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'heat-fields and meadows abounded with these balls, and sugo Morayshire, where he spent six weeks last autumn, he found sted, at first sight, that a troop of school-boys had been having that Coleoptera were very abundant. He captured specimens attle with the snow. Two fields, of thirty acres each, that of a good many species new to the district, and one or two me under Mr. Ford's observation (one a new.sown wheat. which had not, he believes, been recorded before from Scote Id and the other a meadow) were literally covered with these land. snow-rollers," there being at least 500 on the acre. Road

A list of the Batrachia in the Indian Museum, by W. L. es and lots contained a few, and he noticed them on house.

Sclater, has been issued by the trustees of the institution. The 15 and straw-ricks. On close investigation, he found the balls

arrangement and nomenclature are formed on Mr. Boulenger's be uniformly light and fragile, so that to list one and preserve

work in the British Museum catalogues, and the Reptiles and form was impossible. Some were oblong, some almost

Batrachia in the “Fauna of British India" series. lerical, while others resembled a tea cup or small bowl. ere were no tracks behind them, or, if these had been made, An interesting paper on the were-wolf in Latin literature, falling snow had obliterated them. The accompanying by Kirby W. Smith, is printed in the new number of the ther conditions were as follows:- The ground had been Jolins Hopkins University Circulars. The were-wolf is a perered with snow for three weeks. A crust had formed on the son who, either from a gift inborn or from the proper use of , thick and firm enough in places to bear up a person. This certain magic arts of which he has learned the secret, can wed a little during the afternoon of the 29th. The ensuing change himself into a wolf of unusual size and ferocity; or, it was warm, the mercury registering 40° F. By ten o'clock furthermore, the transformation may be unavoidable, owing to risk wind was blowing, which increased in velocity, and soon the curse or charm of some outside power, and not to be got rid snow began to fall in large, moist flakes. The morning of until a fixed period has elapsed or various conditions, ved that about a hall-inch had fallen on the crust, ard on more or less difficult, have been complied with. Such enchantlay the balls. The phenomenon was reported from several ments are common in the folk-lore of all nations, but, on es in the vicinity, chiefly in the Fayette County, and from Roman ground, they do not appear in connection with the were. ton County, which adioins it on the west, but nowhere did wolf story. Mr. Smith mentions the were-wolf story ollers extend uninterruptedly over any great area.

told by Petronius, who describes how the companion of the i November last, according to a writer in the Journal of the

freedman Niceros took off his clothes, and, becoming a wolf, its Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, there was in Singa

began to howl and took to the woods. Niceros tried to pick up one of the largest specimens of the Mias or Orang-Utan

the clothes, but found they had all turned to stone. The wolf captured ; it was a male, and probably of the species known

was wounded in the neck with a spear, and afterwards Niceros imia satyrus, Linn., or the Mias Pappan of the Dyaks.

found his comrade in bed, while his neck was being dressed by animal was captured in Borneo, and bought by a native

a doctor. Here the transformation is attributed to a power born ir in Singapore, who eventually sold him to a German

in the person, and Mr. Smith thinks that this may be the scaplain, by whom he has been, it is believed, taken to

nearest approach to the original form of the superstition, benany. As far as the writer could judge, his height must

cause "among savages, these modern types of early humanity, . been close on 4 feet 5 inches. The cage in which he was

just such stories are more or less common." The other class of ned was 4 feet 2 inches or thereabouts in height, and he

Roman were-wolf stories—those in which the change is easily touch the top of it with his head without standing

effected by means of a charm-simply form one of a large numHis face was immensely broad, the cheeks being flat.

ber' of different transformations, the theory and methods of all out sideways into a sort of disc. The hair was long being practically the same. t4 inches) and thick and of a bright red colour, and he | We have received the first part of the new Contributions from

distinct short pointed beard. The eyes were dark brown. the Botanical Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania. VRITER who signs himself “ Tutuila” contributes to the

It contains papers by Dr. J. T. Rothrock on a monstrous speciit number of the Journal of the Polynesian Society some

| men of Rudbeckia hirta, and on a nascent variety of Brunella sting notes on the races known as the Tokelaus, or Line

vulgaris ; by Dr. J. M. Macfarlane, contributions to the history ers, called by themselves the Kai-n-Abara, which means

of Diona muscipula ; by Mr. J. W. Harshberger on an ole of our land." The Kai-n-Abara inhabit all

abnormal development of the inflorescence of Dionæa ; by Mr. ands of the Gilbert Group, Nanumea, and Nanumanga

