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pate claims of those who are engaged in cultural industries tail the adult measured 3 feet 8 inches. The present, says Mr. that limit. Good progress has been made in the scientific Southwell, is the nineteenth known example of this remarkable connected with the herbarium and library, and numerous animal, all of which have been met with in the North Atlantic its, such as the extension of grape culture, the distribution during the present century; but, with the exception of one luable economic plants, experiments in onion and tomato taken in 1889 at Atlantic City, which came into the possession e, fodder plants for the hills, have received attention. of the United States National Museum at Washington, and of nts from Harvard University were engaged during the year which no account has, he believes, at present been published, lying and making collections of tropical plants, and one of in no other instance has an example in perfect condition come devoted himself to preparing glass models of flowers and under the notice of a cetologist. Individuals or their remains with dissections to illustrate the science of botany. Two have been found in Scotland and Ireland, but the only previous atices, natives of Lagos, West Africa, were attached to the English example was met with at the mouth of the Humber in Gardens, with the view of qualifying themselves to take | September, 1885. : of botanical stations in their own country.
COLONEL H. W. FEILDEN, in the course of an interesting Fawcett's opinion respecting the practical aims and paper on animal life in East Greenland, contributed to the pas of departments like his are conveyed in the following! February number of the Zoologist, suggests, as he has done : “Botanic Gardens in the tropics do the work on the before, that the Musk-ox might with advantage be introduced side of Agricultural Departments in temperate climates. into Great Britain. He sees no reason why it should not thrive are in themselves experimental stations, and are much on the mountains of the Highlands of Scotland. In the winter efficient in introducing new cultural products, and in dis season the Musk ox is covered with a long-stapled fine wool in ng plants and imparting useful information than most agri. addition to its coat of hair. This wool is of a light yellow colour, al departments. The whole of the Botanic Gardens in the and as fine as silk, Sir John Richardson states that stockings made · Enpire are more or less in communication with one from this wool were more beautiful than silk ones. Young I, exchanging seeds and publications, and all look up to Musk-oxen are very easily reared and tamed, and, Colonel yal Gardens at Kew as to their head for advice and assist- Feilden thinks, there could not be any great difficulty in catch
Imperial Federation is already in existence as regards the ing either old or young in Jameson's Land. cal Gardens and their work. If any special variety of Governor Flower has recommended that all of the New York or any new culture comes into notice information and
State's pecuniary contributions to agriculture should be turned are sought either directly from the local institutions, or
over to Cornell University, with power to apply the same in such probably through Kew as the botanical clearing house. The
a manner as the trustees and faculty of that institution may or of Kew has at his disposal the services of experts in
devise. To the New York Nation this seems an excellent branch of botanical inquiry, and he is always most willing suggestion. The agricultural disbursements from the State ist colonial establishments in every way. Besides, any
Treasury, except the portion specifically set apart as premiums te question that arises in chemistry, in diseases of plants, | for agricultural fairs, have become, it says, as distinctly a part ect pests, in the commercial value of new products, can
of the “ spoils system" of politics as the work on the canals or the always be determined by reference to Kew. Colonial
appointments of wardens in the Stale prisons. The Dairy Comcal gardens are therefore not isolated units, but branches
mission was started with an appropriation of 10,000 dollars for yrganisation as wide as the British Empire itself."
the purpose of suppressing oleomargarine. The expenditure first part of “A Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon,” by has grown to 100,000 dollars per year, while the fight against · Trimen, F.R.S., director of the Royal Botanic Garden, oleomargarine is not a whit more effectual than it was in the enyia, will shortly be published. It will be illustrated | beginning, inty-five coloured plates, and the entire work is intended The Government of Cape Colony has now at work, in charge sist of four similar parts.
of its own experts, eight water-boring diamond drills, and there E first number of Erythea, a new monthly botanical journal is a great demand on the part of farmers for the use of the estern America, has been published. It is edited by Mr. instruments. Experiments have been made on twenty-seven L. Jepson, under the direction of members of the botanical farms, on twenty-two of which water has been found. The ment of the University of California.
