and afterwards, if oxygen is present in excess, the carbonic oxide first formed burns to carbonic

The Bill for the introduction of a standard time 94 acid.

solar time of the fifteenth meridian) was read a second this 6. The theory proposed by Berthelot--that in the the German Imperial Parliament on Monday. The next explosion wave the flame travels at the mean velocity of was accepted without much discussion. the products of combustion, although in agreement with the rates observed in a certain number of cases, does not

An excellent report on technical education in Londra account for the velocities found in other gaseous mix been submitted to the London County Council by a spa tures.

committee appointed to investigate the subject. The reports 7. It seems probable that in the explosion wave

prepared by Mr. Llewellyn Smitb, the coinmittee's seco (1) The gases are heated at constant volume, and not and displays a thorough grasp of the essential conditions d 2 at constant pressure;

problem. It is proposed that a Technical Instruction Board (2) Each layer of gas is raised in temperature before

be appointed, and that it shall consist of some members of a being burnt;

Council, and of representatives of the School Board, the 10 (3) The wave is propagated not only by the movements of the burnt molecules, but also by those of the heated

and Guilds of London Institute, the City Parochial Cris but yet unburnt molecules ;

the Head Masters' Association, the National Unioa d D (4) When the permanent volume of the gases is | mentary Teachers, and the London Trades Council. The changed in the chemical reaction, an alteration of tem- mittee think that one-third of the amount derived from ''E perature is thereby caused which affects the velocity of and spirits duties should be handed over to this body ir the wave.

provision of adequate technical instruction in all pass 8. In a gas, of the mean density and temperature cal- London, culated on these assumptions, a sound wave would travel at a velocity which nearly agrees with the observed rate The French Minister of the Interior has established a X of explosion in those cases where the products of com seilles, in connection with the university, an instite: bustion are perfect gases.

botanical and geological research, and a museum. Tbedre 9. With mixtures in which steam is formed, the rate of

is Prof. Heckel, who, as well as a curator and a librarian, 6 explosion falls below the calculated rate of the sound

his services gratuitously. wave. But when such mixtures are largely diluted with an inert gas, the calculated and found velocities coincide.

In the year 1793 was published Christian Konrad Sprezza It seems reasonable to suppose that at the higher tem

"Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Natur, im Bau und in der Bets peratures the lowering of the rate of explosion is brought

tung der Blumen,” the work which first directed the ates. about by the dissociation of the steam, or by an increase in its specific heat, or by both these causes.

naturalists to the contrivances which, in many flowers, onde 10. The propagation of the explosion wave in gases

sell-pollination difficult, and promote the visits of insects:20 must be accompanied by a very high pressure lasting for

cross-pollination. The copper-plate illustrations of this na a very short time. The experiments of MM. Mallard still maintain their character as among the best that bare and Le Chatelier, as well as the author's, show the pre published in this branch of science. Sprengel was iss sence of these fugitive pressures. It is possible that data respects a forerunner of Darwin, and centenaries have bee for calculating the pressures produced may be derived celebrated on slighter grounds than the publication of this from a knowledge of the densities of the unburnt gases and of their rates of explosion.

The chief characteristics of the weather during the past " have been its general mildness and dampness; the day : peratures have at times exceeded 50° in most parts at

kingdom, but at night slight frosts occurred towards the es NOTES.

last week in Scotland and the south-eastern parts of East The forty-sixth annual general meeting of the Institution of The distribution of pressure has been complex, a series : Mechanical Engineers will be held on Thursday evening and pressions have passed over the coast of Norway from the ed Friday evening, February 2 and 3, at 25, Great George ward, while an anticyclone lay over the south-western por Street, Westminster. The chair will be taken by the president, our islands, the reading of the barometer in the soci Dr. William Anderson, F.R.S., at half past seven on each being about an inch higher than in the north of Scotland evening. The annual report of the council will be presented to passage of the low-pressure systems in the north was the meeting on Thursday, and the annual election of the presi. panied by strong north-westerly winds and gales in Seodent, vice-presidents, and members of council, and the ordinary with hail or sleet in many places. Owing to the disas election of new members will take place on the same evening. | ance of the anticyclone from the continent, northThe following papers will be read and discussed, as far as time winds became prevalent over western Europe, and : 3 permits :-Description of the Experimental Apparatus and rise of temperature occurred there, amounting to Shaping Machine for Ship Models at the Admiralty Experiment Germany between the 20th and 21st instant. Deres Works, Haslar, by Mr. R. Edmund Froude, of Haslar (Thurs last few days fresh depressions have approached on day); description of the Pumping Engines and Water-Softening western coasts, with increasing winds from the soatd-vesi-1