H. Trimble on Mangrove tannin ; by Dr. W. P. Wilson on Ellice Group, and Banapa or Ocean Island. They are

Epigæa repens, and on the movements of the leaves of Melilotus intly of the Micronesian type, but although they have alba. raight hair, and are more of a copper colour than brown,

The paper by Dr. Macfarlane on Dionæa is of great interest re not pure Micronesian. They are intelligent, can reason and confirms the statement previously made by him that, to vely, are brave, having a very respectable share of

produce closure of the leaf, two distinct stimuli are required, e, and are extremely pugnacious, both sexes fighting like

which may be communicated to the same hair, or to different on the least provocation. In every township there is a hairs on the same half, or to hairs on opposite halves of the leaf. ouse called "maneabau,' in which the members of each

He regards the leaf, previous to secretion, as in a state of tetanic of "aomata” or “gentry " have a certain space allotted

contraction, resulting from a series of stimuli, which may either 2. All the social government is carried on in this house,

be partially or entirely mechanical, thermal, luminous, chemical, erything of a public nature is discussed in it. Decision

or electric. The so-called “hairs” are not true hairs, bút em by general vote, the majority carrying their point.

ergences, and their structure is described in detail. Each consists lder and wealthier landowners haye most influence

of three distinct regions, the joint, the base, and the shaft. here are no nobles, but do not seem to have more votes While previous observations; such as those of Darwin and Prof. ly one else. A woman can vote and speak as well as a

Burdon Sanderson, have been made on plants'of Dionæa under nd in general the women decide the question, unless it

abnormal conditions of cultivation, Macfarlane's are especially of war against another island.

valuable as having been made on the plant in its native condition ; A. J. CHITTY records in the new number of the Ento and this is also the case with those of Mr. Bashford Dean, con. i's Monthly Magazine that in the neighbourhood of Forres, tributed to the Transactions of the New York Academy of

Sciences. Mr. Dean states that there is a marked difference in METALLIC uranium was prepared with great difficulty, and the irritability of different leaves; that the leaves usually fail in only in small quantities by Peligot, by reducing the oxide capturing the larger and more active insects ; that even small an alkali metal. At ordinarily procurable temperatures : insects constantly escape ; and that the leaf repeatedly closes on various oxides of uranium are practically irreducible by carte: inorganic and vegetable objects.

This no longer obtains, however, at the extremely high tempo

ture of a very powerful electric arc. The nitrate of uraniza : MR, W. SAVILLE-Kent's book on “The Great Barrier

first calcined in a porcelain crucible, whereby a reddish-colours Reef of Australia " will be ready for publication before the end

mixture of the sesquioxide and of the green oxide V. 0,5 of the present month. It will include a series of photographic

obtained. This mixed oxide is then well ground with a te views of coral reels of various construction from several selected

slight excess of powdered carbon, and the whole tightly packs localities, with similar and also coloured illustrations and

in the crucible of retort-carbon, which is afterwards placed : descriptions of the living corolla, coral-polyps, and other

position in the lime furnace. Upon submitting the mixtare in the marine organisms commonly associated on the reefs. Mean.

crucible to the action of the arc produced by a current of te while, Messrs. W. H. Allen and Co., who are to publish the

ampères, the reduction is completely effected in a few minutes book, have issued enlarged and very beautiful copies of some

The ingot of uranium Thus produced exhibits a brilliant fratur of the principal illustrations. These are intended for the use

and great hardness. It possesses the peculiar property de ses of museums, colleges, and natural history societies, and will

ing forth a shower of incandescent sparks when struck as certainly be highly appreciated wherever they may happen to

a piece of porcelain, or when fragments of it are shaken abous be introduced.

a glass flask, reminding one of the combustion of partidos: A TRANSLATION of Prof. Weismann's “Das Keimplasma," freshly-reduced iron when allowed to fall through the ait. TL recently reviewed in NATURE, has been issued in “ The Con- | yield of the metal is very considerable ; thus in one experience temporary Science Series " (Walter Scott). The translators of twelve minutes' duration an ingot weighing over two handm. are Prof. W. N. Parker and Harriet Rönnfeldt, who have done grams was produced. The metal is not quite free from carta their work carefully. In the preface Prof. Parker explains the amount of the latter depending upon the excess used ! that in the case of special technical terms which have no recog. | Moissan is now engaged in perfecting a ready mode of refane z nised English equivalents he has added the German words in In order to prepare metallic manganese the protoxide is eszi brackets the first time they are used. He has had the great with carbon as in the case of uranium, and the mixture advantage of being able to consult Prof. Weismann personally mitted to the arc produced by a current of 300 ampères. with regard to many of the more difficult passages.