Agricultural Journal of Cape Colony says that the results have T. SOUTHwell records in the February number of sometimes been astonishingly successful. On a farm in the ologist the occurrence of Sowerby's whale (Mesoplodon
| division of Cole.berg, for instance, three holes were sunk, the on the Norfolk coast. On December 19 last he first two unsuccessfully. In the third, however, the water was d a lelegram stating that a strange “ fish” was ashore struck, first at 2 feet 6 inches, then at 8 feet 6 inches, then at rstrand, near Cromer; and on the following day he and
16 feet, then 22 feet, then 32 seet 6 inches, and on reaching a F. Harmer, of the Museum of Zoology and Anatomy,
depth of 47 feet a stream of water shot up above the ground, idge, went to Overstrand, where they found an adult
gauged at 21,600 gallons in twenty-four hours, delivered through of this rare species. About 8 a.m., on Sunday,
a 1-inch pipe, and with every indication of the supply proving iber 18, one of the Overstrand fishermen saw from the
| permanent. In most cases the water is of excellent quality. 1 object lying in shallow water near the beach, which he
Some exceedingly interesting experiments are about to be tried took to be a log of wood, but soon perceived to be a
in Bushmanland by the Government. Sites are now being 'fish." Alter obtaining assistance, he sastened a noose
selected for a line of boreholes right across the country. It is s tail and secured it by an anchor, till it was placed on a
well known that the veld makes splendid sheep-runs after and drawn up the gang way to a shed on the cliff where
occasional rains, and should the experiments prove successful, itors saw it. The animal was alive when first observed,
the value of the land will be greatly increased. With respect :d before it was taken from the water. Before the arrival
also to the Government railway grant of 6000 square miles of visitors it had been eviscerated, and a very advanced lotus
land in Bechuanaland, it is intended that water shall be bored ed from it. The total length of the old female, measured
for there as soon as drills can be set at liberty. raight line to the centre of the tail, was 16 feet 2 inches, | PROF.O. C. MARSH gives in the February number of the at of the young one 5 feet 2 inches ; across the flukes of the American Journal of Science an interesting restoration of
Anchisaurus, the skeleton chosen for the purpose being the widely distributed maps and reports. The cost of siden
DEALING with the state of the Seal Islands, the Seas some of these were not made by birds has already been clearly
y | the loterior says that during the season of 1892 only demonstrated by the fact that the impressions of fore feet, i
were killed on the islands, and that the diminished me similar to those made by reptiles, have been found with them.
seals upon the rookeries shows the terrible waste to ser Although no osseous remains were found with them, others
the destructive methods employed in pelagic sealing. i have been regarded as footprints of birds, because it was sup
measures, he maintains, are necessary for the preservs: posed that birds alone could make such series of bipedal, three
the sealing industry. In 1890 n. less than 50,000 seal toed tracks and leave no impression of a tail. It is now evident,
taken in the sea, and more than that number in 1891. however, says Prof. Marsh, that a dinosaurian reptile like
seal taken in the ocean represents many more destrome: Anchisaurus and its near allies must have made footprints very
the 52,087 taken in the ocean in 1891 indicates the destra similar to, if not identical with, the “bird-tracks" of this
| 300,000 more, three-fourths of which were females. horizon. On a firm but moist beach, only three-toed impres. sions would have been left by the hind feet, and the tail could
The accumulation of ice in winter, blocking her have been kept free from the ground. On a soft, muddy shore,
estuaries, &c., interferes greatly with the commer. the claw of the first digit of the hind foot would have left its
Northern peoples. The idea arose to make steames mark, and perhaps the tail also would have touched the ground.
should break a temporary path through the ice, and is u Such additional impressions the writer has observed in various
burg (Sweden) such a vessel was built in 1881. In the series of typical “bird-tracks” in the Connecticut sandstone, | winter of 1885 it made a wide passage between that too and all of them were probably made by dinosaurian reptiles. Vinga, on the open sea, through an ice-bank about a box No tracks of true birds are known in this horizon.
