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plant to another, through the intercellular spaces, is governed during the term has comprised lectures on the general sve by other laws. It was at first thought that ihe rate of move of the Honour School by the Waynflete Prolenor ment would correspond to that in capillary tubes, according to physiology of nutrition, by Dr. J. S. Haldane: and on the so the well-known law of Poisenille, that it is proportional to the System, by Dr. E. Starling. Mr. Leonard Hill has underne fourth power of the diameter, divided by the length of the the course of lectures on elementary physiology. Pro tube. But upon testing the matter two years ago, Wiesner instruction has been carried on under the superintender, found that owing to the extreme minuteness of the intercellular Dr. Haldane and Mr. M. S. Pembrey. spaces, and their zigzagged and branched condition, this law does not hold, neither does the movement prove to be proportional to the density of the gases. The discovery of the law of the rate of movement of gases in intercellular spaces,

SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. that is, the transpiration of gases, is, therefore, yet to be discovered, together with other interesting facts per

Bulletin of the New York Mathematical Sariety, Vol ri. I. subject. Poisenille's law does, however, hold good for the 4 (New York, 1893). — The contents of this number me movement of gases in the woody ducts, but here it is of limited abstract of a paper (read before the Society. June 4, 18gr. application, for these do not connect with one another, with Prof. W. Woolsey Johnson, entitled “On Peters'Formih in the intercellular spaces, or with the exterior of the plant. Probable Error" (pp. 57-61). A clear abstract of Engele:

The walls of most cells, ducts, and surface covering of plants, Sophus Lie's Theorie der Transformationsgruppen, by CH except as already mentioned, are imperforate, that is without Chapman (pp. 61-71), and a similar account of t. Dini'mot any openings that can be demonstrated by the microscope. If on the theory of functions of a real variable, hy J. Harkness gases pass through them, it must be in accordance with some 71-76). Notes and new publications complete the number, law of diffusion, or osmosis. Many experiments in this line have been tried, and the results have been of the most diverse

Bulletin de l'Académie Royale de Belgique, No. 12-11

published corollary of Kepler's laws, by F. Folie. A dedeger character. It is impossible to give a fair idea of the subject in the time at my disposal, and it must suffice to mention a few

of Dewar's empirical formula for the ratios of the mean wela a

of the planets from Kepler's third law.-On the comma bare facts. The most astonishing and important results were obtained

of surface tension and evaporation of liquids (preliminary a by Wiesner, in experiments conducted at Vienna, two years

by G. Van der Mensbrugghe. The author endeavours to since. It would be a most natural interpretation, it seems to

in 1886 that the particles of a liquid are at distances apar su me, to think that the gases are forced from one cell to another,

increase as we approach the surface, and that therde te

tension is greatest at the surface. Following up this view, through the cell walls by differences in pressure. Wiesner found, however, that it is impossible to force gases through

| regards surface tension as the elastic force due to tangentia'. cell walls of any kind whatever, by any pressure they will

placement of surface particles, and evaporation as produced stand, acting for any length of time. For instance, a bit of

molecular displacement beyond a certain limit in a busca grape skin held up a column of mercury, 70 centimetres high,

normal to the surface. He predicts that a liquid of high to

tension will be able to evaporate across another liquid whidb for seventy-five days, and a piece of cherry skin withstood a

a lower density and surface tension, and does not mix with pressure of 3 atmospheres for twenty-four hours. Similar experiments were tried with cuticularised, suberised, liquefied and

sormer.-On a new optical illusion, by M. J. Delbaul.-030

reduction of invariant functions in the system of geners simple cellulose tissues from many sources, and with unilormly the same results, whether the tissues were moist or dry, alive or

variables, by Jacques Deruyts.-Construction of a copes

system of straight lines of the second order and the secladdar dead.

by François Deruyts.-Contribution to the study of diadek But in the same set of experiments it was found that if gases cannot be forced through cell walls, they will readily pass

Jules Vuylsteke. — Pupine, a new animal substance, by A. I through by simple osmotic diffusion. All cells permit the pas.

| Griffiths.-- Two experimental verifications relative to reinsta sage of gases by diffusion when moist, dependent upon the

in crystals, hy J. Verschaffelt. Billet has calculate the . coefficient of absorption and the density of the gas. Cuticular

refraction takes place on a cleavage face of a crystal oleks and corky formations also permit the passage of gases when

spar, the angle of refraction for the extraordinary rayo dry. Thus we see that gases may be forced through the

ponding to normal incidence is 6°12', and that the ray is stomata, or breathing pores, by varying pressure, but can only

with an incidence of 9° 49'. M. Verschaffelt bas deler pass through the epidermis and bark of plants by diffusion,

y these angles experimentally, and found them to be 69 De We therefore arrive at the conclusion that the gases inside and

| 9° 45' respectively, thus showing a close agreement with me outside of the plant are brought to an equilibrium by direct

theoretical values.-On the bacterian fermentation of sols interchange through the stomata and intercellular spaces,

" by M. A, B, Griffiths.-On prejudices in astronomy, by ! aided by the comparatively slow process of diffusion through

Folie. -On the constitution of matter and modern physo"

process of amusion through | P. de Heen. the whole surface of the plant, both above and below ground.