reduction is completely effected in five or six minutes, at

of 120 grams being readily obtained. The comparatively sos The County Council of Northumberland has issued a valuable

arc derived from a current of only 100 ampères gives the same pamphlet, by Dr. W. Somerville, giving an account of experi.

yield in 10-15 minutes. Any large excess of carbon is : ments made last season throughout Northumberland with a view

avoided as carbides of manganese are then produced. In of gaining practical information regarding some points connected

excess of the oxide is employed the metallic manganese obzsel with the economic manuring of the turnip crop.

is almost pure, and may be preserved unchanged in open las MESSRS. METALEN AND Co. have added to their “Univer- | The carbides, however, are rapidly attacked by the most sity Extension Series" a volume on "The Mechanics of the atmosphere, and if thrown into water evolve a gasos s. Daily Life,” by V. P. Sells. The author makes no attempt at ture of hydrogen and various hydrocarbons. Chromien : the mathematical treatment generally adopted, but seeks rather always been found hitherto to be much more difficult to red to use the subject “as a means of scientific training, and as an than manganese, but complete reduction occurs in 8-10 0103 illustration of the method of examining nature by reasoning in the electric furnace, employing a mixture of the sesquisa and experiment."

and carbon and a current of 350 ampères, the yield being a

ingot of 100 grams. A current of only 30 ampères, boste Messrs. CASSELL AND Co. are publishing in monthly parts

sufficient to produce ten grams of the metal in half and a new issue of Dr. Robert Brown's “Our Earth and its

time. Moreover, it is possible to refine the somewhat is Story,” with many coloured plates, maps, and upwards of 700

of 700 (from carbide) metal by a simple repetition of the procesi illustrations.

presence of a fresh quantity of the sesquioxide. The Two important papers upon the ready preparation of large chromium thus obtained is completely transformed into the wa quantities of the more refractory metals by means of the electric tile chloride, when heated in a stream of chlorine. The reden furnace are contributed by M. Moissan to the current number of in the electric arc succeeds equally well with crude chromt the Comptes Rendus. The “electric furnace" is simply a small ore, an alloy of iron and chromium being obtained from *** furnace constructed of lime, so arranged that it can be intensely the chromium may very readily be converted into chrose : heated by a very powerful electric arc. A quantity of magnesia, projecting it into fused nitrate of potash or soda and sabse which M. Moissan finds to be perfectly stable even at this high extraction with water. temperature, is first placed in the cavity of the furnace, and | Notes from the Marine Biological Station, Plyomat) upon this the crucible of retort-carbon containing a mixture of During the past week ephyræ of Aurelia have becuas powdered carbon and the metallic oxide to be reduced. When plentiful in the Sound. The Anthomedus have been the metal is volatile a current of hydrogen is passed through the sented by numbers of the charming Rathkea xlopun furnace, and the vaporised metal is condensed in a compara Haeckel ; and the Leptomedusæ (which are still sortively cool receiver. In this manner M. Moissan has succeeded isolated exainples of several species, including the Themen in rapidly preparing considerable quantities of the metals of the octona of Forbes. Ctenophore ova and several larga alkaline earths, calcium, strontium, and barium. If the metal young Ctenophores have been noticed. The properas is not sensibly volatile it is lest in the crucible aster the reduc. Polychæte larvæ and of Cirrhipede Nauplii remains as tion in the form of an ingot. The rare metal uranium, and the stant ; while there has been an appreciable increase metals manganese and chromium belong to this category, and numbers of Brachyurous Zocæ. The Hydroid Sma their preparation forms the subject of M. Moissan's two com argentea and Actinian Cereus pedunculatus (= Segar munications.

| are now breeding.

