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A CAPITAL annotated catalogue of the mammals collected by bands reaching up to 1 20620, the principal less refrangible Dr. W. L. Abbott in the Kilima-Njaro region, East Africa, has bands being between been prepared by Mr. F. W. True, and printed in the Pro

7000 and 7700 ceedings of the fifteenth volume of the U.S. National Museum,

7850 and 8600

9000 and 10000 with several plates. Dr. Abbott has presented to the National

10750 and 11600 Museum many African collections ; but none of them, according

13700 and 15000 to Mr. True, is of more interest than the collection of mammals.

These were made up of innumerable fine lines. It was also obThe specimens have been prepared with much care, the skins

served that the carbon spectrum vanished in comparison with being almost invariably accompanied by the skulls and furnished !

| the metallic spectrum as soon as the latter was brought into with labels giving the locality and date of capture, sex, and play. Of the five metals investigated, viz., sodium, potassium. other data. In determining the species Mr. True has found it'

tue has found it rubidium, lithium, and cæsium, the two rarest were found to be necessary to depend almost exclusively on the literature, on!

specially rich in infra-red lines. Sodium showed maxima at account of the lack of specimens for comparison, but the identi. 8182, 11270, 12400, and 18360, potassium at 7670, 10820, fications have been made with much care, and may, he thinks,

11580, 12250, and 14610, lithium at 8070, rubidium at 7910, on the whole, be relied upon. Several species apparently new

9980, 13120, and 14760, and cæsium at 8380, a large one at are represented in the collection : Dendrohyrax validus, Mus

8820, and others at 9980, 13270, and 14530. Kayser and aquilus, Dendromys nigrifrons, Sciurus undulatus, Cephalophus

Runge's empirical law for the alkalies was confirmed for the infraspadix. On one who has studied the North American mam

red of lithium and sodium, but not for the other three metals. malian fauna in detail, Mr. True says, the thought impresses itself that the condition of species, as regards variation, is

MR. ELLIOTT Coues, of the Smithsonian Institution, defends different in the Ethiopian and Nearctic regions. In North

in Science the rule, in biological nomenclature, “ once a America individual variation seems far less extensive than in

synonym, always a synonym,” for the form of which he believes Africa, while geographical variation appears to be more exten

himself to be in some degree responsible. He illustrates the sive and constant. In Dr. Abbott's collection great individual

real meaning of the aphorism in the following way. Let there variation is especially apparent in the genera Galago, Genetla,

be a genus Smithia in botany. Let a genus Jonesia then be and Canis. It is true that the species of the last-named genus

named. Let Jonesia then be found to be the same genus as everywhere present much individual variation, but in North

Smithia. Then the name Jonesia "lapses into : synonomy," America its chief variations appear to be geographical in

, and cannot be thereafter applied to any other genus in botany. character. The known range of several species is considerably

That is all that is meant by the saying "once a synonym extended by Dr. Abbott's labours.

always a synonym.” In other words, if Jonesia is not good for what it originally meant, it is good for nothing; it is to be

deleted absolutely, and cannot come into re-existence by transfer An important contribution to spectroscopy appears in No. 10

to any other genus. Mr. Coues shows that the same principle of Wiedemann's Annalen in the shape of a paper on the infra

holds for all specific names within their respective genera. red emission spectrum of the alkali metals, by Benjamin. W.

Example: Let there be a Rosa Smithi. Let some one then Snow. The method is distinguished by the adoption of a modi.

name a Rosa Jonesi. Let R. Jonesi be considered to be the fied form of the bolometer and a very delicate galvanometer

same species as R. Smithi. Then there can never be a R. with quartz fibre suspension. The fibre, supplied by Prof.

Jonesi ; that is to say, no other species of Rosa can be specified Boys, was 40 cm. long. With a scale at a distance of 3m., a

as Jonesi. But, of course, if any one discovers, after this deflection of imm. corresponded to a current of 1.5x 10-11 amp.

reduction of Jonesi to a synonym of Smithi, that what had · The spectra were obtained by means of a silicate-fint prism, so as to avoid the overlapping of the infra-red spectra which seems

been called R. Jonesi is a good species, then Jonesi revives as to be inevitable where gratings are used. Since no infra-red

the name of that species ; and the fact that it had been lines could be traced in the spectrum produced in the Bunsen or