which it charged at a speed of about 81 knots 2
Christiania has been led to get one of these iota The U.S. Secretary of the Interior, in his report, just issued,
steamers ; also Oersen in Denmark, and Stockhol for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1892, refers to a good many
Murtaja, recently built for Stockholm (and described in subjects of more than passing interest. Speaking of Indian
Civil), acts both by its weight in charging the ice-bank, 4 educational work during the year, he states that it has been
its spoon-like bow resting on the ice and crashing it. T greatly extended and improved. The attendance of Indian
is divided into compartments, those at the bow and stero | children in school has increased over 13 per cent., the enrol. ment for 1892 being 19,793 as against 15,784 in 1889. Five
as reservoirs for water, which is transferred from the one new Indian reservation boarding schools have been established
other by a pump. With the stern-reservoir full, the dran
water at the stern is about 21 inches ; during the present administration, and are in successful opera.
at the bow | tion, and six others are in process of establishment, and it is
inches. When the bow rises on the ice the water is
brought forward to add to the weight. It need hardly ! anticipated will be opened soon. Six non-reservation schools have also been established and others are being prepared. The
the bow, and indeed the whole of the hull, are made very! standard, character, and ability of all employés have been
the material used being Swedish scrap iron and Martins greatly improved, as have also the appliances and equipments
It is known that sewage water, spread over irriga for the proper training of Indian pupils and the efficient adminis.
reappears from drains placed at a few feet depth, in : tration of the Indian school service. A uniform system of state, like spring water. This water, unlike that of text-books and course of study has been adopted, and a com
proves remarkably favourable to fishes, probably becsal pilation of the rules for the conduct of the schools has been
dissolved organic matter, which the filtration in the sa! prescribed. The interest in the welfare of the Indians has been
wholly removed. This fact has been lately observed constant and the work in their behalf persistent; and the Secre Oesten on the irrigation farm at Malchow, near Berliz tary thinks that this has resulted in their being raised still nearer
the water is collected in eight ponds; and in these paši to civilisation.
and carp have flourished greatly. The U.S. Geological Survey, according to the Secretary for
In determining the thermal conductivities of lica the Interior, has had a very marked effect on the mining
methods have been employed. In the one, a color: industries of the country. The increase in value of mineral
is warmed at the top and the rate of propagation des products during the past year was 75,000,000 dollars, and the
through the column is observed. In the other, the # increase during the thirteen years since the institution of the
method, which was first employed by Guthrie, a tbs survey is 300,000,000 dollars. While a part of this develop liquid is placed between two conducting surfaces. ment represents the normal growth of the population and in
| Wachsmuth has shown, by means of an ingenios dustries, the increase is much more rapid than that of popula. apparatus, that in the first method currents in the tion, and is, moreover, accompanied by a decided relative
unavoidable. The apparatus, as described in a decrease in importations of mining products ; indeed, the mining Annalen, consisted of a beaker placed inside another products of the country have more than doubled during the past
water. The inner beaker was filled with water and all thirteen years, while the population has increased only 30 per of starch, which has the property of suddenly turnios cent. The secretary, therefore, thinks it fair to ascribe a | when heated to a temperature somewhere between zo** material part of the present industrial activity in extracting and according to the degree of dilution. A copper utilising mineral resources to the services of the Geological placed on the rim of both beakers so that its botice Survey through its correspondence, and especially through its | contact with the surface of the emulsion. When s
de to pass through the cylinder, a colourless stratum was The discovery of these crystals of a definite compound of en to extend downwards from the surface. The separating iron and tungsten, and the fact that they are endowed with such rface was sharply defined at first, but after a few minutes a a high degree of hardness, afford a ready explanation of the longmber of secondary stratifications appeared, which on close | known property of lungsten in improving the hardness of steel. spection showed wavy outlines. Many of them were of a Berzelius, in his Lehrbuch, already remarked that tungsten eper blue, 2.e, cooler, at their upper than at their lower sur- | readily formed alloys with most of the other metals, and in the ces, so that there was evidence of a vortex-like motion in the year 1858 Muchet in this country took out a patent for the emquid. For really trustworthy results Mr. Wachsmuth used ployment of tungsten in the manufacture of steel. Thereupon
arrangement of two copper plates and a thermopile, the the wolfram minerals, previously considered as almost worthless, wer plate being placed in contact with ice.