The additions to the Zoological Society's Gardens during the HYDROGEN LINE HB IN THE SPECTRUM OF NUVA AURIGÆ. it week include a Mozambique Monkey (Cercopithecus -Owing to the curious appearance of the HB line in the spec

trum of Nova Aurigæ, this line first appearing double and then rerythrus, 8 ) from East Africa, presented by Mr. R. Hughes;

afterwards quadruple, various explanations have been put forBonnet Monkey (Macacus sinicus, 9 ) from India, presented

ward to account for this peculiarity. From the hypothesis of Mr. W. Yeoman; two Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus)

two bodies, which did not agree with the facts observed, that of tish, presented by Mr. J. S. Williams ; an Ariel Toucan Ihree or more bodies was suggested, until at last it was sup. imphastos ariel) from Brazil, presented by Mr. Ellis Edwards ; posed that six bodies in all were in question. This supposition jreat Eagle Owl (Bubo maximus) European, presented by

seemed most improbable, and since then the matter has been

allowed to lie dormant. With reference to the behaviour of this nmander E. G. Rason, R.N.; two Spengler's Terrapins

line in the spectrum of vacuum tubes, Herr Victor Schumann coria spengleri) from Okinawa Shima, Loo Choo Islands, (Astronomy and Astrophysics for February) has made some very jented by Mr. P. Aug. Holst ; two Tuatera Lizards (Spheno. interesting experiments, taking great care to use the hydrogen in punctatus) from New Zealand, presented by Capt. Worster; as dry and pure a stale as possible. We will here only refer to spiny-tailed Mastigure (Uromaslix acanthinurus) from

the most important part of the paper, leaving the reader to refer

to the article itself for the apparatus, &c., einployed. The pho. eria, presented by Miss Rigley ; a Cuming's Octodon

tographic plates employed were made by himself according to odon cumingi) from Chili, deposited ; an Eland (Oreas the is silveroxydammonmethode" of Dr. Eder, of Vienna. ta, 8), born in the Gardens.

Working with pressures from 1 to 100 mm. of mercury, the results obtained at those of 65, 80, and 100 gave the following

results :- At 65 mm. HB and Hy were most prominent, and in OUR ASTRONOMICAL COLUMN.

the negatives they were well defined, “although the sharpness MET BROOKS (November 19, 1892). --The following

of their edges is injuriously affected by broad, hazy fringes of meris has been computed by Ristenpart (Astronomischen

considerable intensity, which shade off into the background from Irichten, 3154) from five normal places of this comet,

both sides of the line." Under a pressure of 80 mm. HB lost the elements

most of its definition, and close to it on each side were observed

two fine thin lines, the fringe also being present but a little wider T = 1893, January 6.529304 M.T. Berlin.

tban before. Hy, although increased in breadth, has lost its w = 85 12 510)

definition. With a pressure of 100 mm., "the more refrangible = 185 36 29'0 1890'0

component of the pair of lines just mentioned as belonging to

HB, has disappeared, and in its place has appeared HB itself, i = 143 51 459 )

broad, but very weak; near by on the lower side one observes log 9 = 0'0774148

a thin line twice.” With reference to the fringe of HB he says, it 12h. Berlin M.T.

has now “spread itself out more towards the blue than the red, R A. (app.) Decl. (app.) Logr. Logs Br.

thus displacing the middle of it towards the blue.” Hy remains h. m. S.

a very weak line. These observations showed that of all the ... O 39 35 ... + 22 18.6

hydrogen lines Hy was the only one that showed reversal as 40 37 .. 22 41

well as displacement, and he concludes with the remark that 41 37 ... 21 50'1

“if it be asked whether the phenomena of reversal as observed in 42 37 ... 21 36.5 ... 0:1738 ... 0'3379 . 0'54 | my hydrogen spectra furnish in themselves an explanation of the 43 36 ... 21 23 3

reversal of the lines in the spectra of Nova Aurigæ, the answer 44 34 ... 21 10:5

must be decidedly in the negative." 45 31 20581

COINCIDENCE OF SOLAR AND TERRESTRIAL PHENOMENA. 9. O 46 27 ... 20 46'1 ... 0'1842 ... Oʻ3563 ... 0:47

Since Prof. G. E. Hale commenced his solar researches at the nit of brightness occurred on November 2145, 1892. Kenwood Observatory, much has been added by him to our {ET Holmes (1892, III.).-M. Schulhof, in Astrono.

knowledge of the physics of the sun. Faculæ, for instance, 'n Nachrichten, No. 3153, continues the ephemeris for

which were supposed to be scattered only here and there on the | Holmes, from which we make the following extract :

solar surface, are now found, by means of the fine spectro.