J. C. ARTHUR. Ann, dell'Ufficio Cent, Meteor i Geodinamico, 23.100

part iii. vol. xi. 1889. Roma, 1892.-Fumo di Valmore

dall'Osservatorio di Palermo durante l'eruzione del 18%, UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL

Ricco.-From the obervatory terrace (72m. above sea leve, INTELLIGENCE.

summits of some of the Lipari islands are visible, but the

Vulcano (140km. distant) is not so. Any smoke or vet's OXFORD. — The Curators of the Hope Collections will pro. exceeds 300m. in height can, however, be seen. Tbeasbes ceed to the election of a Hope Prose:sor in 'Trinity Term 1893. not successful in either photographing or measuring the fear Candidates for the Professorship, of which the emoluments are sions of the smoke cloud, which were, however, estimate £480 per annum, are required to send in their applications, comparison with the size of Alicuri, which had been art together with such evidence of their qualifications as they may determined. At the commencement of the Obe " wish to submit to the Curators, on or before May 1, 1893, to (January 6, 1889) the smoke column reached a beight is the Registrar of the University, Clarendon Buildings, Oxford. and had the form of the pine tree. Several drawings are pre The duties of the Hope Proiessor are, to give public lectures and the form assumed in some cases is very curioas. The page and private instruction on zoology with special reference to the terminates with some thermodynamical calculations, which Articulata, to arrange and superintend the Hope collection of very interesting, but unfortunately based on salse prelos e annulose animals, and to reside in the University for the term of author supposes that the eruption was caused by the accos de eight months in every academical year between October ( and sea-water. He supposes this to be at sea level, and also July 15.

the pressure at this point, concludes the vapour was der Physiological Department.-It is satisfactory to note that the from water heated to 196° C, only. He seems to be misse number of students in this department is greater than in any | with the solution of H,O in the fluid volcanic glass, the red previous corresponding term. The increase is due not only to and escape of vapour from it, involving so many data wale the larger number of candidates for the M.B. degree, but also the physicist has not yet supplied us, as to make ayat to a larger number of candidates for honours in Physiology in tions of such a nature of a highly romantic rather thanni pre the Honour School of Natural Science. The course of study use.

Mem. Soc. degli Spettroscopisti Ital. vol. xxi. 1892.-La Surrey. Demonstrator : C. Vernon Boys, F.R.S., Physical randissima Macchia Solare del Febbrajo 1892, by A. Ricco. - Laboratory, South Kensington. Other members of Council : This memoir is a description of an enormous sun-spot which | Shelford Bidwell, F.R.S., W. E. Sumpner, Prof. G. Fuller, eveloped from some small ones that had been noticed during | J. Swinburne, Prof. J. V. Jones, Rev. F. J. Smith, Prof. G. tree rotations before January 17. On February 5, they made M. Minchin, L. Fletcher, F.R.S., Prof. O. Henrici, F.R.S., teir grand entry on the solar face on the east side, and by the James Wimshurst.-In response to invitations for suggestions b could be seen by the eye aided only by a smoked glass. The regarding the working of the society, Prof. S. P. Thompson hole spot was composed of a very large one surrounded by said all must appreciate the efforts of the late Council, and parhaller ones, and composed of great tongues of flame extending in ticularly of the honorary secretaries, in making the society better wards the nucleus, sometimes arranged in a spiral manner. It known. But he could not help thinking that there were many tained its maximum on February u, when the whole patch persons amongst teachers of physics and scientific amateurs easured, in earth diameters, as follows: Total length, 20; total whose active sympathies it was desirable to engage, who were eadth, 8; the more compact extended 8 in each direction. not yet associated with the society. Perhaps the time of meetfter this the breaking up of the spot proceeded at a rapid rate, ing was not convenient for all, but he thought much might be d by rotation the spot passed out of sight on the 18th. On done by freely circulating particulars of what was going on at e next rotation the diminution was much more marked. The the meetings. The daily papers merely announced the meetings, thor gives six observations of latitude, eight drawings, and but said nothing as to the place of meeting or the papers to be veral spectroscopic observations on the flames.

read. In his opinion the society did not take the position in the scientific world to which it was entitled, and he wished to

inspire members with a determination to bring its claims proSOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.

minently forward.—Mr. Blakesley pointed out that almost all the

scientific and technical papers gave full announcements of the LONDON.