(erroneously) regarded as a synonym of Smithi is no bar to its the oxy-hydrogen Aame, the electric arc was used, the current

use in its original sense. being derived from the very uniform Berlin Central supply. The The Geological Survey of America has published a paper, best arrangement for the arc was found to be a hole bored through by Mr. J. S. Diller, on the Geology of the Taylorville region in the centre of the carbon, containing a “wick" of the com- the Sierra Nevada, California, immediately north of the fortieth pressed salt. The bolometer consisted of two platinum-thread parallel. In this region there are eighteen sedimentary formaresistances. A platinum wire embedded in silver was ham- tions and seventeen eruptive masses. The former have a total mered flat, so as to have a breadth of 0.05mm. and a thickness thickness of 24,500 feet ; 17,500 feet are probably Palæozoic, of o'00036mm. Two such threads were fastened side by side and 7000 feet are Mesozoic. Among the sedimentary rocks, with shellac on a mica frame. One of them was blackened in one horizon in the Silurian, two in the Carboniferous, three or a turpentine flame and exposed to the light, the other being more in the Trias, and five in the Jura have been definitely covered. The difference of resistance produced by the incident recognized by fossils. Among the eruptives there is great rays was measured by a Wheatstone bridge arrangement, with variety. Their extravasation, beginning early in the Palæozoic, a shunt contrivance for enlarging the scale of the bridge wire. | recurred vigorously in the Triassic and at the close of the The resistance of each of the platinum ribbons under ordinary i Jurassic, and, finally, also in the Neocene and Pleistocene. The conditions was 75 ohms. The other branches of the bridge were dioritic rocks of the region are a portion of the great granitoid made of German silver wire. The slit of the spectrometer was mass of the upper Sierra Nevada, and are evidently eruptive, adjusted to d'Imm., corresponding to an angle of 1.68 minutes with well-defined contact phenomena in Triassic formations. of arc in the spectrum, whilst the breadth of the platinum thread | Their eruption is certainly post-Triassic, and may have taken corresponded to an arc of 1'6. The current through the bridge place immediately at its close or after the deposition of the was maintained at one-fortieth ampere. In the measurement of Jurassic. There are at least four unconformities in the geologic the intensity of the lines, the energy of radiation was taken as column of the Taylorville region. During the greater part, if proportional to the first throw. It was found that a standard not the whole, of the Palæozoic, the sea covered the region candle at im. distance gave a throw of 150mm. A preliminary ' now occupied by the northern portion of the Sierra Nevada. investigation of the carbon spectrum revealed a large number of The great disturbance at the close of the Carboniferous may

have been accompanied by an uplift, forming land during the for a considerable quantity of a crystalline precipitate was pro early Triassic; but if so, it subsided and was ready to receive | duced, but owing to the difficulty of freeing it from the tin whic the deposits of the upper Triassic. The disturbance at the solidified over it upon removal, the compound was not obtaine close of the Triassic formed no land in the northern Sierra in a state of sufficient purity to enable a definite conclusion cox region, but that which closed he Jurassic was accompanied cerning its composition to be arrived at. Messrs. Heycock ari by a great upheaval, excluding the sea to the western base of Neville now announce that they have succeeded in preparing the Sierras. The general structure of the Taylorville region the compound in an entirely different manner, and in isolating involves a synclinal and two limiting anticlinals. After the in a state of comparative purity. The following is the bet folds were overturned toward the north-east, the Grizzly anti mode of procedure :- A piece of the hardest combustion tubin clinal was affected by an overthrust fault in the same direc. is sealed at one end and slightly bent in the middle so as to for tion. The throw along this fault in the older strata is so much a V-tube of very large angle. A quantity of pure gold is place greater than in those of Jurassic age as to suggest that a large in the sealed limb, together with three or four times its equivalen part of the displacement took place at the close of the of cadmium. The open end is then drawn off so as to enable Triassic, and was followed by movement on the same plane at the tube to be exhausted by means of the Sprengel pump. As the close of the Jurassic.

high a vacuum as possible should be obtained, and the tube MR. STANFORD has issued an interesting and valuable contoured subsequently sealed. The apparatus is then arranged upon map of the county of London. The scale is three inches to a mile. a combustion furnace in such a manner that the excess of The contour lines or lines of equal altitude are drawn at 25 feet | cadmium when liquefied may run away from the alloy. When intervals. The lowest contour is 25 feet above the level of the the cadmium first melts it is advisable to vigorously shake the sea, ordnance datum, which is 12 feet 6 inches below Trinity tube so as to diffuse the gold well among the cadmium. The high water. The whole of the alluvial flat lying below the low. combination then occurs suddenly, accompanied by bright est contour, or at a less altitude than 12 feet 6 inches above the incandescence of the gold. When the larger excess of cadmium river Thames (Trinity high-water mark), is covered by a dark has been allowed to run away from the compound, the end of the brown tint.