rapidly came to acquire a considerable value. Bernoulli has The volume on "The Partition of Africa," by Mr. J. Scott
since shown that tungsten is capable of alloying in all proporeltie, which has been for some time in preparation, will be tions with iron until it reaches a proportion of 80 per cent., when sued in a few days by Mr. Stanford. The work, which has
the mass becomes infusible even at the hottest procurable white een brought thoroughly up to date, is illustrated by a carefully heat. This alloy containing so high a percentage of tungsten, lected series of facsimiles of early maps, as well as by a num
approximating indeed to that (864) contained in the crystals er prepared specially to show the present condition of the
above described, exhibits a silver-grey lustre like that of the ontinent in its many different aspects.
crystals and possesses almost the same hardness, scratching MR. A. E. SHIPLEY, Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge,
glass and quartz with ease. Latterly the manufacture of this nd Demonstrator of Comparative Anatomy in the University,
alloy has been carried on at the Hanoverian metal works above as been for some time engaged on an illustrated text-book of
referred to, and brought into commerce. There can be little nvertebrate zoology, which will be published (Adam and
doubt that the remarkable property of tungsten in increasing the Charles Black) early in the spring. It is specially adapted for the
hardness of steel is due to the formation of more or less of this
| compound FeW,, and the nearer the proportions of the two Ise of University students reading for such examinations as the irst part of the Natural Sciences Tripos, or for the B.Sc. degree
metals approach to those of the compound itself the more nearly
does the resulting alloy approach in hardness to that displayed in London.
by the crystals of FeW, above described. MESSRS. MACMILLAN AND Co. have published a second edition of Mr. D. E. Jones's “Examples in Physics.” The The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the book has been carefully revised, and some sixty pages of matter past week include a Macaque Monkey (Macacus cynomolgus, ! ) have been added. New sets of problems from recent papers from India, presented by Capt. U. Cooke ; a Two-spotted have been put in the place of the examination questions at the Paradoxure (Nandinia binotata) from West Africa, presented by ends of the chapters.
Lady Fleming; a Brush-tailed Kangaroo (Petrogale penicillata, The first volume of the Seismological Journal is now in the
8), two Black.striped Wallabys (Halmaturus dorsalis, 89)
), two Black.striped Wal press, and will shortly be issued. It is uniform in size and from New South Wales, presented by Mr. Wilberforce Bryant ; in character witb the Transactions of the Seismological Society, a Mauge's Dasyure (Dasyurus maugæi) from Australia, preand will correspond with what would have been volume XVII. sented by Mr. Robert Hoare ; a Red and Yellow Macaw (Ara of those publications had they been continued. The yearly
chloroptera) from South America, presented by Mr. H. H. subscription for the journal is 5 yen, 5 dollars, or £1. This
Dobree; a Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) from West Africa, includes delivery or postage. It may be paid by P.O.O. or a
presented by the Executor of the late Mrs. Bolaffe ; an draft on any foreign bank in Yokohama. Address, John Milne,
Æthiopian Wart Hog (Phacocharus ethiopicus, 8 ) from Mata14, Kaga Yashiki, Tokio.
beleland, South Africa, deposited ; two Chukar Partridges MESSRS. WHITTAKER'AND Co. have published “The School
(Caccabis chukar, 8 9 ) from North-west India, presented by Calendar and Handbook of Examinations, Scholarships, and
Major Ingoldsby Smythe ; fourteen Prairie Marmots (Cynomys Exhibitions, 1893." This is the seventh year of issue.
ludovicianus, 6889) from North America, an Arctic Fox A pre.