heliograph, to occupy largely both hemispheres, and sometimes 12h. Paris Mean Time.

to extend in almost unbroken belts across the disc. This fact R.A. (app.) Decl. (app.)

has led him to consider the question of the probability of chance 1893. h. m. $.

coincidence between terrestrial magnetism and spots and faculæ March 2 30 598 ... + 34 490

(Astronomy and Astrophysics, for February), his attention being 32 42*7 ... 51 41

especially brought in this direction through a paper communicated 34 260 54 24

to the Paris Academy of Sciences by M. Marchaud. M. Mar36 9:6

chaud, in summing up his results alier an examination of both 37 53.5 34 59 52

solar and magnetic observations, says, with relerence to the 39 377 ... 35 2 37

curve of magnetic irtensity, that "each of these maxima sensi41 222 ..

5 24

bly coincides with the passage of a group of spots or a group 9... 43 71... 8 ii

of faculæ at its shortest distance from the centre of the disc.”

From an examination of 142 photographs of the sun, obtained A AURIGÆ.—Last week we mentioned that Mr. Fowler's

between January 25 and December 3, 1892, at the Kenwood ution of this nova consisted of two bright nebula lines

Observatory, Prof. Hale finds that no less than 132 show “one | near wave-lengths 5006 and 4956, the former being only

| or more groups of faculæ on the central meridian, i.e. at their brighter than the latter. In Astronomischen Nach.

shortest distances from the centre of the solar disc." The NO. 3153, Mr Huggins, in a note dated February 11, chances, therefore, that at any given time one or more groups with respect to his observations on February 7, 8, I may be located at the central meridian, he finds as 0'93. This , using a 4-inch Rowland grating (14,438 lines to the value, as he remarks, will be reduced for periods of decreased ad the second order, that the hand was "resolved into a

solar activity, but "coincidences noted in epochs like the present oup of lines extending through about 15 tenih-metres.

can hardly be regarded as of great importance. es appeared more or less bright upon a faintly luminous und which could be traced a little beyond the lines at “ ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL" PRIZES.-In addition to the ds of the group. Two lines, the brightest in the group prizes already offered, and to which we have previously referred ut equally brigbt, formed the termination of the group (NATURE, vol. xlvii., Astronomical Column, p. 282), iwo extra the blue ; and a line nearly as bright as these was seen

ones, subject to the same conditions, are now to be presented. The

ones, subject to the same le middle of the group. The group is therefore brighter first is to be given to “the observer making, by Argelander's lue end, but it does not possess any of the features of a method, the best series of determinations of maxima and minima

No contrast in the spectroscope could well be more of variable stars during the two years ending 1895, March 31." than that which this extended group of lines forms with The sum in this case is two hundred dollars. It is stated that "a ow and defined principal line in ihe nebula of Orion.” I principal basis for the award is to be the extent to which the de.

Ovan UN

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terminations will contribute to our better knowledge of the periodic along the foot of the mountains to the south side of the 16% variables by furnishing the largest number of maxima or minima of dam, making several excursions on the way, one of you the largest number of stars, having especial regard to stars whose importance from the Mongol village of Shang to Tosu : characteristics are at present not very well known." The award deiermine by astronomical observations the position of the of four hundred dollars will be given for the “most thorough dis sheet of water discovered by him in 1889. Mr. Rode cussion of the rotation of the earth, with reference to the recently party consisted originally of five Chinese, but one had to discovered variations of latitude." The manuscript (which will invalided home a few days after leaving Kumbum, and 7 be returned to the author) is to be transmitted to some one of others deserted him at Shang. He was able to hire a the judges not later than March 31, 1895.

place an old Chinese trader, and with these three men, as! For the award of these prizes the judges are Messrs. for a while by a Mongol and then by a Tibetan gudet Asaph Hall, Seth C. Chandler, and Lewis Boss.

travelled till he reached China again in October, 1892. May 27 the final start for Tibet was made from the Naick in western Ts'aidam, and a general south-westerly dire

was followed until July 7, when a point some 30 milo ba GEOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

the north-west corner of the great central Tibetan lake, a The Liverpool Geographical Society has issued its first