tube containing the latter is heated for about five hours to a The third volume of reports upon the fauna of Liverpool

temperature about that of the softening of glass, when the Bay and the neighbouring seas has been issued. The reports

remainder of the excess of cadmium distils regularly off, until have been written by members of the Liverpool Marine Biology

towards the expiration of the five hours no further condensatio committee and other naturalists, and edited by Prof. W. A.

occurs. The product thus left behind was found in thiee Herdman, F.R.S.

successive experiments to contain about 63-7 per cent. of gold. MESSRS. GURNEY AND JACKSON have published the

the percentage required for a compound of the composition Zoological Record for 1891. It is the twenty-eighth volume of

AuCd. The compound of gold and cadmium thus obtained the series. Mr. D. Sharp, F.R.S., has acted as editor, and has

presents a silvery greyish-white appearance, is very brittle, ani

exhibits a crystalline fracture. It is intended

The action of acids upon it is had the co-operation of many able zoologists. that in future the volume shall be published in August or

somewhat singular. Cold acids appear to be without material

action upon it, but hot nitric or hydrochloric acid attacks it with September,

great energy, the cadmium passing into solution and the golu PHOTOGRAPHERS will read with great interest an admirable

being left in the shape of the original ingot. paper by Captain Abney, in the November number of the Journal of the Camera Club, on “shutters," which he describes

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the · as "a piece of apparatus which is the very joy and toy of the

past week include a Purple-faced Monkey (Semnopithecus la photographer's existence.” The paper is fully illustrated.

coprymnus) from Ceylon, presented by Mrs. Elgee ; six Short

tailed Voles (Arvicola agrestis) from Scotland, presented by M: The Rev. L. A. Walker sends to the current number of the

J. E. Harting, F.Z.S. ; two Laughing Kingfishers (Dare's Entomologist some statistics of the entomology of the Hague,

gigantea) from Australia, presented by Mr. J. W. Hornsby; a where he acted as chaplain during July. The entomology of

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaëtus) from Labrador, presented by Holland seemed to him very disappointing in number of species,

Mr. J. G. Baxter ; a Jackdaw (Corvus monedula) British, pre and also in individuals in the great majority of cases ; less

sented by the Rev. H. W. Reynolds ; three — Geckos productive, in fact, than the ordinary run of country places

(Gecko verticillatus) from Burmah, presented by Mr. W. 6 at home

Bligh; two American Darters (Plotus anhinga), a Coman At the meeting of the Linnean Society of New South Wales

Boa (Boa constrictor) from South America, sour Bar-tajel on September 28, Mr. R. Etheridge, junior, exbibited seeds of Pheasants (Phasianus reevesi 8 89 ) from China, purchasec. the “Bean-tree," possibly an Erythrina, from Macdonald ranges, Central Australia. The seeds are strung and used as necklaces by the aborigines, who use the wood of the same tree

OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN. for producing fire by friction, and also for shields, on account of its lightness.

A BRIGHT COmer is announced in Andromeda, seventy

seconds preceding Struve 72. A COMPOUND of gold and cadmium of the composition

Comet BARNARD (OCTOBER 12). — The following is a com AuCd has been isolated by Messrs. Heycock and Neville, and

tinuation of the ephemeris we gave last week of Comet Barnard is described by them in the November number of the Journal | taken from Astronomische Nachrichten, No. 3125. of the Chemical Society. During the course of a series of

Ephemeris for 12h. Berlin M.T. experiments last year upon solutions of gold and cadmium in

R.A. Decl. Log r. Log A. Inelted tin, it was observed that the amount of lowering of the frei zing-point of the tin by the simultaneous introduction of gold Nov. 11... 20 46 49 ... +2 33.3 and cadmium was considerably less than the sum of the effects 12... 49 40 ... 2 1597 which each of the two latter metals would produce alone.

13... 52 32 ... 1 583 ... 0'2262 ... 0'1648 ... 007 It

14... 55 25 ... 1 41'2 was surmised that this difference must be due to combination

15... 20 58 19 ... I 24'4 between the gold and the cadmium. Moreover, the producto 16... 21 I 14 ... 1 79 this combination appeared to be only sparingly soluble in tin, 17... 21 4 9 ... to 516 ... 0'2250 ... 0'1713 ... OM


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It may be mentioned that an Astronomische Nachrichten duced agree very well with those in question, with the exception circular note contains rather a modified edition of the above oft in Group I. and o in Group IV., which consequently throw places deduced from observations made on October 16, 20, and the mean values rather out. Adopting the same notation, he 25.

obtained Thus for the 13th, the R.A. is given as 20h. 54m. 245. (app.), and declination (app.) + 1° 54'5; and for the 17th, R.A. (app.) 21h. 6m. 39s, and declination (app.) + 0° 46' 4.