meetings and of the papers to be. read. -Mr. W F. Stanley Royal Society, February 23.—“On the Mimetic Forms of said Friday afternoon was not convenient for scientific men tain Butterflies of the Genus Hypolimnas.” By Colonel engaged in trade. —The meeting was then resolved into an Swinhoe, M.A. Communicated by Prof. E. Ray Lan. ordinary science meeting.-Dr. J. H. Gladstone, F.R.S., read a ter, F.R.S.

paper on some recent determinations of molecular refraction The object of this investigation is to study the changes under and dispersion. The paper relates to the new metallic e by the species of a small group of butterflies as they are carbonyls, the metals indium and gallium, sulphur, and ed from one locality to another, and to ascertain the bearing to liquefied oxygen, nitrous oxide, and ethylene. The hese facts upon the theory of mimicry.

carbonyls were found to be extremely refractive and enorVe find the representatives of the Indian Hypolimnas bolina mously dispersive. For iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)o, the long list of localities in Malaya, Polynesia, and Africa : the molecular refraction for the line a of hydrogen was found to be i representatives differ from each other and from the Indian | about 68.5, and the molecular dispersion between y and a of 1, but they agree in possessing in one or both sexes a more hydrogen 66. For nickel tetra-carbonyl, Ni(CO)ą, the corress superficial resemblance to some conspicuous species be. sponding numbers are 5707 and 5'93. In discussing the results ing to a specially defended group and inhabiting the same it was pointed out that if the molecular refraction of co be lity; the same is true of the three forms of the female of taken as 8:4, the value expected in organic substances, then the blimnas misi ppus.

atomic dispersions of nickel and iron come out greatly in excess he facts afford the most convincing evidence of the truth of of the known values as determined from solutions of their salts. heory of mimicry enunciated by H. W. Bates.

The author considers the most probable explanation of the he study of these numerous but closely-related forms be. excessive refractions and dispersions of the carbonyls is to be ing to the genus Hypolimnas also throws light upon such sought in the peculiar arrangement of the CO, and on optical as esting questions as :

well as chemical grounds accepts the ring formulæ indicated by The special liability of the female to become mimetic. Mr. Mond in his lecture at the Royal Institution, viz. :| The ancestral form from which the various mimetic ties have been derived.

Ni

Fe The mimetic resemblance to different species in the same

O=CC=0 O=CC=0 The divergent conditions under which mimicry appears

C

and O=C =O vsely-related species.

с с The relation between selection and variation in the pro. on of mimetic resemblance.

0 0 ysical Society, February 10.--Annual general meeting. · Walter Baily, Vice-President, in the chair. - The reports On this supposition the molecular refraction of CO comes out : Council and Treasurer were read and approved, copies of 19 from the nickel compound and 11'3 from the iron ore, whilst alance-sheet being distributed to members. From the the molecular dispersion (y-a) is about 1'3 in each case. For r it appears that the society now numbers 371 ordinary | indium and gallium the atomic refractions calculated from vers and 12 honorary members, and during the past year | latest data are 13'7 and 11.6 respectively. Sulphur has been ciety has lost six members by death, viz. the Rev. T. examined in the states of solid, liquid, and gas, and also in simple m Dale, Dr. J. T. Hurst, B. Loewy, C. E. Walduck, G. chemical combination and in solution, all the resulting numbers Whippie, and P. W. Willans. Obituary notices ac for its atomic refraction being remarkably concordant. For the iny the report. - The treasurer's statement shows line C this is about 16. The dispersions in all the different nancial condition of the society to be satisfactory. A states are also in close agreement. Numbers relating to carbon I vole of thanks to the Committee of Council on Educa. and chlorine are also given. The specific refractions of oxygen, r the use of the rooms and apparatus of the Royal College nitrous oxygen, and ethylene in the liquid states bad been reence was proposed by Mr. Shelford Bidwell, seconded by cently determined by Profs. Liveing and Dewar. For liquid lakesley, and carried unanimously. A similar vote was oxygen the refraction equivalent (3:182) differs little from that ed to the auditors, Mr. H. M. Elder and Mr. A. P. | deduced from gaseous oxygen at ordinary temperatures (3 '0316), r, on the motion of Dr. Gladstone, seconded by Prof. S. and also corresponds fairly closely to the 3 'o obtained by Landolt ompson. Prof. Ramsay proposed a vote of thanks to the from organic compounds. Liquid nitrous oxide gave 11'418 5 of the society for their services during the past year ; and 11840 as the molecular refractions for the red ray of as seconded by Prof. Fuller, and carried. Prof. Perry lithium and the line G respectively. In discussing these numded. The following gentlemen were declared duly elected bers it was pointed out that nitrogen in nitrous oxide was not n the new council :-President: Prof. A. W. Rücker, in the same condition as nitrogen in ammonia. The latest de

Vice-Presidents : Walter Baily, Major-General E. | terminations with liquid ethylene gave the molecular refraction sting, F.R.S. ; Prof. J. Perry, F.R.S.; Prof. S. P. for the line A as 17:41, the theoretical value being 17:40, thus >son, F.R.S. Secretaries : H. M. Elder, 50, City Road, showing very close agreement.- Mr. E. C. C. Baly made a and T. H. Blakesley, 3, Eliot Hill, Lewisham, SE. | communication on separation and striation of rarefied gases rer: Dr. E. Atkinson, Portesbery Hill, Camberley, ! under the influence of the electric discharge.