tinuance of mild, unsettled weather appeared probable. it imbues its producers with intellectual knowledge, as well as
Veekly Weather Report shows that for the week ending with technical expertness. Such men in future carve out
st instant there was a large deficiency of rainfall in the industrial professions for themselves, and illumine them by
(Scotland, south-west of England, and south of Ireland. appropriate culture."
ercentage of possible duration of sunshine ranged from

The interesting address lately delivered by Sir Henry Roscoe the south-west of England to 7 in the south of England

on the occasion of the prize distribution at the Birmingham 3 in the north of Scotland.

Municipal Technical School has now been issued separately. ! Repertorium für Meteorologie, vol. xv. recently issued by He describes the report of the first year's work as "more nperial Academy of Sciences of St. Petersburg, contains than encouraging." Speaking of the building which is to be ission by P.A. Müller, of the Ekaterinburg Observatory, erected for technical training at Birmingham, he says :-"You foot of the Ural Mountains, in the Government of Perm, in Birmingham have, in my judgment, taken the right course. question of the evaporation from a snow surface. Several | You are not going to squander your money by using it for a , among whom are Drs. Brückner and Woeikof, differ thousand different purposes. You are, I hope, going to do a nion as to whether the evaporation from a snow surface good thing, and a big thing, in building and equipping a really s the condensation of the aqueous vapour of the air im. great institution, worthy of your city and of your well-earned ely above it. The method generally adopted for the

renown as being foremost amongst our towns in educational n of the question is to find whether the temperature of

matters. You will have a place of higher technical instruction w surface is above or below the dew-point of the sur., to which all the Midlands

to which all the Midlands will look up. It will be the gathering ag air ; in one case there would be evaporation, and in ground for all the youthful talent of the busy millions of the her condensation. The paper occupies forty-seven small district. It will be here that the future Faradays, and Priestleys, pages, and the observations were made hou rly from

and Watts will get that sound though elementary scientific ber 21, 1890, to February 28, 1891. The result of the

training which will enable them to pursue that training to its zation shows that according to the temperatures of the

highest point at the Mason College here, or in other colleges vint and of the surface of the snow, the evaporation of the elsewhere, which may in the end make both them and their greatly exceeds the condensation of the aqueous vapour,

country great." condensation occurred at only 27 per cent, while the

The new technical schools connected with University College, ation occurred at 73 per cent. of the hourly observations.

Nottingham, which were formally opened the other day, promise F. Flinders Petrie, to whose introductory lecture at

to be of immense service, not only to Nottingham itself, but to sity College, Gower Street, we referred last week,

the wide district of which it is the educational centre. A ed on Saturday the first of his regular course of lectures

remarkably clear description of the buildings, with plans, is Edwards Foundation. He said the Egypt of the early

given in a pamphlet prepared for the ceremonial opening. The lents was a mere strip of a few miles wide of green,

pamphlet also includes an interesting summary of the facts boundless deserts, and beneath a sky of the greatest

relating to the history of the Nottingham College and its cy; a land of extreme contrasts of light and shadow, of

technical department. I death. These conditions were reflected in the art. Mr. C. F. Juritz, Senior Analyst in the Department of

one hand was the most massive and overwhelming con- | Lands, Mines, and Agriculture, Cape Colony, announces in the n, and, on the other, the most delicate and detailed

Agricultural Journal, issued by the Department, that a compreOn the one hand, the most sublime and stolid statuary ; hensive series of investigations with reference to the chemical other, the course and accidents of daily life freely composition of the various soils of the colony is about to be

On the one hand, masses of smooth buildings that undertaken. The samples of soil are to be collected by one of lo the native hills on which they stand, gaunt and bare, the officers of the analytical branch of the Department. In the

the other, the vivid and rich colouring in the interiors. first instance the southern part of the Malmesbury district will sequence of the climate also Egypt is a land of great be visited, and soils will be taken from several localities repreity of life, and simplicity is especially the characteristic sentative (a) of primary and (b) of alluvial soils belonging to the

oldest Egyptian buildings. Speaking of the early | Malmesbury beds of clay slate. Mr. Juritz proposes next to an statues, Prof. Petrie said that the race represented by collect soils from the more northerly portion of the same disppears as “one of the noblest that ever existed.”