I. Group ... 287-4 ... +420... 0*140 COMET BROOKS (AUGUST 28).-Owing to the rapid


... 279*7 ... 405 ... 0*295 brightening of Comet Brooks, we give the following ephemeris


287 9 ... 321 ... 0'608 continued from the same source as mentioned last week (Astro.

2852 ... 30-4 ... 2'057 nomische Nachrichten, No. 3125).

Summing up the values obtained by some previous workers, 12h. Berlin M.T.

the following table gives the co-ordinates obtained :R.A. app. Decl. app. Logr. Log a. Br. 1892.



Decl. No. of stars used h. m. S.

in reduction. Nov. 11... 9 56 50 ... +3 18.7

... 259-2 ... + 3008 12... 10 1 8 ... 2 24 6 ... 0°0985 ... 9'9861 ... 15:61 Argelander 259'9 ... 325 ... 390 13... 5 29 ... 1 29:6

0. Struve

2615 ... 376 ... 392 14... 9 52 ... +0 33:8

Mädler ... 2616 39'9 ... 2163 15... 14 17 ... -O 22'9

Airy ... 2015 24*7 II3 16... 18 45 ... 1 20'3 ... O'0847 ... 9.9712 .. 17.81 Dunkin ...

263.7 25'0 1167 17... 23 15 ... 2 184


284.6 319 ... 106




L. Struve Prof. Barnard communicates his ob ervations of the occultation

273-3 ... 27'3 ... 2509

Stumpe ... of Mars and Jupiter by the moon, which occurred in one week


36•2 . Porter ... ... 281'2

4097 ... 1340 during last September, to the Astronomical Journal, No. 276. The instrument used was the 12-inch equatorial and the seeing was defined as being very fine on both occasions. At the dis SOME REMINISCENCES OF THE MAORIS. appearance of the former planet, which took place at the dark limb of the moon, nothing very striking was noticed, the moon's M R. W. COLENSO, F.R.S., has often been asked to record limb at that point being sharp and not dusky, as had been

some of his reminiscences of the Maoris, whom he has previously seen in an occultation of Jupiter. The times of for very many years had opportunities of studying. This he has disappearance and appearance (Mount Hamilton mean time) now done in a paper printed in the Transactions of the New were :

Zealand Institute (vol. xxiv.), some extracts from which may be

of interest for various classes of readers. He says :-
h. in s
h. mn. S.

Of the Mako Shark.-Fifty years ago (to go no further back) Ist contact ... 99 35:8

10 45 56'0 (1s. late ?)

a Maori chief would be known by wearing certain emblems or Hall obscured ... 9 10 4

1ο 2nd contact

insignia indicative of rank, one of which was the tooth of the ... 9 10 37.1

10 26 522

mako as an ear-pendant ; and, as such were plentiful, though In the case of Jupiter, which disappeared at the bright limb, distributed, the thought often occurred to me in my early a narrow shadow band was noticed fringing the limb where the

travelling days, What a number of the fish mako there must planet appeared to cut it. This is due, as Prof. Barnard thinks, have been captured or obtained by the Maoris to yield such a io the effect of contrast. The times of contacts were as large number of teeth! Moreover, on inquiry i invariably follows:

found that all the teeth I saw were prized heirlooms, and had Reappearance,

descended to the present possessor through several generations, h. m. S.

h. m. s. Ist contact ... 17 28 10'4

18 33 17'5 (25. late ?)

and (as far as I could learn) none had been recently acquired. Half obscured ... 17 28 55'0

18 33 50

And while, when travelling along the sea-coasts for many a 2nd contact ... 17 29 45*7 ... 18 34 33-7

league on both sides of the North Island during several years,

and always on soot, I had both seen and heard of a number of MOTION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM.—The question of the exact

| large sea-animals (fishes and mammals) that were driven on position of the point in the heavens to which the sun with his

shore on the sandy beaches in severe gales from the sea, I system is travelling has been the object of much research and

never knew of a single mako shark, nor had the Maoris resident computation, and ihe present co-ordinates are now considered on those shores ever heard of one being cast up. as being about R.A. 267o and declination + 31°.