Ph.C.NO

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Chemical Society, February 3.—Dr. W. H. Perkin, Vice- | hy F. R. Japp and T. S. Murray. The authors find that nitrile President, in the chair. The following papers were read : and benzoin interact with elimination of water when a mixture The connection between the atomic weight of the contained 1 of the two compounds is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric metals and the magnitude of the angles of crystals of isomorphous acid, an oxazole being formed in which the hydrocarbon radice series, by A. E. Tutton. The author has made a detailed attached to the cyanogen of the nitrile occupies the meso positions goniometrical investigation of twenty-two salts belonging to the Thus acetonitrile yields in this manner 26-diphenyi RM(SO...6H.O series of double sulphates containing as the methyloxazole alkali metal R potassium, rubidium or cæsium, and as the dyad

Ph.CH.OH

| Ph.C.0, metal M magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, nickel, cobalt,

+ NC.Me = l C.Me + H20. copper, or cadmium. On classifying the salts into three groups

Ph.co according to the alkali metals which they contain, it is found that the geometrical and other properties of the salts containing A number of instances of this reaction are cited. The above rubidium as the monad metal, lie between those of the corre. oxazole, when treated with ammonia, is converted into the sponding potassium and cæsium salts. Thus the cæsium salts corresponding imidazole identical with Japp and Wynne's show the greatest power of crystallising, those of potassium the methyidiphenylglyoxaline. — The action of nitrosyl chloride and least, whilst the salt containing rubidium occupy an inter of nitric peroxide on some members of the olefine seriex, by W. mediate position in this respect. Similar behaviour is observed A. Tilden and J. J. Sudborough. Ethylene dichloride alone with regard to the crystalline habits of the various salts; each of results from the interaction of ethylene and nitrosyl chloride the three groups is characterised by the possession of a dis. Propylene and butylene yield with nitrosyl chloride a mixture tinctive habit.* The crystalline habit of ihe salts containing of dichloride and nitrosochloride, whilst trimethylene (amylene) potassium is widely different from that of the salts containing is almost entirely converted into nitrosochloride.-Piperazine, cæsium ; the specific characteristic habit of the rubidium salts by W. Majert and A. Schmidt. The authors correct certain is of an intermediate nature. There is a difference of some two erroneous statements regarding the physical and chemical degrees or so between the axial angles (B) of the potassium and characters of piperazine. They have prepared the following cæsium salt crystals containing the same dyad melal ; the series of hydrates of piperazine, the hexhydrate, which crystalmagnitude of the angle B in the corresponding rubidium salt is lises from dilute aqueous solutions, being the most readily approximately the mean of these two. The differences formed :between the axial angles are hence approximately proportional

C.H.N,, H,0 m. p. 75 to the differences between the atomic weights of the contained

, 2H,O ,,, 50 alkali metals if the dyad metal remain the same. The magni. tudes of all the angles between the faces of the crystals of the

4H0 ,, ,, 42 43 salts of this series containing rubidium as the alkali metal lie between, though not ordinarily midway between, the magnitudes

, ,6H,O ,, 48° of the corresponding angles upon the crystals of the potassium and cæsium salts containing the same dyad metal. The alkali

Linnean Society, February 16.-Prof. Stewart, President, metals exert a preponderatiog influence upon the geometricall in the chair.-Mr. Clement Reid exhibited and gave an aconun form of the crystals, the magnitudes of the angles being altered

of some seeds of Paradoxocarpus carinatus, an extinct Pliocene on displacing one alkali metal R by the next higher or lower to

and Pleistocene plant from the Cromer fossil ber. Mi. an extent attaining a maximum, in certain angles, of more than

Reid also exhibited and described some examples of Fwaa degree, whilst the displacement of the dyad metal M by any | mogeton headonensis, a new type of pond weed from the other of the same group is unattended by any material change

Oligocene strata of Hordle Cliff in Hampshire. His remarks, in the angular magnitudes. The preparation of phosphoric / which were listened to with great interest, were elucidated with oxide free from the lower oxide, by W. A. Shenstone and C. R. the aid of diagrams, and were criticised by Mr. W. Carruthers Beck. Phosphoric oxide may be freed from the lower oxides by / and others.--Mr. J. E. Harting exhibited some dried plants of distilling it over platinum sponge in presence of excess of oxygen. / a so-called Greek tea (Siderilis thuczans, Boissier), which during -Contributions to our knowledge of the aconite alkaloids :

a recent visit to Thessaly he had found to be extensively used Part iv., on isaconitine (napelline), by W. R. Dunstan and

there, as an insusion in lieu of tea. He also exhibited some E. F. Harrison. The authors have examined the alkaloid | photographs of Thessalian scenery, showing the geological and isaconitine C33H45NO1%, which occurs together with its isome.