trict, in the vicinity of Hopefield, for instance, after which the eeds, on Monday, Lord Playfair presided at a public

Caledon district will be taken in hand. These analyses when held in support of the Yorkshire College.

completed will afford, he points out, an insight into the general

In pro. the principal toast—"The Yorkshire College "-he

composition of the clay slate soils, lying around the south

western coast of the Colony between Donkin's and Mossel [ the efforts made half a century ago to secure for science e which rightly belongs to it in the educational system.

Bays. The Government of Cape Colony look upon the proglad, he said, that these efforts had met with a temporary

posals that have been made as "a move in the right direction,” e, because if the Universities had at once yielded there

and have promised their warmest support. ave been no colleges now in our great provincial towns.

MR. KEDARNATH Basu, describing in Science some relics of eges, he thought, were adapting themselves rapidly and primitive fashions in India, says he does not see the same pro. on the whole, to the genius of their several localities. | fusion as he saw ten or twelve years ago, of tattoo-marks and Yorkshire College he said that she had fitted herself for red-ochre or red oxide of lead (sindur) over the forehead and ral culture and life work of a great industrial centre. crown among the women of Bengal. The rapid progress of female ubt her technical courses are peculiar. Actual laboratories | education and the consequent refinement in aesthetic taste are, ling, for dyeing, for tanning, for engineering, are novel he says, the causes of the decline of this rude and savage adornto a college. What does it mean? That you are try ment. The people of Behar, the North-western provinces, and strengthen and embellish industrial pursuits, as the | other districts, however, still cling to these remnants of savagery. ties acted upon the professions when they were obliged The up-country women, besides tatooing their bodies and paint. e them. Surely a great town like Leeds is right when ing the head with red paint, bore the lower lobes of their ears,

and insert big and heavy wooden cylindrical plugs, which almost highest importance, as it very much resembled the secrets sever the lobes from the ears. The plugs are sometimes as big “Chaac-mol” now in the Mexican Museum, but discovas as two inches in length with a diameter of an inch and a half, Le Plongeon at Chichen Itza. Much mischief is also crer and as much as two ounces in weight. These heavy plugs pull natives, who think nothing of tearing down ancient strucos down the lobes of the ears as far as the shoulders, and give the order to provide themselves with bailding material wearers a hideous look.

authorities of the Peabody Museum, to whom the cares

antiquities of Honduras has been granted for a periode MR. F. J. BLISS contributes to the new “ Quarterly State

years, deserve much credit for the efforts they make a ment" of the Palestine Exploration Fund a most interesting

with the evil. They have caused a wall to be built to report on the excavations at Tell-el-Hesy during the spring

principal remains in Copan, and a keeper has been is season of 1892. Speaking of the now samous tablet discovered

charge with strict orders to allow nothing to be destros in the course of these excavations, he says :-"On Monday,

carried away. May 14, ten days before we closed the work, I was in my tent at noon with Ibrahim Effendi, when my foreman Yusif came in

What is the true Shamrock? Most Irishmen are for with a small coffee-coloured stone in his hand. It seemed to be of opinion that they can answer the question correctly, curiously notched on both sides and three edges, but was so filled

fortunately they do not all give the same reply. Mr. Nu in with earth that it was not till I carefully brushed it clean that

Colgan, who has been investigating the subject, car the precious cuneiform letters were apparent. Then I thought

thirteen specimens from the following eleven coaptiesof a day, more than a year before, when I sat in Petrie's tent

Antrim, Armagh, Mayo, Clare, Cork, Wexford, is at the pyramid of Meydûm, with Prof. Sayce. He told me that

Carlow, Queen's County, and Roscom mon. Shamrocks I was to find cuneiform tablets in the Tell-el-Hesy, which as yet

thus secured from northern, southern, eastern, westen I had never seen ; and gazing across the green valley of the

central Ireland, Mr. Colgan's correspondents in the a slow, brown Nile, and across the yellow desert beyond, he

counties taking pains to have each sample selected by 2 3 seemed to pierce to the core, with the eye of faith, the far away

of experience who prosessed to know the geouine plat Amorite mound. As for me, I saw no tablets, but I seemed to

the specimens were planted and carefully labelled ris be seeing one who saw them !” Mr. Bliss also notes that the

places of origin, and lowering within some two booth discovery was a triumphant vindication of Mr. Flinders Petrie's gave the following results : eight of the specimens tard chronology-established, not by even a single dated object, but to be Trifolium minus of Smith, and the remains by pottery, mostly plain and unpainted. It is announced in the