In replying to my numerous inquiries by letter respecting the The determination under consideration (Astronomical Journal,

| mako, made many years ago, an intelligent aged Maori chief No. 276) has been undertaken by Prof. J. G. Porter, and is living on the east coast wrote as follows (or, rather. he being of based on the proper motions of 1340 stars, contained in the the old school, and unable himself to write, a young adherent Publication of the Cincinnati Observatory, No. 12. The method did so at his diciation). I give a literal translation of portions employed for computing the co-ordinates of the apex of the

of his letter :sun's way is that of Prof. Schönfeld ; the stars were grouped “You ask, did I ever see a mako fish? Yes; and it is a very in four divisions, Division I. including those whose yearly large creature, the biggest of all the sharks (mango)-in length proper motion was less than o":30 and contained 576 stars ; | 2 fathoms measured (erua maro whanganga nei), and in thick. Division II., motion from o":30 10 ":60, containing 533 stars ; ness i foot. It is a true shark, but called by us a mako on Division III., motion from o":60 to 1"-20, con aining 142 stars; account of its teeth. You also inquire concerning its fat or oil, and lastly, Division IV'., the motion exceeding 1":20, 70 stars and the edible qualities of its flesh, whether considered choice being included. From these four groups the following values

by us Maoris. Now, there are many kinds of shark, as the have been deduced, where o and 7 represent the co-ordinates mako, the karaerae, the pioke, the ururoa, the uatini, the of the apex of the sun's course and the velocity of the sun's

tahapounamu, the taiari, the tatere, and the mangotara, and I

have not eaten of them all, and therefore I do not know how motion :

nice or how fat they all are ; and so of this one, the mako. But, my friend, this fish was never desired as an article of food-never so used by us Maoris. The only part of it that we

sought and greatly desired to have was its head, and this solely I. ... 2819 ... +537 ... 0*16

on account of its teeth. When caught out at the deep-sea II. ... 280'7 ... +40'1 ... 0'30

fishing-grounds its body was never hauled into the canoe, but III. ... 2852 ... + 34'0 ... 0:55

the head was cut off while it was still in the sea and alongside IV. ... 2770 ... +34'9 ... 0.66

of the canoe (ka tapahia moanatia te upoko): this done, and the The last determination of these co-ordinates was made, if we head secured, the body was left to drift away on the sea. The are not mistaken, by Prof. Stumpe, and were given in Astro- head was also immediately wrapped up securely in a clothing. nomische Nachrichten, Nos. 2999-3000. The values there de. mat (kahu), lest it should be noisily wondered at by those who

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were strangers or unacquainted with it (koi umeretia e nga | a young mako, and informed him that this fish in its adult state tangata tauhou). You also ask what instrument was used for was about 12st. long. The animal to which the skin belonged cutiing off the head of the mako. What, indeed! Why, the was 4ft. ioin, long. Professor von Haast also gives much insaw made of the teeth of the tatere shark firmly fixed on to a formation relative to the teeth of his small specimen (differing wooden blade (he niho talere, he mea hohou ki runga ki te widely from my Maori friend's description given above), the rakau). You further inquire respecting the number of its number, form, and size, the colour of its skin, &c. Still, as I take teeth. There are eight-that is, large ones from within-and it, there are reasonable doubts as to that specimen being a true also eight smaller ones of them outside. Besides those there mako; I think it is highly probable that his two Maori inform were several much smaller ones in front or outside (o waho ants had never seen a real mako shark. rawa), but these I never counted, and therefore cannot give Couch, in his celebrated work on “British Fishes," in hi their exact number.”