botanical character of the country bordering the great plain of ride aconitine in the roots of Aconitum napellus. It is present

Larissa.-Dr. Otto Stapf pointed out on the map the scene of to as great an extent as aconitine, and is obtained in the pure

Bornmueller's recent botanical explorations in Persia, and gave state as a colourless, friable, varnish-like mass. Its alcoholic some account of the flora of that region as far as has at present solution is feebly dextrorotatory. The salts somewhat resemble

been ascertained.-On behalf of Mr. C. B. Plowright, a paper, the corresponding aconitine salts in physical properties. On

communicated by the President, was read on the life history of the attempting to prepare an aurichloride, aurochlorisaconitine, Acidium on Paris quadrifolia.-On behalf of Mr. J. C. Willis, C33H (AUCI, NOresults. Isaconitine is gradually hydro

who was unfortunately prevented by illness from attending, : lysed by mineral acids or water yielding the same products as

paper was read entitled "Contributions to the natural history of does aconitine, viz. aconine and benzoic acid

the flower." This paper, the first of a series, dealt with the fer

tilisation by insects of plants belonging to the genera Claytonia, C33H45N0,9 + H,0 = C, H,,N0,1 + C,H,O.,. Phacelia, and Monarda. --Some observations on British worms, Whilst aconitine is a most violent poison, even in excessively

by the Rev. H. Friend, were read on his behalf by the minute doses, relatively large quantities of isaconitine must be

Secretary. administered to small animals in order to produce a toxic effect, Royal Meteorological Society, February 15.-Dr. C. which effect is the result of a physiological action in the main Theodore Williams, President, in the chair. The following distinct from that of aconitine. It seems doubtful whether papers were read :-Report on the phenological observations isaconitine would prove toxic to man, except when given in very for 1892, by Mr. E. Mawley. The Royal Meteorological large doses. -Contributions to our knowledge of the aconite | Society has for a number of years past collected observations on alkaloids : Part v., the composition of some commercial speci. natural periodical phenomena, such as the date of the flowering mens of aconitine, by W. R. Dunstan and F. H. Carr. The of plants, the arrival, song, and nesting of birds, the first great differences in toxic power exhibited by different samples appearance of insects, &c. These observations were supervised of aconitine have led the authors to examine sixteen specimens and discussed by the Rev. T. A. Preston until 1888, since of “ aconitine from A. napellus." Most of the samples were which time they have been under the direction of M E amorphous ; these contained little or no aconitine, but were Mawley. The year 1892 was on the whole very cold and back chiefly composed of aconine, isaconitine, and homoisaconitine, ward. The frequent frosts and dry weather during the first five all of which appear to be very slightly, if at all, toxic. Or the months greatly retarded vegetation, and consequently all the crystalline specimens examined, only two were pure, most of early wild flowers were very late in coming into blossom. Bush them being contaminated with more or less amorphous alkaloid. fruits and strawberries were, as a rule, good and fairly plentifal. Hence it is not surprising that great differences have been Plums and pears were almost everywhere a failure, and apple observed in the mode of action and toxic power of commercial were considerably under the average. The wheat crop was "aconitine."-Synthesis of oxazoles from benzoin and nitriles, very light one, owing in part to the attacks of blight brough!

PIC

on in many places by the frost in June. Oats, beans, and peas were much under the average, while barley was the chief crop of the year, Potatoes, turnips, and mangolds were above the average. During August butterflies were very numerous, the clouded yellow butterfly being exceptionally abundant. Rel tion between the duration of sunshine, the amount of cloud, and the height of the barometer, by Mr. W. Ellis. This is a discussion of the observations ma le at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, during the filleen years 1877.91, from which it appears that in the months from February to October there is, on the whole, a distinct probability of increased sunshine and correspondingly less cloud with increase of barometer reading. Th: winter in all conditions of the barometer is uniformly dull. Mr. Ellis says that it is evident that high barometer in summer pre-ages increased sunshine, that the eftect is less pronounced in early spring and late autumn, and that it becomes slightly reversed in winter. - Winter temperatures on mountain summits, by Mr. W. Piffe Brown. In this paper the author gives the lowest winter temperature on the summit of Y Glyder fach, four miles E.N.E. from Snowdon, and 3262 feet above sea level, as recorded by a minimum thermometer during the last twenty. five years. The lowest temperature registered was 9o during the winter 1891-2.