Trifolium repens of Linnæus. Cork, Derry, Wicklowice "Quarterly Statement" that the excavations at Tell-el-Hesy are

County, Clare, and Wexford declared for Trifolias en now being vigorously carried on by Mr. Bliss, who has recovered

Mayo, Antrim, and Roscommon for Trifolius ree; from his serious illness.

Armagh and Carlow, each of which had sent tko spec

were divided on the question, one district in each cooby It seems that in Yucatan and Central America, as in Egypt T. repens, while the other gave T. minus. These resist and other countries, ancient monuments are held in small re- set forth by Mr. Colgan in an interesting paper is the spect by certain classes of travellers. According to Mr. M. H. volume of the Irish Naturalist, to which we referred ko Saville, assistant in the Peabody Museum, who writes on the Elsewhere in the same volume Mr. R. L. Praeger seg subject in Science, enormous damage is being done to many of that authentic specimens of shamrock should be obtain the most interesting antiquities in these regions. The magnif every county in Ireland, and he adds that he has no do cent “House of the Governor" in Uxmal, described as pro F. W. Moore would gladly grow thein at Glasnevin Gate bably the grandest building now standing in Yucatan, is almost Mr. Colgan did not care to undertake so large an orde covered with names on the front and on the cemented walls in- Praeger notes that in his own district, North Down, The side. These names are painted in black, blue, and red, and minus is always regarded as the true shamrock, be: among them are the names of men widely known in the scien luxuriant specimen, or one in flower, is generally disad tific world. The “ House of the Dwarss" in the same city has an impostor. suffered in like manner, and many of the sculptures which have The waters of the Great Salt Lake, Utah, are know 3 fallen from the buildings in Uxmal have been wilsully broken.

| in salinity at different times. Dr. Waller, of Columbia In Copan, when the Peabody Museum Honduras Expedition gives the results of his recent determination of the compared the condition of the “Idols” to-day with the photo. salts in the School of Mines Quarterly. A comparison graphs taken by Mr. A. P. Maudslay seven years ago, it was results with those obtained by Gale, Allen, Bassett, ai found that during that time some of the very finest sculptures shows a constant change of salinity, and a closer exam had been disfigured by blows from machetes and other instru reveals a variation from place to place. This is de ments. The Stela given as a frontispiece in Stephens' “Inci differences in the amount of evaporation, and to the De dents of Travel in Central America," vol. i., has been much water, fresh or saline, in many cases from sabe marred by some one who has broken off several ornaments and springs which give no indication of their presence. Fu a beautiful medallion face from the northern side. One of the of the constituents the water is nearly at saturatioa pas faces and several noses have been broken off from the differences of temperature are also apt to cause slight sitting figures on the altar figured by Stephens in the same of composition. The presence of lithium and volume, opposite page 142 ; and on some of the idols and altars

me of the idols and altars strengthens Captain Bonneville's conclusions with a names have been carved. While excavating in one of the

the basin of the ancient lake called after his name, and chambers of the Main Structure, members of the Expedition presented by the Great Salt Lake and its lesser Degree uncovered a beautisul hieroglyphic step, but before they had The benches of sand and gravel seen high up on the time to secure a photograph of it, some visitor improved the the Wahsatch mountains and the Oquirth range in opportunity while no one was about to break off one of the eastern and western shores of the old lake, whose we letters. In Quirigua a small statue, discovered by Mr. Mauds- have covered an area equal to that of Lake Hores lay and removed by him to a small house near the rancho of times that of the Great Salt Lake. Successive love Quirigua, had the head and one of the arms broken from it level finally cut off its outlet to the north, by whid during the interval between two visits. This statue was of the flow into the Pacific Ocean.