account of the porbeagle shark, gives a drawing of it from He also wrote (in another and subsequent letter) in answer to nature, and also others of its teeth and jaws, which appear to my further inquiries : “ There are sour very large teeth from the be different from those of the ma ko, being much more slender, beginning, or within. These are called rei, and are kept sor and semi-terete, undulate, and sharply pointed (vol. i., PP. 41ear.pendants. Altogether there are eight teeth-that is, four very large ones, and four smaller, making eight in all. The My object in writing this notice of the mako shark is mainly outside teeth resemble those of the latere shark, and are only to relate the ancient Maori mode of capturing it. termed teeth (niho); these have no other name, but those that of the Preparation of Black Pigment for Tattooing.–The are kept for ear-pendants are called au rei. Then, you wish to ancient Maoris had more ways than one of obtaining the black know how the mako was captured by us Maoris in the olden substance used in tattooing, which colouring-matter also varied times. Listen. This fish was never taken as other sharks in quality, partly owing to what it was made from ; that for the (mango) were, with hook and bait : none of our fish-hooks countenance being superior to that used for the lower parts of would be strong enough to hold it, they would soon be broken. | the body. One way of obtaining the best kind was as follows:Now, when the fishing-canoe was out fishing, and had been a First, two proper careful men were selected for the work. long time there catching fishes of various kinds, suddenly a mako This, too, was done with ceremony, they being (for the time) would be seen coming leisurely along on the surface of the water tapu (i.e., under the laws of taboo)-rigidly set apart. A small (e hara mai noa ana i te kiri o te wai, ara i te kare o te wai). | kiln-like furnace (ruangarchu) was excavated in the side of a Then the man who saw it would shout out to his companions in hill suitably situated. The substances to be used in burning the canoe, ‘Haul up our land' (Hutia mai to tatou whenua), { for their soot-kauri-resin (kapia) and the resinous veins of not naming the fish ; and when the mako was pretty near to the white pine wood (kapara)- were got ready ; a net made from canoe, about three yards off, then the big tempting bait was let the wharanui flax leaves finely split, composed of very small low down before it, and on the mako seeing the bait it would and close meshes, and beaten well, so as to be rough and bend down its head to seize it (ka tupou te upoko), when its scabrous from long broken fibres, in order the better to catch tail would be upraised above water. Then a noosed rope and retain the soot (awe), which was intended to adhere only to would be flung over its tail (lasso-fashion) and quickly hauled the network : this net was fixed properly and securely over the tight, which would secure the tail within the noose hard and | top opening or chimney of the kiln, and above it were placed fast. And away would speed the canoe at a fleet rate towards thick mats and such like, to prevent the escape of the burning all sides of the sea and sky, being continually turned about in soot and smoke. All being ready, a very calm fine night was all directions by the fish, the man who had noosed it always chosen for the firing of the kiln-a night in which there should holding on to the rope. At last, being exhausted, the mako not be the least breath of moving air ; and, the kiln being fired, died ; then it floated, when its head would be cut off, as I said those two men remained all night at their post, attending to before. This was our common manner of catching the mako their work, carefully feeding the fire. When all the resinous fish (ko tona hii tonu tenei o tenei ika o te mako), often also called substances were burnt up, and the kiln cold—the calm weather by us a monster (taniwha); and hence arose the term of monster still continuing—the soot was carefully collected and mixed up binding (heretaniwha), owing to it being securely noosed and with the fat of birds, and then given to a Maori dog to eat, bound with a rope Aung over its tail.” Here ends the interest which dog had also been early set apart for this work-tied up, ing narration of my worthy old Maori correspondent, who died made to fast, and kept hungry, that it might perform its part soon after.

and eat the prepared morsels with avidity. After devouring I have never seen a mako fish, and I am in doubt whether the mixed food ihe dog was still kept tied up, and not allowed it is yet fully known to science. It is evidently one of the to eat any other aliment until it had voided the former. When deep-water fishes. The first mention of it by skilled scientific the fæces were evacuated they were carefully gathered, and lobservers that I have noticed is in Sir James Ross's “Voyage mixed up and kneaded with bird's oil and a little water, and, to the South Seas," wherein it is stated that on nearing the when this mixture became dry and hard, it was put up securely Chatham Islands, in November, 1841 (within a week after into a large shell, or into a hollowed pumice or sost stone, and leaving their winter quarters and anchorage in the Bay of laid by carefully, buried in the earth, for future use. It is said Islands), "the long-snouted porpoises were particularly to have possessed no disagreeable odour when dry (though it numerous. One of these creatures was struck with a harpoon, had while fresh), and, though long kept, it did not become bad and in its formidable jaws we found the teeth which the New- por spoil through keeping, which, on the contrary, was said to Zealanders value highly as ornaments, and which had puzzled improve it, and it was very much prized. us greatly to ascertain to what animal they belonged" (vol. ii., It was this pigment, so put up and kept, that was the origin p. 134). Those Antarctic Expedition ships had spent several of one of their proverbs, Puritia to ngarahu kauri = Keep months in the Bay of Islands, and the officers had frequent to thyself thy kauri-resin-soot pigment. This saying was used opportunities of seeing and examining the teeth of the mako, and when a person was unwilling to give what was asked, the same very likely had purchased some from the Maoris, as they were being some common thing, and not at all needed by the ava: diligent in acquiring natural specimens, and curios and ornaments ricious owner. But there is a double meaning here in this of all kinds.

simple sentence (proverb)-namely, “ You may never require Professor Hutton, in his “Catalogue of the Fishes of New | it, or live to use it." (See Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xii., p. 145. Zealand” (published by the Government in 1872), considered Of the Manufacture of their Long Spears.—Some of their the mako to be the “ Lamna glauca=tiger-shark;” but he says, spears were very long. Of these there were two kinds. One “ The shark from which the Maoris obtain the teeth with which kind was made of hardwood, rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum) they decorate their ears is probably this species, but I have seen | This was used in defending their forts and stockades before the teeth only” (l.c., p. 77).