Zoological Society, February 14.-Osbert Salvin, F.R.S., Vice President, in the chair.---The secretary read a report on the additions that had been made to the Society's menagerie during the month of January 1893.-Prof. G. B. Howes exhibited and inade remarks on an abnormal sternum or a Marmoset (Hapale tacchus) in which the mesosternal elements of the opposite sides were distinct, and alternately disposed, and discussed its probable bearings upon the sternum of the Anthropomorpha, particularly as represented by the orang.-Prof. T. Jeffrey Parker, F.R S., read a paper on the cranial ostelogy, classification, and phylogeny of the Dinornithide. The author gave a detailed description of the skull in various genera and species of Moa, founded upon the exa nination of more than 120 speci. mens. A detailed comparison with the skulls of the other Ratitæ followed, as well as an extensive series of measurements.

- The bearing of the facts ascertained upon the classification of the family was discussed. The author recognised five genera of Dinornithidæ, arranged in three subsamilies as follows: Sub. family DINORNITHINÆ, genus Dinornis; subfamily ANOMALOPTERYGINA, genera Pachyornis, Mesopteryx, and Anoma. lopteryr ; subsamily Emeinde, genus Emeus. The phylogeny of the group was then discussed. Mcsopteryx was considered to be the most generalised form, while Dinornis and Emeus were both highly specialised, but in different directions. Of the other Ratitæ, Apteryx came nearest to the Moas in the structure of its skull, and strong affinities were shown to the New Zealand gepera by Dromæus and Casuarius. Struthio and Rhea, on the other hand, showed no special affinities, so far as the skull is concerned, either to the Australasian forms or to one another.-Mr. R. Lydekker read a paper on the presence of a distinct coracoidal clement in adult sloths, and made remarks on its homology. It was shown that in two skeletons of sloths in the British Museum the shoulder-girdle exhibited a distinct coracoidal element. This element, like the coracoid process of the human scapula, was correlated with the precoracoid of the lower vertebrates; and the question was then discussed as to the name by which it should properly be called.-A communication was read from Dr. G. Radde, containing an account of the present range of the European bison in the Caucasus.

EDINBURGH. Royal Society, February 6.-Sir Arthur Mitchell, K.C.B., Vice-president, in the chair. – Mr. John Aitken read a paper on the particles in fogs and clouds. In a paper read some time since on the water particles in clouds, Mr. Aitken came to the conclusion that there was a relation between the density of the clouds and the number of water particles present. In May last year he made further observations, and got results opposite to the former. Instead of the density being nearly proportional to the number of water particles present, it was much short of proportionality, and the particles were small in size. Mr. Aitken points out that the size of the particles of water changes with the age of the clouds, and concludes that his first observations were made upon old clouds, while the latter series were made upon newly-formed clouds. He also considered the question of the persistence of fog-particles. There are two kinds of sog. In one the particles tend to persist, in the other they do not. That is, in one case, change of size of the particles takes place rapidly ; in the other it does not. In town fogs it is not so much the number of dust particles that is of importance as their composition. If town dust were composed of particles having an affinity for water the logs would have shorter duration.—Sir Douglas Maclagan described and explained an apparatus designed by Mr. J. Buchanan Young, Public Health Laboratory, Edinburgh University, for counting bacterial colonies in roll cultures.-A note, by Prof. Anglin, on properties of the parabola, was read. --Mr. A. J. Herbertson read a preliminary note on the hygrometry of the atmosphere at Ben Nevis. He finds tbat the observations already made agree well with the formula y = ax + bw + C; where y is the difference between the readings of the dry and wet bulbs, x is the temperature of the dry bulb, w is the weight of moisture per litre, and a b c are constants.

DUBLIN. Royal Dublin Society, January 18. – Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S., in the chair.-Dr. J. Joly, F.R.S., read a paper on the cause of the bright colours of Alpine flowers. The conditions of insect life upon the higher Alps are reserred to in this paper as bearing upon the question. Observations made by ibe author show that many thousands of bees and butterflies frequently perish in the cold of night-time on Swiss glaciers and firns. The author advocates the view that the scarcity of fertilising agents promotes a struggle for existence in the form of a rivalry to attract the attention of the fewer fertilisers by vivid colouring.- Prof. G. A. J. Cole read a paper on hemilrypa hibernica, M'Coy.- A paper was read on a suggestion as to a possible source of the energy required for the life of bacilli, and as to the cause of their small size, by Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney, F.R.S., Vice-President. - Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S., read a paper on the law of Gladstone as an optical probe.

February 22.-Prof. W. J. Sollas, F.R.S., in the chair. Mr. Thomas Preston read a lecture note on the principle of work, showing that since the virtual work of a force is equal to the movement of an equal force at right angles to it, the principle of virtual work follows immediately as a corollary to the theorem of movements.-Prof. D. J. Cunningham, F.R.S., communicated a paper by Prof. A. M. Paterson on the human sacrum.Prof. A. C. Haddon communicated a paper by Miss Florence Buchanan on Eunice phylocorallia, n. sp., commensal with Lophohelia prolifera.