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EAUTIFUL optical phenomenon, which has not yet been in a c.c., after one hour's exposure to direct sunlight none were torily explained, is described by M. F. Folie in the discoverable, whilst in the darkened control flask during the same 1 of the Belgian Academy. It was observed about a period a slight increase in the numbers present had taken place. om Zermatt on August 13 at 8.30 a.m. "On our right, Even the addition of culture fluid to the Aasks exposed to suns the east, on the steep Alanks of the mountains which | light could not impair in the least the bactericidal properties of the valley of the Vieze, rose a group of fir trees, the the sun's rays. In the Alasks exposed to diffused daylight the of which projected themselves against the azure of the action was less violent but still a marked diminution was ob

a height of 500 m. above the road. Whilst I was served. In his later experiments Buchner has employed agaring my son exclaimed : 'Come and look : the firs are agar, mixing a large quantity of particular organisms, patho. vered with hoar-frost !' We paid the most scrupulous genic and others, with this material in shallow covered dishes and n to the phenomenon. To make sure that we were not then exposing them to the action of light ani noting its effect by an illusion we made various observations, both with upon the development of the colonies. For this purpose strips ked eye and with an excellent opera.glass." It was of black paper cut in any shape (in the particular dish photod that not only the distant trees, but those lining the

graphed by Buchner letters were used) were attached outside to ittered in a silvery light, which seemed to belong to the the bottom of the dish, which was then turned upwards and emselves, and that the insects and birds playing round exposed to direct sunlight for one to one and a half hours and aches were bathed in the same light, forming an aureole to diffused daylight for five hours. After this the dish was inhe tops of the trees, somewhat resembling the light effects

cubated in a dark cupboard. At the end of twenty-four hours l in the Blue Grotto. It is suggested that the light was

the form of the letters fastened to the bottom of the dish was i from the snow. Since it disappeared as soon as the

sharply defined, the development of the colonies having taken e above the hill, and has never been seen except in the I place in no part of the dish, except in those portions covered by e of snow, this explanation appears plausible, but it is the black letters. Some interesting experiments on the same desirable that further and more detailed observations subject have also recently been made by Kotljar (Centralblatt be made of this spectacle féerique.

für Bakteriologie, December 20, 1892). In the course of these Tasmanian Official Record is henceforth to be issued investigations the author found that of the coloured rays of the ally instead of annually, and a handbook has been spectrum the red favoured the growth of those bacteria experi

take its place during the intervening years. This hand. | mented with, whilst the violet rays acted prejudicially, although
vhich is described on the title-page as “for the year less so thin the white rays. The exceedingly interesting obser:
contains a brief epitome of the historical portion of the vation was made that the violet rays actually favoured the sporu-
Record, and summarises in a convenient form the more lation of the Bac. pseudo anthracis.
nt statistical information contained in the detailed tables

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the
Lst volume of the general statistics of the colony.

past week include a Macaque Monkey (Macacus cynomolgus :) RS. ASHER AND Co. will publish shortly an English from India presented by Mr. A. Sandbach: a Triton Cockatoo ion of the “ Recollections of the Life of the late Werner (Cacatua triton) from New Guinea, presented by Mr. Arthur mens,” the well-known electrician, and brother of Sir | Harter ; a Gannet (Sula bassana) British, presented by Mr. F. | Siemens. Two editions of the German original, pub.

| W. Ward ; two Tuatera Lizards (Sphenodon punctatus) from December last, were issued in the course of a few i

New Zealand, presented by Mr. W. H. Purvis ; two Wanderoo

Monkeys (Macacus silenus) from the Malabar Coast ; a Strawcourse of four winter lectures in connection with the necked Ibis (Carphibis spinicollis) from Australia ; four Snow

Geological Field Class will this year be delivered by Buntings (Plectrophanes nivalis); six Wild Ducks (Anas
1. G. Seeley, F.R.S., on Tuesday evenings, at the boschas, 38 38 ) British, purchased; a Meadow Bunting (Em.
al Hall, Farringdon Street, the subject being “The beriza cia) European, received in exchange; two Shaw's
Reptiles of the Thames Basin." All particulars may be Gerbilles (Gerbillus shawi) born in the Gardens.
the Hon. Sec. Mr. J. H. Hodd, 30 and 31, Hatton Gar.

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. bacterial purification which takes place in a river during

Comet HOLMES.-Edinburgh Circular, No. 37, announces has been recently attributed in part to the process of

that Palisa, telegraphing from Vienna, states that Comet tation which the micro-organisms in the water undergo, | Holmes now resembles an 8 m. star with a nebulous envelope rould seem that yet another factor must be taken into | 20" of arc in diameter.