Tengri nor by the Mongols, was reached, Between the Sad annual report, which, although not showing a very cordial re

gol and the Ts'aidam the party had to endure great bardaky ception of the new society by the public, is not without some

the great altitude ranging from 14,000 to 17,000 feet abores promise of future growth. The Earl of Derby is President,

level, terrible daily snow and hail-storms, fierce sind there are twenty-two Vice-Presidents, a substantial Council,

frequent absence of suel, and towards the end starvation. 11 and a staff of honorary officials. Staff-Commander E. C.

route, moreover, led them through vast salt marshes, bus Dubois Phillips has been appointed Secretary. The second

across numerous rivers, in which quicksands were freques year of the society was inaugurated by a lecture on the Dis.

found. The geographical results of ihis portion of the ju covery of the Alps, by Mr. D. W. Freshfield, President of the

were important. (i) The determination of the limits of Alpine Club, and one of the Secretaries of the Royal Geo

basin of ihe Murus (the great Yang Tzú Kiang of Chase graphical Society. Other lectures have been arranged for, and

the discovery of the sources of the main branch of this is it is to be hoped that the membership of the society will rapidly

the snow.covered flanks of the great central Tibetan man increase.

mountains known as the Dangla. (2) The discovery of the e

limit of the lake-covered Central Asian plateau which has The tenth German Geographentag is announced to meet some 600 miles west of the route Mr. Rockhill followed the pas in Stuttgart on April 5, 6, and 7. The programme in- but is in the section he crossed of it called Xaktsang, and a cludes (1) The special geography of Wiirtemberg and the re- times, though apparently erroneously, Chang Tang or searches on the lake of Constance ; (2) Recent geographical thern S'eppe." investigations with special reference to desert phenomena ; (3) Game was scarce in the great part of this region, and se Cartography ; (4) Economic or applied geography; and (5) that it could not be approached. School geography. An exhibition will be held at the same . On July 2 the last provisions were eaten, and from time, mainly of objects illustrative of the geography of to the 7th the party subsisted solely on tea. On the later Würtemberg.

a small encampment of Tibetans was reached, and 2 il

purchased. The next day a valley was entered date: PROF. PENCK has a long paper in the March number of |

with tents; it was the pasture lands of the Namru Te the Geographical Journal, describing in detail his scheme for a

and Lh’asa governed territory. map of the world on the scale of 1 : 1,000,000. The import

The headman refosé : 1

the party food unless Mr. Rockbill agreed to awat ke a ance of having maps of every country on one scale has long

of the head chief, who would decide as to whether be es been recognised by working geographers ; but, with the excep

allowed to proceed southward, or be sent back to the bed tion of the little atlas on gnomonic projection by the late R. A.

Alier six days' discussion with the chief and several Proctor, we do not know of any effort having been made to

from Lh’asa a compromise was effecied; and Mr. Rockbil, place such maps before the public. The minute scale of the

an escort of ten Tibetan soldiers, started eastward to work referred to reduced its value to a minimum. Prof. Penck's

frontier port of Nagchuká, on the higheroad to Lhasa ta scheme is one of great magnitude. He would allocate the production of the map to the Governments or public bodies of

Koko nor.

On July 27 Mr. Rockhill crossed the Dangch'a : each country. On this principle, 769 sheets would be required

himself on the territory of Jyadé, or “ The Chinese Pound to represent the land surface of the globe, each sheet containing 50 square between the equator and 60°, and between 60° and

which is governed by native chiess appointed by ibe 17 The poles 5° of latitude and 10° degrees of longitude. The

Minister, resident at Lh'asa (or Lhasa Amban). TS! British Empire would be responsible for 222 sheets, Russia sor

portant province was separated from Lh'asa hy the Ches

ihe seventeenth century, in view of the enmity existing 192, United States for 65, France 55, Scandinavia 54, China 45. Five countries would have from 20 10 30 sheets each, six

its people, who prosess the Bonbo religion, a fora of *** more would have over 10, and ien countries would require a

worship or shamanism, though now mixed up with lamies

such an extent, that it is hardly distinguishable from it, smaller number, Belgium, Switzerland, and Greece having

followers of the yellow and red sects of Buddhism only one each. One advantage of the proposed scale is that it

Lh'asa soil. corresponds within the limits of the shrinkage of paper with the 16 miles to an inch Survey of India maps (1 : 1013760) and

Passing to the south of the city of Ch'amdo, to 3

Mr. Rockhill, like his predecessor, Captain Bower, was with the 25 versts to an inch Russian maps (1 : 1050000).