PARIS. Academy of Sciences, February 20.-M. de LacazeDuthiers in the chair. -Description of an instrument to show the, small variations in the intensity of gravitation, by M. Bouquet de la Grye. The instrument, which has been set up in a cellar of the Dépôt de la Marine, consists of an iron tank containing hydrogen confined over mercury, with three tubes leading out through the bottom. Two of these tubes are bent upwards to about 40 cm. above the ground. One of them is used for filling the tank with mercury, the other for letting in the hydrogen, which is accomplished by letting mercury run out through the third pipe at the bottom. The second pipe endsin a horizontal tube made of glass, through the walls of which the fluctuations of the column of mercury sustained by the elastic force of the hydrogen can be observed. By means of an alcohol thermometer immersed in the mercury on the top of the tank, changes of temperature of one-thousandth of a degree are indicated by a move.

OXFORD. Junior Scientific Club, Feb. 17.--In the Morphological Laboratory. The President in the chair.-Mr. A. L. Still gave an exhibit of a variety of a common pheasant, which was shot near Croydon. This proved to be an extremely light-coloured young cock.---Mr. H. Balfour gave an exhibit of some modern Klepsydræ, such as are now used in guard rooms in many parts of Northern India and Burmah. He also showed some water clocks from Burmah, one of which was of interest as having come from the Imperial Palace of Mandalay, where it was the public standard of time.-Dr. Leonard Hill read an account of his researches on the gas evolved from muscles.---Mr. H. V. Reade read a paper on consciousness, and the unconscious, citing several cases of dual personality, and showing that memory could be explained by purely physiological reasoning.

ment of imm. The column oscillates with each change of 0.055 show no aggregation towards that zone. As far as ite en temperature and each variation of gravitation, but is not affected dence goes, it further proves, by means of the angle sabtetde by changes of pressure, since the tube is kept closed at the top. by the solar motion in space, that stars with equal proper meter Under these circumstances, the instrument in question is in and out of the galaxy have nearly equal distances. These i.. capable of indicating the change of gravitational force due to facts taken together prove that Struve's theory of the area the change in the position of the moon by a displacement of ment of the stars in space must be abandoned. In orda toto 0.46 mm. The apparatus is difficult to set up, and will what arrangement must be substituted Mr. Kapteyn tar o require some improvement before it can give trustworthy results. | sidered the stars of the first and second spectral type searater -Observation on the conditions which appear to have and arrives at the conclusion that the latter are very strand obtained during the formation of meteorites, by M, Daubrée. The condensed about a centre not far from our system, apprasimately heterogeneous structure of meteorites, the innumerable iron in the direction of oh. R.A, and +42° of decl., whilst the granules disseminated through the stony matrix, so different of the first type are more nearly evenly distributel in the proer from the well-defined and voluminous crystals obtained by the mity of our sun. Notwithstanding this difference in arrange fusion of the constituent minerals in the laboratory, and M. | ment Mr. Kapteyn thinks that probability points to the are Stanislas Meunier's success in imitating meteorites by means of clusion that the two types belong to one and the same ysien :gaseous reactions, lead to the conclusion that they have not been (1) Because the centre of condensation of the second type in produced by fusion, but by a sudden precipitation of different coincides very nearly with the apparent centre of the milky a gases into the solid state. On the preparation of uranium at a (which seems to consist mainly of first type stars). (2) Beark high temperature. Rapid preparation of chromium and man the stars with insensible proper motion of both types are strong ganese at a high temperature, by M. Henri Moissan (see Notes). condensed towards the plane of the milky way. (3) Because grond