Buchner, in some investigations which he has recently A further observation made by Prof. Schur in Göttingen on 1 f“ Ueber den Einfluss des Lichtes auf Bakterien." | January 19 showed that the nucleus was of the roth magnitude,

and could not be considered at all brighter than that magnitude. lalt für Bakteriologie, vol. II, 1892, also vol. 12,

12. | For the latter observation the air, as regards clearness, was all hows that this diminution of the numbers present may be that could have been desired. ted by the deleterious action which light exercises upon At South Kensington, on January 18, the comet was observed nicro-organisms. A systematic series of experiments as a hazy star and estimated to be about the 8th magnitude. e by introducing typhoid bacilli, B. coli communis,

The following ephemeris is that given by Schulhof :-aneus, Koch's cholera spirilla, also various putrefactive

Date. R.A app. Decl. app.

h. m. S. into vessels containing sterilized and non-sterilized

Jan. 26 ... I 35 33'0 ... +33 42 3 drinking water. As a control, in each experiment one

27 ... 36 587 ... 42 51 kus infected was exposed to light, whilst a second was

28 ... 38 25.1 ... er precisely similar conditions, with the exception of its

29 ... 39 52'1 ... 44 43

30 ... 41 19.8 ... vered up with black paper, by means of which every of light was excluded. The uniform result obtained in

Feb. I ... 44 17'0 ... 48 8 experiments was that light exercised a most powerful

2 ... I 45 46'5 ... 33 49 26 lal action upon the bacteria in the water under observa.

On January 30 the comet will lie very nearly between B Andro. T example, in one water in which at the commencement med and B Trianguli, about one-third of the distance from the periment 100,000 germs of B. coli communis were present | latter star.

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Comer BROOKS (NOVEMBER 19, 1892). -The following dans la photosphere," whilst the prominences are i ephemeris of Comet Brooks is due to Ristenpart, and is given simply in the solar atmosphere. As a case in point, : in Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3142 :

tions an observation made on August I of last year, o' 2: 1893. R.A. (app.) Decl. (app.) Log r. Log A. Br.

which, starting at a distance of 264", rose to 364" wabo h. m. S.

corresponding alteration at the surface. Jan. 26 ... 23 35 8 ... +40 343 ... 0'0921 ... 0'0471 ... 2.94

THE TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE, APRIL 15-16, 1893. – 38 53 ... 39 34'1

to M. Flammarion about the scientific expedition set 38 36:8 ... 0'0950 ... 0'0688 ... 2.62

Brazilian Government to study the region of the central 37 422

and to select a site for the proposed new capital, Ir. 36 50'2 ... 0°0981 ... O'0898 ... 2:35 the Director of the Observatory at Rio de Janeiro, 31 ... 51 32 ... 36 0'5

following note :-"About the total eclipse of April : Feb. I... 54 14 ... 35 13'1 ... Oʻ1015 ... Oʻ1101 ... 2:11

France send any one to observe it? I beg you to make a 2 ... 23 56 48 ... 34 277

through the Review (L'Astronomie) that the Branliar. G
This comet, which will be found to be in the constellation of ment is willing to send a warship to Ceara, on which
Andromeda, will lie about 31° to the south of i Andromeda on astronomers who wished to observe the phenomenon.
January 27.

a passage."
PHOTOGRAPHIC ABSORPTION OF Our ATMOSPHERE.---The
question of the degree with which our atmosphere absorbs

GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.
photographic rays has become very important owing to the adop-
tion of photography, so that any work enlightening us on this A CHANGE has been made in the arrangements for i
subject is anxiously listened to. Prof. Schaeberle, who has been pedition to Lake Rudolf referred to on p. 235, vol. I'.
making investigations in this direction, has just completed a expedition is to travel by the Tana river instead of the
memoir which is being published by the University of California, although its ultimate destination is the same, and la
but in the meanwhile he has issued a table setting forth simply Villiers, instead of accompanying it, has joined S:
the final results. The absorption in the following table is ex Portal's mission to Uganda.
pressed in photographic magnitudes, and must be added to the

MR. H. J. MACKINDER, M.A., Reader in Geort unknown atmospheric absorption at the zenith.

Oxford, delivered the first of a course of ten ei
Z. D.
Phot. 1 Z. D.

lectures, under the auspices of the Royal Geographica.si Absorp.