introduction of firearms, being thrust through the palisades I Subsequently Professor Julius von Haast (in 1874) read a close quarters against the legs and bodies of the invaders. The paper before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury (Trans. other kind was much lighter, though longer, being made of the N.Z. Inst., vol. vii., p. 237) on the mako of the Maoris, which, light wood of the tawa-tree (Beilschmiedia tawa), and used he says, is Lamna cornubica, the porbeagle shark, and not only for the spearing of pigeons when they were sitting on the L. glauca as had been supposed by Professor Hutton. But top of a high tree. This spear was tipped with a flaris) Professor von Haast had only a small young specimen (or, serrated bone 3 inches-5 inches long, usually coarsely baj bed rather, its skin) to examine, which two North Island Maoris, on one lateral edge, and sharply pointed ; the bone being human, then engaged at Christchurch Museum, pronounced to belong to and a portion of that of the arm or leg, and, of course, of their leadly enemies. Seeing that these long spears were always however, has long been abandoned ; yet at one period every nade from heart wood of their tallest trees, it was a mystery to village at the North had its steeping-pit. ne how they managed to manufacture them, the hardwood ones In a paper I read here at our june meeting I mentioned some eing from 16 feet to 20 feet and the others from 20 feet to of the very small Hepaticæ (Lophocolea and Chiloscyphus 5 feet long; and it was not until my first visit to the Urewera species) as being used for perfume by the Maoris, who called fribe, at Ruatahuna, in the interior beyond Waikare Moana, them piripiri. Their scent was pleasant, powersul, and lasting. n 1841, that I discovered how it was effected. This patient Hooker, in describing those plants, has mentioned it from dried erformance has ever seemed to me a notable example of one of and old specimens. Of one species, Lophocolea pallida, he says, heir many laborious and persevering works. For it must never 1 “ odour sweet ;” of another, L. novæsealandiæ, often le forgotten, in considering their ancient laborious and heavy fragrant ;” of another, L. allodonta, odour strong, aromatic;" vorks, especially in hard substances, as wood, bone, and stone, | of another, Chiloscyphus fissistipus, "a handsome strongly. hat they accomplished all without the use or knowledge of iron scented species : " and he has surther preserved it to one of them r any other metal.

in its specific name, C. piperilus, " odour of black pepper." First, a straight, tall, and sound tawa-tree was selected in the There were also two or three ferns-viz., Hymenophyllum orest. This was felled with their stone axes. Its head and sanguinolentum, a very strong-smelling species, hence too its ranches having been lopped off, it was dragged out into the specific name ; dried specimens not only retain their powerful pen ground, and split down the middle into two halves. If it odour, but impart it to the drying papers : Polypodium pustu. plit easily and straight, then it would probably serve for two latum, having an agreeable delicate scent: and Doodia fragrans, pears, if each half turned out well in the working. The next a neat little species; this last was so far esteemed as sometimes hing was to prepare a long raised bed of hard tramped and to give name to the locality where it grew, as Puke moki moki, Seaten clay, 35ft.-40st. long-longer than the intended spear-1 the little isolated hill which once stood where the Recreationhe surface to be made quite regular and smooth (like a good | ground now is in Napier ; that hill having been levelled to fill sphalte kerb town walk of the present day). On to this clay / in the deep middle swamp in Monroe Street, ved the half of the tawa-tree was dragged, and carefully adzed One of the Pittosporum trees, tawhiri (P. tenuifolium), also lown by degrees, and at various times, to the required size and yielded a fragrant gum ; but the choicest and the rarest was hickness of the spear. It was not constantly worked, but it obtained from the peculiar plant taramea (Aciphylla colensoi), was continually being turned and fixed by pegs in the ground, which inhabits the alpine zone, and which I have only met with

o keep it lest it should warp and so become crooked. It took near the summits of the Ruahine Mountain-range, where it is i considerable time-about two years—to finish a spear. The very common and very troublesome to the traveller that way. ast operation was that of scraping with a broken shell or frag- | The gum of this plant was only collected through much nent of obsidian, and rubbing smooth with pumice-stone. labour, toil, and difficulty, accompanied, too, with certain cereWhen quite finished and ready for use a suitable tall and straight | monial (taboo) observances. An old tohunga (skilled man, and ree was found in, or on the edge of, the forest ; its trunk was priest) once informed me that the taramea gum could only be got rimmed of branchlets, &c. ; the long spear was loosely fixed by very young women-virgins ; and by them only after certain fertically to it, so as to run easily through small round prayers, charms, &c., duly said by the tohunga. horizontal loops girt to the tree, and placed at some distance from There is a sweet little nursery song of endearment, expressive ach other; the tip of the spear concealed, yet protruding near of much love, containing the names of all four of their perfumes, he topmost branches of the tree ; and, as the pigeon is a very which I have not unfrequently heard affectionately and soothhirsty bird (especially, I should think, after feeding on the large ingly sung by a Maori mother to her child while nursing and ruits of the lawa and of the miro-Podocarpus ferruginea fondling it :rees, which are hot and piquant), the Maoris made small corru