-On stereochemistry, by M. C. Friedel.-On the benzoates of stars, which undoubtedly form stellar systems (4.5. Hyacryl and metanitro-benzoates of diazoamidobenzene and para contain stars of both types. —Mr. van Bemmelen, in pormning h. diazoamidotoluene, by MM. A. Haller and A. Guyot.-High inquiry on colloidal hydrates, spoke at the meetings of Novemte. atmospheric pressures observed at Irkutsk from January 12 to 26, 1892, and of January 28, 1893, on the constitution at 16, 1893, by M, Alexis de Tillo. During four days the baro. composition of the hydrogels of 5,0, and of Cao, as skee meter remained above 800 mm., and on January 14 the highest result from his determinations of their tension of apos value known up to the present, 807-5 mm., was reached, the (at 15°), changing in a continuous way with their tenure of me, temperature being - 46°-3 C.-M.Callandreau was elected Mem. -Mr. Kamerlingh Onnes showed the isodynamics of 2 ber in the place of the late Admiral Mouchez; and M. Kékulé physical laboratory at Groningen, mapped under Prof. Hagai Correspondent in the place of the late M. Stas.--Summary of direction with the localvariometer by Mr. Wind, provine se solar observations made at the royal observatory of the Roman excellent constancy of the magnetic field. A new theory of College during the last quarter of 1892, by M. P. Tacchini. - localvariometer points to another ratio of distances of the de On the terms of the second order resulting from the combination flecting magnet-pairs than that given by Kohlrausch as preferable. of aberration and refraction, by M. Folie.-On the essential -Mr. Schoute treated of "the uniform representation of a cate singularities of differential equations of a higher order, surface on a plane." Indication of the number of paints coby M. Paul Painlevé, — Remarks on the preceding comm on to two curves on F3, the plane representations of which munication, by M. É. Picard. - On uniform integrals of given. Application as to the position of the twenty-seven line linear equations, by M. Helge von Koch.-Generali with respect to one another. sation of Lagrange's series, hy M. E. Amigues. - On the part played by the steam jacket in multiple expansion engines, by M. A. Witz. -A direct-reading stereo-collimator, by M. de Place. - Hysteresis and dielectric viscosity of mica for rapid

CONTENTS. oscillations, by M. P. Janet. A comparison of differences of

Modern Optics and the Microscope. By Rev. Du potential and resulting charges during rapid oscillations, Dallinger. F.R.S. ... determined by means of the apparatus described last year, | A University Extension Manual ........ - 412 reveals a lagging of the charge behind the potential, both in Our Book Shelf:creasing and decreasing, and a curve plotted with the values Willoughby: "The Health Officer's Pocket Books obtained for a mica condenser suggests some analogy with "Engler's Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Ewing's curves of magnetic hysteresis.-Optical field, absolute,

Pflanzengeschichte und Pfanzengeographie" .417 and relative field of view of the human eye, by M. C. J. A.

Jones : “Descriptive Geometry Models for the Use of Leroy.-On the achromatism of semioircular interference

Students in Schools and Colleges" ....... 413 fringes, by M. G. Meslin.-A new system of atomic weights, | Letters to the Editor :partly founded upon the direct determination of mole Lion-Tiger Hybrids.-S. F. Harmer .. cular weights, by M. A. Leduc. -Decomposition of the Travelling of Roots.-W. T. Thiselton-Dyer, ** alkaline aluminates by carbonic acid, by M. A. Ditte.

C.M.G., F.R.S.. .. On mixtures of ether and water, by M. L. Marchis.- On the

The Flight of Birds.-Herbert Withington heat of formation of arragonite, by M. H. Le Chatelier,

The Niagara Spray Clouds.-Chas. A. Carus. On the crystalline forms of chromium and iridium, by M. W.

Wilson. .....:::::.... . ... Prinz.-Ammoniacal fermentation of earth, by MM, A. Muntz

British New Guinea.-Prof. Alfred c. Haddon; and H. Condon.-On the composition of the salts employed as

Henry O. Forbes.. condiment by the people about the Oubangui, by MM. J.

Some Lake Basins in France. - Prof. T. G. Bonney. Dybowski and Demoussy.-Oxyhæmatine, reduced hæmatine,

F.R.S. and hæmochromogen, by MM. H. Bertin-Sans and J. 'On Electric Spark Photographs; or, Photography Moitessier.-On the histological alterations of the cerebral of Flying Bullets, &c., by the Light of the Electric cortex in certain mental diseases, by M. R. Colella. -On the

Spark I. (Illustrated.)- By C. V. Boys, F.R.S. 413 structure and growth of the calcareous shell of the barnacle Notes (B. tintinnabulum), by M. Gruvel.--On the causes of the 1 Our Astronomical Columo:green colour of oysters, by M. S. Jourdain.--Geological remarks

Comet Brooks (November 19, 1892). ....... 25 on the diamond-bearing meteoric irons, by M. Stanislas Comet Holmes (1892 III.): ....... . Meunier.

Nova Auriga .
AMSTERDAM

Hydrogen Line HB in the Spectrum of Nova Auriga
Royal Academy of Sciences, January 28.-Prof, van de Coincidence of Solar and Terrestrial Phenomena
Sande Bakhuysen in the chair.-Mr. Kapteyn dealt with the Astronomical Journal Prizes . ..... i
distribution of stars in space, It has been long known that the Geographical Notes .
mean proper motion in the galaxy is smaller than elsewhere. A Mongolia and Central Tibet ....
thorough investigation of the proper motion of all the stars of Gases in Living Plants. By J. C. Arthur
the Draper catalogue observed by Bradley in both co-ordinates University and Educational intelligence
(2357 stars) shows, that this fact is due to an excess of insensible Scientific Serials . .
or very small proper motion in the milky way. Those exceeding Societies and Academies .........

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