(Canis lagopus) from the Arctic Regions, two Rufous Tinamous face is contributed by Mr. F. Storr.
(Rhynchotus rufescens) from Brazil, purchased; three Black A DEFINITELY crystallised compound of iron and tungsten of and Yellow Cyclodus (Cyclodus nigro-luteus), three Diamond the composition FeW, is described by Drs. Poleck and Grützner, Snakes (Morelia spilotes), a Short Death Adder (Hoplocephalus of the University of Breslau. The crystals of this interesting curtus), a Purplish Death Adder (Pseudechis porphyriaca), a substance were discovered in drusy cavities of a massive piece of North Australian Banded Snake (Pseudonaia nuchalis) from
crystalline iron-tungsten alloy containing no less than 80 per New South Wales, received in exchange.
OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. small but very well-formed crystals of a silver-grey colour and
COMET HOLMES (1892 III.).—During the past week no exhibiting very brilliant faces. They were extremely heavy and
very important change has taken place in the appearance of the of exceptional hardness. Upon analysis they yielded numbers
comet ; the following is the current ephemeris :Curresponding closely with those calculated for the compound
Ephemeris for 12h. M. T. Paris. FeW, Dr. Milch, of the Mineralogical Department of the
1893. R.A, app. Decl. app.
h. m. S. University, subjected the crystals to a goniometrical investiga
Feb. 9 ... I 56 29'3 ... + 34 28 tion, and found them to consist of trigonal prisms whose faces
10 ... I 58 33 ... were inclined exactly at 60°, and which were terminated by a
II ... I 59 37.8 ... basal plane inclined exactly at 90°. Singularly, however, no
12 ... 2 I 12:8 ...
13 ... 2 48:3 ... 8 9 other faces were ever discovered upon them, so that it was im
14 ... 4 24'4 ... possible to ascertain to what sub-section of the hexagonal system
15 ... 6 o'9 ... 12 20 the crystals belonged. The crystals are so hard that they readily
16 ... 2 7 379 ... 34 14 30 scratch topaz, and appear to be of about the same hardness as Mr. Fowler writes from South Kensington "The comet on corundum,
February 6 was a very dim nebulosity without sensible nucleus."
COMET BROOKS (NOVEMBER 19, 1892).-The following is not only this, but the magnitudes of both vary directly. I the ephemeris for Comet Brooks for the ensuing week :
point which the author wishes to emphasize most is the post Ephemeris for 12h, M. T. Berlin.
constancy of the interval of time between these two phenoot 1893. R.A. app. Decl. app. Log r. Log a.
and an important fact is that at both appearances of the
February 'spot the same retardation occurred. In the m. S. Feb. 9 ... O II 33 ... + 30 2'9 ... 0'1167 ... 0'1832 ... 1'40 | table, with the exception of January 29, the mean interest 10 ... 13 19 ... 29 31'2
454 kms., "thus indicating a velocity of propagation from II ... 15 1 ... 29 0-9
sun to the earth of about 913 kms. per second," or "f not 16 40 ... 28 31.8
300 times less than that of light." 18 15 ... 28 4'0 ... 0'1252 ... 0'2152 ... 1'16 NEw Minor PLANETS.-Photography seems to be me 14 ... 19 47 ... 27 37'3
increasing the number of our minor planets, that is to sit 15 ... 21 17 ... 27 11 6
the announcements really reser to new ones. Woll and Chen 22 44 ... 26 46'9
between them have discovered five this year, the former
THE LUNAR SURFACE.--At the present day the gener tions, is one by M. Eugen Goihard, ielative to the great simi
with regard to the peculiar features of the moon is that these larity between ihe specira of the late Nova and the planetary
the results of stupendous volcanic actions, the nambaran nebulæ. By the aid of a 101-inch reflector and a 10-inch
activity of which surpassed anything that we can imagire Ott objective prism, together with Scbleussner's orthochromatic
to the extraordinary circularity in the craters, ring lan plates, he has been able to obtain these photographs, the
walled plains, and to the well-known fact that may be wave-lengths of the lines of which are given in the table below.