Absorp

on the relation of geography to history, on the 20th is 0'00

0944

attendance was largely composed of teachers and Cra Ο οι

0-56

Extension students, to whom special terms were offered 0.04

071

lecturer treated of "the Theatre of History," tract 0'07

development of accurate geographical knowledge froze O'LI

I'12

earliest times in a series of brilliant generalisations. He 0'16

upon the contrast between the knowledge of early 0'21

... 194

geographers regarding the true shape of the earth, 23: 0 28 | 85

2.68

habitual representation of the regions known to them O‘35 | 90

.. 5'00 cular form. In the middle ages, amongst the half-leurs HARVARD COLLEGE OBSERVATORY.—The forty-seventh map of the known world was elevated to the highest par annual report of this Observatory, by Prof. Pickering, opens figure of the globe was forgotten, and the doctrine “ with a reference to the death of Mr. George B. Clark, to whose earth gained currency. At the geographical rete “ genius for mechanical devices, indomitable perseverance, and map was adapted once more to the sphere, and the de devotion to the interests of the observatory, we are indebted for of Columbus and his contemporaries resulted directly. the success of many of our most useful instruments.” Of the

The suggestion of Mr. Joseph Thomson to bestow me most important matters mentioned in the report are the per

of Livingstonia (vol. xlvii. p. 160) on the Britist sem! manent establishment of an observing station in South America, influence north of the Zambesi, in spite of its singular ! where the unsteadiness of the air is for the most part eliminated, has, we fear, failed to convince the authorities in charge the construction of a suitable building for the housing of photo

region, who, it appears, have decided to adopt the ou graphs and the approaching completion of the Bruce photo

and scarcely accurate title of British Central Africa. graphic telescope. The work done with the various instruments during this period has been considerable. With regard to the

M. Mizon's second expedition to Adamawa has becer Draper telescope, as many as 2777 photographs have been

on the Benué by the breakdown of his steamers, and the taken. while those taken with the Bache instrument number ! falling of the water, he being left without means of nearly 2000. The Boyden department, which is situated at

| about two-thirds of the way between Lukoja and I'da. Arequipa, in Peru, has been making great progress, the results The French flag has been formally hoisted on the lite of which have been frequently inserted in Astronomy and Astro of St. Paul and New Amsterdam in the South lodies physics. The eight surfaces of the objective of the Bruce tele midway between the Cape of Good Hope and Austras scope have, as Prof. Pickering informs us, been ground and Paul is an interesting instance of a volcanic island, polished, and the results up to the present, according to tests crater of which forms a wide sheltered harbour Cona made on a star, are very satisfactory. This instrument, when with the sea by means of a single parrow channel. finished, is destined for the Arequipa station.

of the French stations for observing the transit of Vecs SOLAR OBSERVATIONS AT ROME.-Prof. Tacchini has issued

French fishermen from Reunion had practically takes? the results of the observations made with regard to the distribu

| sion of the islands in the early part of the century tion in latitude of the solar phenomena at the Royal Observatory | fishing-grounds have long been abandoned. during the third semester in 1892. From the tabulated state Mr. B. V. DARBISHIRE, M.A. (Oxon.), bas beer ment which he gives the following facts may be gathered. Cartographer to the Royal Geographical Society. fic

With regard to the eruptions, these phenomena seem to be the advantage of preliminary training in Germany, 27 quite local to the equatorial regions, the relative frequency

the Reader
being 0.667 and 0'333 for the north and south latitudes re.
spectively. The spots, faculæ, and eruptions have their maxima
nearly at the same distance from the equator both north and THE APPROACHING ECLIPSE OF THE
south, the zones being (+ 20°, + 30°), but the maxima for the

APRIL 16, 1893.'
prominences extend further north, about latitudes 60° north and
south. Prof. Tacchini remarks that in the equatorial zone

I HAD the honour, two and a half years ago, of 1 (+20°—20°), where the maxima of faculæ, spots, and eruptions

I to you the total eclipse of the sun of December *) are observed, a feeble relative frequency in ihe prominences is

which I had been to observe in the Salut Isles, Freed noted, which shows us that we must considera large num. | In spite of very unfavourable atmospheric conditions ! ber of prominences as the result of conditions "bien différentes

| Address to the Astronomical Society of France, on Sovet par rapport à celles qui déterminent la production des taches by M. De la Baume Pluvinel, translated by A. Taylor.

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