admittance, the high road to China was reached at Pangas stages south of Ch'amdo), and from this point to Chinas

escort was given the traveller, and he was able to el MONGOLIA AND CENTRAL TIBET.

the luxuries of Chinese travel. Stopping at Draya, 24

Bat’ang and Lit’ang, Ta-chien-lu, in Ssū-ch'uan, was red AT the meeting of the Royal Geographical Society on October 2. Here, on the eastern border of Tibet Live A Monday Mr. W. Woodville Rickhill gave an interesting was practically ended, sor, though several thousand account of a journey in Mongolia and Central Tibet. Leaving separated Mr. Rockbill from the seaboard, they Peking on December 1, 1891, Mr. Rockhill travelled 10 the travelled in comfort and rapidity. Leaving Tadha frontier town of Kalgan, then, entering Mongolia, he passed October 5, he was in Shangai on the 29th, exis through the pasture-lands of the Ch’ahar Mongols. After a months from the time he had left it. In that time few days spent at Kuei-hua Ch'eng, the traveller continued travelled about 8000 miles, surveyed 3417, and during westward, and crossing the Yellow kiver on the ice at Ho-k'on, graphically important part of the journey crossed he crossed the Ordos Mongols country, and afterwards Alashan. passes, all of ihem rising over 14,000 feet abore Again entering China proper the route led through Ning-hsia, not a few reached 18,coo. I had taken series of sets Lanchou, and Hsi-ning, the westernmost town in China, on the vations at a hundred points along the road, dele high road to Tibet. On March 14 Mr. Rockhill lest for Tibet hundred and forty-six aliitudes by the boiling pouss by an unexplored route, passing south of the Koko nor and i taken ihree hundred photographs, and made import

rical and botanical collections. For two months we had lived the aids and hindrances to the establishment of an equilibrium 'an altitude of over 15,000 feet, soaked by the rains and between the gases inside and outside the plant, irrespective of nded by the snow and hail, with little or nothing to eat, and whether the cells are alive or dead. thing to drink buttea, and yet not one of us had a It has already been stated that the relative amounts of oxygen ment's illness from the day we left till we reached our and carbon dioxide inside the plant are usually very different, mes again.”

and that within a few hours the relation of the two may be completely reversed. To this may be added that the pressure of the gases inside the plant is sometimes more, sometimes less than

that of the atmosphere outside the plant, almost never the same. GASES IN LIVING PLANTS.1

Hales observed in his early work that a mercury gauge conLANTS are permeated by the same gases that make up the nected with the inside of the trunk of a tree showed an internal

atmosphere surrounding them : oxygen, carbon dioxide and pressure when the hot rays of the sun warmed the trunk. This rogen. Nitrogen in the form of a gas is neither used por was largely due, undoubtedly, to an expansion of the gases in erated by any part of plants, unless we except the tuber

the trunk, by the heat. Such an excess of pressure in water of certain roots, and so it occurs in about the same per

plants is very common, although due to other causes. It may tage inside the plant as outside of it. On the other hand,

readily be shown by breaking stems under water, when bubbles h oxygen and carbon dioxide enter into combination with, of gas will be liberated, as undoubtedly many have noticed in are liberated from, the plant tissues in varying amounts

gathering water lilies, or other water plants. lifferent times. The percentage of these two gases in the On the other hand, the pressure of the gas inside the plant ties of the plant vary through a considerable range. In a

may be less than on the outside. This has long been recognised, s of determinations made by Lawes, Gilbert, and Pugh, in

but was best demonstrated by Von Höhnel in 1879, to whom it land, the oxygen ranged from 3 to 10 per cent., and the

occurred to cut off stems under mercury. In doing so the meron dioxide from 14 to 21 per cent. in plants which had cury rose to a considerable height in the vessels of the stem, and 1 for some time in the dark, while plants which had been as mercury is without capillarity, this can only be ascribed to ding in sunlight reversed these figures, and gave 24 to 27 the greater pressure of the outside air, or in other words, to a cent. of oxygen and 3 to 6 per cent. of carbon dioxide. The partial vacuum in the plant. gases, therefore, bear a somewhat reciprocal relation, their An observation was made by Hales, which we may use to usually being about 25 to 30 per cent. of the total gas in | illustrate how such a negative pressure, as it has been called, plant.