craters have not the raised lava floor half-way up a bere In the memoir copies of the photographs on a somewhat larger sur
şummit of the cone, which is such a typical ierrestrial de scale are given, ihat of the Dumbbell nebula (G.C. No. 1 er
teristic, doubt as to their volcanic origin has often beca 4447) showing the image of the nebula itself, just as if no prism
In a small pamphlet which we have received from Mr. S had been used. The wave-lengths of the Nova given in this
Peal, Sibsagor Assam, the author suggests a " theory of glaan table were obtained from photographs taken on September 27
in the light of recent discoveries with regard to the matt with 2h. 15m, exposure, and on October 28 with 3h. exposure,
surface temperature, and also to the non-viscosity of ice and, in M. Goihard's words, “gave the surprising result that the
temperatures, together with the admitted possibility spectrum of the new star perfectly agrees with that of the
exiting on the moon. The author assumes the mos planetary nebulæ."
constituted somewhat like our earth, and at one time The following is the table of the wave-lengths, lines I., II.,
been at a higher temperature, having an atmosphere, $221, VI., and VII. representing the nebula lines, and III., IV.,
and draws attention to the facts that there are no pole and V. ihe hydrogen lines :
that colour is conspicuous by its absence, "a feature
opposed to terrestrial experience, except at the pole III. IV. V. VI. VII
therefore "may not the entire globe be swathed in shop the absence of river valleys and drainage sculpturing, Det
that a piling up of dry material has taken place in op (1) G.C. No. 4447
| 434 411 3965 386'5 373 to a fluvial erosion. At the time when the lunar globe 4964
far cooled down as to be practically rigid, tbe tidal 4373 502
396'5 386*5 373
would gradually rurn all continents and land surfaces iet 4514 502
396 5 38597 371 4628
5 396 386 5 372
and at the tempera!e stage of development the grow (6) N.GEC. ,, 7027
3857 polar caps would be restricted to the shallows, extent
396 ' 386 5 372
them as the temperature became reduced. 6884
This a 500'5!
395 386'5 ) Nova
434 4077, 395 385-5 372
sheet of ice would sometimes be deformated by submarzo vents resulting in a large or small bay, depending out
nitude of the vent. Extending seawards the “horns of SUN-SPOTS AND MAGNETIC PERTURBATIONS IN 1892.-In
would meet around and enclose this area of higher Den an article under this heading in Astronomy and Astrophysics for
perature, converting it into a lagoon." Nocturnal January M. Ricco brings together the facts relative to these two
and solar heat alternately would perbaps freeze and is phenomena, the magnetic perturbations being taken from the
ice formed thereon, and with a rare atmosphere and inte photo-magnetographs of the Unitcd States Naval Observatory.
aqueous vapour would arise from “the water (fice As the author describes in detail both kinds of observations, and
floor during the day at least, and be carried over the in in addition, a tabulated statement of the records, we cannot do
by diffusion when the fall in temperature would prezi better than abridge the table, by omitting the numerical state
into snow, thus gradually forming a vast rampart." ments as to the magnitudes of the spots and perturbations,
alter century would see the level floor gradually lost leaving our readers to refer if necessary to the journal itself.
the ramparts increased in height. The author accounts In the column “spots" this means principal spots; E
the peculiar forms of crater, walls, &c., by different denotes extraordinary ; V.L, very large ; L, large ; M, I ditions (ie land or water or submarine vents), but they medium ; S, small; and N, none.
the result “ of water floors lest in a slowly extending 65 Helio
| Mag. Retar-
of the crust.”