Taku hei piripiri,

Taku hei mokimoki, kated vessels of the green bark of the totara tree that would

Taku hei tawhiri, sold water, and fixed such on the top of the tree to which the

Taku kati.taramea. ong spear had been lashed, and by-and-by, when the bird was

My little neck-satchel of sweet-scented moss, ettled above after drinking (for it is a very quiet bird, sitting

My little neck-satchel of fragrant fern,

My little neck-satchel of odoriferous gum, ong after feeding), the spear was gently pulled down by its

My sweet-smelling neck-locket of sharp-pointed taramea." wner below on the ground, and sent up with a jerk into the sody of the pigeon. I have seen the fixed spear thus used in the

Here I may observe that to the last one of the four the word orests, and have eaten the bird so captured.

kati is prefixed : this word-meaning, to sting, to bite, to puncI may here mention that I have also seen those totara-bark

ture, to wound sharply, and painfully-is added to indicate the lishes, with water in them, fixed high up on the big branches of

excessive sharpness of the numerous leaves and leaflets of the

tiramea:plant (hence judiciously generically named by its early disrees in the woods in the Urewera country, having flax nooses o set over the water as to catch and hold fast the pigeon in its

coverer, Forster, Aciphylla=needle pointed leaf), and the conIrinking. I have seen pigeons so caught, the Maoris climbing

sequent pains, with loss of blood, attending the collecting of its he trees naked with the agility of monkeys to secure their

prized gum, thus enhancing its value. rizes.

This natural and agreeable little stanza, one of the olden time, From the large amount of labour and the time consumed in

has proved so generally taking to the Maori people that it has he making of a long spear, and its great beneficial use when

passed into a proverbial saying, and is often used, hummed, to exsade, arose a good proverb among them relative to industry in

press delight and satisfaction-pleasurable feelings. And somellage, &c., and to being prepared“ Kahore he tarainga tahere

times, when it has been so quietly and privately sung in a low te ara"=You cannot hew a bird spear by the way. Meaning :

voice, I have known a whole company of grey-headed Maoris, Vithout timely preparation you may die from want of food,

men and women, to join in the singing : to me, such was always hough the pigeons are plentiful in the forests near you.

indicative of an affectionate and simple heart. How true it is, Of the Fine Smelling-sense and Taste of the Ancient Maoris

“One touch of nature makes the whole world kin ” 13 ir Perfumes.-I have already more than once, and in former

In the summer season the sleeping-houses of their chiefs were apers read here before the Institute, touched on the superior

often strewed with the large sweet-scented flowering grass karetu owers of sight of the ancient Maoris ; 1 and it has often occurred

(Hierochloe redolens). Its odour when fresh, confined in a small | my mind that they also possessed a very keenly developed

house, was always to me too powerful." inse of smell, which was largely and quickly shown whenever I Mokimoki Hill, from mokimoki, the name of that fern. nything sweetly odoriferous, however fine and subtle, had been 2 See Trans. N.Z. Inst., vol. xii., p. 148. ied -as eau de Cologne, essence of lavender, &c. Indeed, this 3 It is pleasing to notice that the observant artist Parkinson (who was with inse was the more clearly exhibited in the use of their own

Sir Joseph Banks as his botanical draughtsman, and Cook on his first voy

age to New Zealand) makes special mention of those little satchels in his ative perfumes, all highly odorous and collected with labour. Journal, saying of these Maoris who came off to the ship in their canoes, "The et this sensitive organization always appeared to be the more principals among them had their hair tied up on the crown of their heads range when the horribly stinking smells of two of their common

with some feathers, and a little bundle of perfume hung about their necks " ticles of sood--osten, in the olden times, in daily use---are con

(Journal, p. 93). Captain Cook, also, has similar remarks respecting the

young women. dered : rotten corn (maize, dry and hard, in the cob) long 4 Sir J. D. Hooker thus writes of this fine, sweet-smelling grass in his reped in water to sosten it; and dried shark. The former,

" Flora Nova Zelandia ": "A large and handsome grass, conspicuous for its delicious odour, like that of the common vernal grass (Antho.ranthum) of

England, that gives the sweet scent to new-made hay " (1.c., vol. ii., p. 300). Trans. N. Z. Inst. vol. xiv. p. 67. &c.

A closely-allied northern species (H. borealis), which was also supposed to

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