can be brought about. He cut off a branch, fastened an empty he variations in the relative amount of oxygen and carbon

tube to the cut end, and plunged the other end of the tube into ide are due to two independent processes incident to the

a liquid. He found that as evaporation of moisture from the of plants. One of these processes is assimilation, by which

| leaves took place, the liquid was drawn up into the empty tube. green cells of plants in the presence of sunlight, or its This phenomenon can now be explained more satisfactorily than ralent, such as a strong electric light, absorb carbon dioxide could be done at that early day. By evaporation the liquid iberate oxygen. This process goes on with great rapidity

water inside the plant escapes in the form of vapour, and the althy cells, but is entirely checked upon the withdrawal of

space it occupied is filled by the gases, thus rarilying them. or when it reaches a certain low intensity. Of course it

This rarisaction may go on in uninjured plants until the internal takes place in roots, Aowers, the central portion of large

pressure is greatly reduced. But in the experiment, the pres1, or other parts which are not green, nor in any fungi or

| sure is equalised by the rise of the liquid in the tube. A later plants not possessed of green colouring matter.

modification of Hales' experiment is to use a forked branch, e other great cause of disturbance in the relation of oxygen place the cut end in water to give a continuous supply of moisarbon dioxide in the plant is the process of respiration.

ture for transpiration, and attach the empty tube to one of the spiration in plants is essentially ihe same as in animals,

side forks of the stem, cut away for that purpose. onsists in a fixation of oxygen and the liberation of carbon

It is self-evident that such condensation and rarisaction of le. It takes place in every living cell, whatever the kind

the gases in the plant could not take place if the cell walls were int, whatever the part of the plant, and whatever the con

readily permeable to gases. Thus it comes about that one of s of active existence. The rate of respiration varies with

the most important topics in connection with the movement of mperature, the age of the cell, and the nature of the

gases in the plant, is the permeability of tissue walls of various cal transformations. In normal respiration the amount of

kinds, and especially those constituting the surface covering of n absorbed is approximately the same as the amount of

plants. 1 dioxide evolved. There are, however, certain modified

I shall not attempt to conduct you through the tangle of supof respiration in which this does not hold true.

position and fact, errors in experiments, correct and incorrect iving plants be placed in a vacuum, or in an atmosphere

conclusions, and the general confusion which has come from the ed of oxygen, it is found that they can still carry on lise

labours of physicists, chemists and botanists for the last twentyses for some time, accompanied with an evolution of car

| five years, during which the subject has received particular oxide. The oxygen necessary for this process is obtained

attention. The results of the later work have been to cast he breaking up of compounds in the cells, and it is there.

grave doubts upon the correctness, or at least the interpretation lled intramolecular breathing.

of some of the experiments most relied upon heretofore. Nevergermination of seeds, which contain a large amount of

theless many points still lie open for verification, and untouched somewhat the opposite of this last process. In order to

parts of the subject await investigation. I the fat into a more directly serviceable food material for

In the earlier days it was found that the leaves and young ot, a large amount of oxygen enters into the new com

stems of plants have their epidermis more or less well supplied n, for which there is no equivalent amount of gas liberated,

with minute openings, called stomata, or breathing pores, equently comes about that oily seeds in germinating ab

which communicate with small air cavities in-ide, which in turn far larger amount of oxygen than they liberate of carbon

branch out among the cells into a network of minute passages This is known as vincular breathing.

rarisying throughout the plant. This intricate network of inther variation from normal respiration is known as insolar

tercellular passages affords an air communication throughout ng, and which, with still some other modifications, I need

the whole plant, and connects directly with the outside atmosp to explain. To this brief statement of plant respira.

phere through the stomata. Subsequent to the discovery of ist be added that much yet reniains to be discovered re

stomata, it was ascertained, that in stems more than one year the details of the processes.

old, the stomata are replaced by another kind of opening, known nilation and respiration are the two great causes which

as lenticels, which in some form are doubtless to be found in the relative volume of the two variable gases in plants.

the bark of shrubs and trees of whatever age. hall now turn to the movement of the same two gases,

Gases stream into and out of the plant through the stomata and carbon dioxide. There has never been a disposition

and simpler lenticels, according to the law governing the e case of many other plant phenomena, to explain the

movement of gases through minute openings in thin plates. The Ent of gases upon any other ihan purely physical prin

rate of movement is accordingly proportional to the square roots We have therefore to do simply with the question of

of the density of the mixing gases. Such a movement of gases

is known as effusion. Reprinted from the American Naturalist for February.

The movement by which gases pass from one part of the

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