At the French Congress of Learned Societies, we
on April 4 at the Sorbonne, the section of bistonica Feb. 12, 4 a.m. | E 30 Feb. 14, I a.m.
scriptive geography, is to be devoted specially to 11 March 1-5 ... - March 1-5 ...!
geographical conditions of France, and to the work March 7, 2 a.m. - March 7, 2 a.m.
travellers. The programme includes the considerata March 10, 2 p.m. E -- 29 March 12, 11 a.m.
earliest traces of human habitations, maps of caverns. April 23, 8 p.m. L +11 April 25, 11 p.m.
proceeds to classify existing dwellings according to there April 24, 4 p.m. L + 16 April 26, I p.m.
and altitude. Local names in danger of falling on! May 1-2 ... ... N ! - May 1-2 ... ...
to be collected, and the limits of the old districts sac May 16, 5 p.m. E - 16 May 18, 6 p.m. E 49 Beauce, Sologne, &c., to be investigated in order :
record the geographical conditions which led to their From this iable some very interesting facis may be gathered.
In the Scottish Geographical Magazine for Fest Out of the cleven cases which M. Ricco gives, no less than seven J. G. Goodchild gives a most interesting description of instances occur where the passage of the spots over the central scale topographical model of the site of Edinberga, meridian is followed by a terrestrial magnetic disturbance, and l has recently constructed. The model, which is o
e Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh, is based upon body should be the arbiters, not only of fame, but of profesholomew's map of Edinburgh on the scale of 15 inches to sional status. le, but the altitudes are taken point by point from the large Resolutions embodying the proposed changes were moved
plans of the Ordnance Survey. The model is in many from the chair, and carried unanimously. It need not be said original in its mode of construction. Its object is purely that the new rule is not retrospective. raphical, having been suggested by a leading citizen as a These matters having been settled, the secretary proceeded to od of showing the contrast between the circuitous roads read Mr. Froude's paper describing the apparatus in the Haslar requent steep gradients of the old coaching days, and the | establishment, over which he presides. To make clear the details hter and more level lines of communication by which of mechanism given would be quite impossible without the aid m engineers have overcome the restraint of physical con of drawings. These were supplied at the meeting in the shape tion.
of wall diagrams, but as members had not an opportunity of the same number of the Scottish Geographical Magazine
studying them beforehand, there were very few who were able to is a paper on the Deserts of Atacama and Tarapaca, read
keep up with the reading of the paper, excepting those who already Society by Mrs. Lilly Grove, and some interesting notes
knew all about the matier. This is too often-we may say geneuth Eastern Alaska by Prof. J. J. Stevenson, illustrated by
rally-the case in meetings of the technical societies ; excepting always the Institution of Civil Engineers. Before this Society
a paper is read on one evening, and, if its importance be , H. J. MACKINDER's third educational lecture for the
sufficient, it is discussed during three sittings, each a week Geographical Society was given on Friday night, the apart. Members have therefore an opportunity of grasping the t being the belt of Steppe which traverses Asia from details of the papers read, and preparing what they have to say o east. He showed how the distinctive physical and beforehand. It is for this reason ihat the discussions before the ic conditions of the Steppe favoured the growth of Civil Engineers have always been instructive. ic nations, every man of whom was a member of the
Mr. Froude's paper deals with but a fragment of its subject, nobile cavalry force which ever existed. Pastoral pur- but it takes the part which was more especially of interest to his ad marauding were natural to the Steppe peoples, and audience, namely, the mechanical details involved in the appascent of their hordes on the settlements bordering the ratus used for testing the models by which a forecast is made of
were turning points in the history of surrounding the performance of future naval vessels. It is well known that • Reference to the successive periods of conquest by these forecasts are made possible by the late Mr. Froude's disthians, Huns, Turks, and Mongols showed the power of
covery of the law of "corresponding speeds," so that the speed, omads on the affairs of other countries, and until the with a given power, of the full sized ship can be deduced from of the Steppe.bred Cossacks no western power has ever the perlormance of the model. The way in which the late Mr. control of the central Asian piains.
Froude carried out his investigations, and how the original exOWING on the death of Captain Stairs we have to record | perimental works grew up at Torquay, under the wise encourage. th of his fellow-officer in the Emin relief expedition, Mr. | ment of the Admiralty, are well known to all interested in Nelson. Mr. Nelson returned to Africa, and was in physical science. It would be difficult to overestimate the good of the district of Kikuyu in Ibea, when he succumbed | that has followed this work ; for one thing it has done much tack of dysentery on December 26, 1892.
to put us on an equality with our old rivali, the French-long,
indeed, our masters in the science of ship design. Perhaps there - - - - - -
is nothing upon which we could better found our claim to naval IE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL
supremacy-in this long era of naval peace-than the possession
of the only naval testing tank of its kind. It is a distinction ENGINEERS.
we shall probably not long be able to boast, for the Russians, first general meeting for this year of the Institution of | Italians, and Americans all contemplate constructing establishechanical Engineers was held on Thursday and Friday ments of a like nature. s of last week, the 2nd and 3rd inst., in the theatre of The paper commences with describing the principal features itution of Civil Engineers.
of the present Admiralty experiment establishment at Haslar. were two papers set down for reading, as follows :- As at the former works at Torquay, the chief object consists of iption of the experimental apparatus and shaping machine a long covered water-way, in which models of ships are towed models at the Admiralty Experimental Works, Haslar," to ascertain their resistance. The towing is done from a dynaImund Froude, of Haslar ; “Description of the pumping mometer carriage driven at definite speeds by a stationary engine
and water-softening machinery at the Southampton working a wire rope. The models are made of hard paraffine, orks," by William Matthews, waterworks engineer generally about 14 feet long, and something upwards of 1 inch the disposal of the usual formal business, the President in thickness as finished. They are cast in a mould with an Hiam Anderson) referred to the International Engineer- allowance of about 1" for finishing the shape. The latter
ress which was to be held in Chicago during the month operation is done by hand, guidance grooves being cut st next. He had received a letter from Mr. James in the model, so that the exact form may be preserved. of London, who had been elected honorary president | The working of this shaping or copying machine, and the ngress. Every one, Dr. Anderson said, knew of Mr. way in which it enables the lines of a drawing to be so there was no occasion for him to say anything further translated into model form, constitute one of the most interest. ead; but he trusted that English engineers would take ing parts of the installation. The water-way, canal, or tank at essary to a creditable representation.
Haslar is nearly 400 feet long, and of nearly uniform section :xt business was an alteration in the bye-laws, the chief throughout. The sides are of concrete and vertical, and the to the class of membership. Hitherto the institution railway, on which the dynamometer carriage runs, is bedded on sted of members, associates, and graduates. The two the tops of the side walls of the water-way, in place of being sses are, however, of small importance and practically suspended over the water from the roof, as in the original design. ation is composed of full members. The qualification | The experimental carriage, which has to be nearly 21 feet gauge, persbip was that the candidate should be an engineer is a trussed structure. Its principal peculiarity consists in the
twenty-four years of age ; so that a member might be fact that the members of the several trusses composing it are reorge Street magnate, or the head of a big engineer. wooden trunks or boxes about 4" square in cross sections, made down to a draughtsman or the foreman of a machine of l" deal, and put together with screws and shellac varnish. At posing of course he were an engineer and not simply the joints formed by the intersection of the various members of lic or artisan. These conditions of equality do not the trusses, the sides of the boxes are made to overlap one owever, to meet the views of the council of the institu another over a large area, providing a large surface for screwing lere are to be two classes of engineers on the register, and for the adhesion of the shellac varnish. The dimensions of nd the little. These are to be known respectively as the boxes forming the several inembers of the girders are and a sociate members, but as far as we can see the designed so as to bring the sides of the boxes into the right inction is that the member has achieved success whilst planes to suit these overlaps. The whole structure thus proiate member bas still his way to make. Honour to vided is remarkably rigid and light. The general design of the jour is due is a good maxim, but it may be doubted | carriage is arranged so as to leave clear a sort of central alley he practically sell-elected council of an irresponsible provided with a railway, the rails of which are close to the sides